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Guide to the Okhrana records
26001  
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Index XIIIb(1)

1916

1916 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 213-215
Index XIIIb(1)

1917

1917 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 216
Index XIIIb(1)

Dispatches not sent 1915-1917

Dispatches not sent, 1915-1917

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 216
Box: 128

(2) Outgoing cables

Scope and Contents Note

Record keeping of outgoing telegrams was much less uniform or systematic than that of the written dispatches. From the many draft notes for the telegrams, it was obvious that their substance was often subject to careful analysis of all available information before a telegram was set in final shape for encoding and sending. The information that went into the text was subject to the same processing as that of the dispatches -- the names of individuals and organizations mentioned were placed on index cards for further reference.
Drafts of outgoing telegrams in this collection are filed in chronological order. It can be noted from the system of serial numbering that many of them are missing. More complete, however, is the record of outgoing cables beginning in book form on November 10, 1910, and continued until 1917. In these logs, each telegram is given a serial, number, date of sending, and its full text is recorded. These large logs are arranged so that the outgoing cables are entered on the front half and the incoming cables beginning from the back half of the book.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 216-217
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 1

1887-1902

Scope and Contents note

Includes telegrams about the French minister's trip to Russia (1899); information on the Fighting Unit of the Socialist Revolutionaries (1902); and other materials

Note

Available on microfilm reel 216
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 2

1903

Scope and Contents note

Mainly from Rataev in St. Petersburg to Garting in Berlin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 216
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 3

1904

Scope and Contents note

Mainly from Rataev in St. Petersburg to Garting in Berlin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 216
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 4

1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 216
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 5

1907

Scope and Contents note

Mainly from Garting on leading revolutionaries, requests for funds, alerts on arms smuggling and illegal border crossings, plans of terrorists, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 217
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 6

1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 217
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 7

1909

Scope and Contents note

Telegrams for Garting, Andreev, and Krasil'nikov to Headquarters on Azef and Lopukhin, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 217
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 8

1910-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 217
Index XIIIb(2), Folder 9

Undated drafts

Note

Available on microfilm reel 217
Box: 129

(3) Outgoing cables: logs and texts

Note

Available on microfilm reel 218
Index XIIIb(3), Folder 1

Volume of outgoing telegrams sent from Darmstadt, Frankfurt, and Bad Neuheim during the Tsar's visit to Hessen 1910 August 5-November 10

Note

Available on microfilm reel 218
Index XIIIb(3), Folder 2

Log of the complete texts of outgoing telegrams 1910 January-1912 August

Note

Available on microfilm reel 218
Index XIIIb(3), Folder 3

Log of the complete texts of outgoing telegrams 1912 August-1915 December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 218
Index XIIIb(3), Folder 4

Log of the complete texts of outgoing telegrams 1916 January-March 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 218
Box: 130-157

c. Incoming data

Box: 130-152

(1) Incoming dispatches from Headquarters

Scope and Contents Note

The bulk of the incoming dispatches originated in the Special Branch (Osobyi Otdel) of the Department of Police in St. Petersburg, i. e. Branch (Deloproizvodstvo) V, and VI after 1915. This branch was the actual Okhrana Headquarters, referred to also as the "Political Section." Dispatches originated also in the office of the chief of the Police Department and in several other branches, such as Personnel (I), Bookkeeping (III), Detective or Criminal (Vlll), and Branch IX, which handled Okhrana matters pertaining to war. Up to a certain period, a portion of the dispatches came from the Okhrana's provincial subdivisions communicating directly with the Paris Office, but this practice was gradually discontinued for better coordination and integration of communications. A small amount of incoming mails also came from Russian diplomatic and other missions abroad.
The collection of incoming dispatches also contains the dispatches from the Berlin Agentura to Paris (1901-1904).
Incoming dispatches were not limited to intelligence and operational directives or administrative and personnel matters. More often than not, they contained intelligence information. Thus, the contents were integrated with the intelligence files of the Paris Okhrana. The processing of information contained in the incoming dispatches followed the same pattern as all other intelligence reports. Each dispatch was given a separate number. (The largest number of incoming dispatches for one year was achieved in 1911 with 2,011 dispatches.) The Paris Office then checked all names and target organizations in the dispatch and reference cards were made for all names checked. Since the incoming dispatches often required a response on available information, checking through index reference cards thus became a standard procedure in analyzing and collating information.
The collection of incoming dispatches is inventoried by years, a copy of the inventory inserted with each volume, giving each document's number and date and a short description of its contents. A reference column gives the index number of the subject matter under which the document is filed. Where no such number is given, the document has been left in the original volume.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 219-277
 

To Berlin

Index XIIIc(1)

1901

1901 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 219
Index XIIIc(1)

1902

1902 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 219
Index XIIIc(1)

1903

1903 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 219
 

To Paris

Index XIIIc(1)

1886

1886 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1887

1887 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1888

1888 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1889

1889 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1890

1890 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1891

1891 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1892

1892 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1893

1893 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 221
Index XIIIc(1)

1894

1894 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 222
Index XIIIc(1)

1895

1895 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 222
Index XIIIc(1)

1896

1896 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 222
Index XIIIc(1)

1897

1897 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 222
Index XIIIc(1)

1898

1898 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 222
Index XIIIc(1)

1899

1899 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 223
Index XIIIc(1)

1900

1900 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 223
Index XIIIc(1)

1901

1901 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 223
Index XIIIc(1)

1902

1902 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 224
Index XIIIc(1)

1903

1903 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 224-226
Index XIIIc(1)

1904

1904 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 226-228
Index XIIIc(1)

1905

1905 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 229-231
Index XIIIc(1)

1906

1906 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 232-233
Index XIIIc(1)

1907

1907 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 233-235
Index XIIIc(1)

1908

1908 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 235-237
Index XIIIc(1)

1909

1909 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 237-242
Index XIIIc(1)

1910

1910 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 243-249
Index XIIIc(1)

1911

1911 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 250-260
Index XIIIc(1)

1912

1912 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 260-266
Index XIIIc(1)

1913

1913 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 267-271
Index XIIIc(1)

1914

1914 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 272-274
Index XIIIc(1)

1915

1915 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 274-275
Index XIIIc(1)

1916

1916 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 276
Index XIIIc(1)

1917

1917 inventory

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 277
Index XIIIc(1)

Garting's reports from Berlin 1901-1905

Garting's reports from Berlin, 1901-1905

Note

All dispatches with an index number in the reference column have been filed under the corresponding series (e.g. XVI). All other dispatches are available on microfilm reel 277
Box: 152-154

(2) Weekly intelligence summaries from Headquarters

Scope and Contents Note

The practice of analyzing and collating intelligence information is evident in the weekly intelligence summaries issued by Okhrana Headquarters in the period from 1902 to 1905. All copies of these bound documents in large format are in this collection, many of them in duplicate. It is evident that for the issue of these briefs on the revolutionary situation, the analysts at Headquarters compiled and collated all available information from sources and abroad. The studies are organized in each weekly issue by areas, thus giving a comprehensive survey of the growth of the revolutionary movement and much information on individuals and organizations. These printed materials do not have indices or tables of contents; they were intended primarily for current briefing of Okhrana officers at home and abroad.
Folders Nos. 1 to 7 contain general briefs, in chronological order for the periods covered. Folders Nos. 8 and 9 are more specific situation reports on the student movements in Russia, with 12 issues for 1901 and 1902.
Another set of similar intelligence situation reports were the lengthy briefs on individual revolutionary parties. These are filed in the folders for those respective parties under Index Number XVIb.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 277-281
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 1

Nos. 1-13 1902 September-December

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: activities of the Socialist Revolutionaries, the "Iskra" group, important subversives. Based on reports from guberniia Okhrana stations

Note

Available on microfilm reel 277
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 2-3

Nos. 14-65 1903

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: activities of revolutionary groups and leaders; labor agitation and strikes, operational and administrative instructions

Note

Available on microfilm reels 277-278
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 4-5

Nos. 66-97, 99-118 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reels 278-279
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 6-7

Nos. 119-145, 147-160, 162-163 1905

Scope and Contents note

Topics include: the strike at the Putilov plant, the spread of unrest and upheavals, student activities, Gapon, Social Democrats, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 279-280
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 8

Summaries on the student movement by cities: St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Kazan, Kharkov, etc. 1901 November 1-December 15

Note

Available on microfilm reel 281
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 9

Summaries on the student movement 1902 February 5-March 30

Note

Available on microfilm reel 281
Index XIIIc(2), Folder 10

Reference: For Headquarters intelligence summaries on the structure and activities of the Socialist Revolutionaries, Social Democrats, and other subversive political groups, see XVIb

Box: 154-157

(3) Incoming cables

Scope and Contents Note

Record keeping for incoming telegrams was similar to that for the dispatches. Each message was given an incoming serial number. The names of individuals contained therein were checked and entered in the reference card index. However, there was a lack of systematic filing of cable messages. Many of them were inserted with incoming dispatches, others stored in separate folders, in code or decoded. A more methodical system was introduced in 1910. All incoming telegraphic messages were then entered in a clear text and in numerical order in a log book. Four large log books for the period from 1910 to 1915 were arranged so that the front half of the book was for incoming messages and the back half for outgoing telegrams. (See the logs under Index Number XIIIb(3).)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 281-286
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 1-12

1887-1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 281
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 13-15

1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 282
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 16-17

1904

Scope and Contents note

Includes telegrams from Cairo

Note

Available on microfilm reels 282-283
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 18-19

1905

Scope and Contents note

Includes telegrams from various cities in Egypt from agent "Loir"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 283
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 20-22

1906

Scope and Contents note

Nos. 37-773

Note

Available on microfilm reels 283-284
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 23-26

1907

Scope and Contents note

Nos. 10-787

Note

Available on microfilm reel 284
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 27-34

1908-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 285
Index XIIIc(3), Folder 35

Reference: See the reverse side of the log books in folders 1-3, in XIIIc(3), telegrams for 1910-1915, which contain the full texts of the incoming telegrams for those years

Box: 157-169

d. Headquarters circulars

Box: 157-159

(1) Operational directives

Scope and Contents Note

The files reveal that the Okhrana's Headquarters in St. Petersburg maintained a system of intelligence and operational circulars even before it founded its Paris office for operations abroad. Through the years, the system was subject to many changes in form and volume. At all times, however, the service of publishing and disseminating circulars was a major function of the Special Department (Vth, and later Vlth Deloproizvodstvo). The intelligence entered in these publications was the sum total of all counter-intelligence information on the revolutionaries, foreign agents, and subversives in general. The purpose of the circulars was instructional -- an operational aid, alert, and warning on individuals, organizations, and their activities.
The collection under this Index Number includes, in the first six folders, bound volumes which include operational directives and also, for the most part, lists of individuals wanted by the police department because of forbidden political activities, terrorist acts, crimes, etc. These volumes cover the period from 1886 to 1910. The volume in Folder No. 7 is entirely instructional, chiefly for regular police uses, giving a Russian adaptation of the Bertillon anthropometric system.
Folders Nos. 8 to 12, arranged in chronological order from 1894 to 1916, concern operational and intelligence directives issued by Headquarters. This extensive collection of circulars in mimeographed form was for the use and guidance of Okhrana establishments at home and abroad.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 286-290
Index XIIId(1)

Spisok lits rozyskivaemykh po delam departamenta politsii (Police Department Roster of Persons Subject to Investigation)

Scope and Contents Note

Alphabetic, tabular presentation with columns for name, background, description, and police action requested
Index XIIId(1), Folder 1

1886

Note

Available on microfilm reel 285
Index XIIId(1), Folder 2

1889

Note

Available on microfilm reel 286
Index XIIId(1), Folder 3

1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 286
Index XIIId(1), Folder 4

1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 287
Index XIIId(1), Folder 5

Alfavitnyi ukazatel' (Alphabetic Guide to the Search List and Circulars of the Department of Police) 1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 288
Index XIIId(1), Folder 6

Alfavitnyi spisok lits rozyskivaemykh tsirkuliarami (Alphabetic Roster of Individuals Listed in Wanted Circulars) 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 288
Index XIIId(1), Folder 7

Rozysknoi al'bom: Vypusk 1 (Investigation Album) 1913

Scope and Contents note

Instructions on the investigation of thieves, robbers, etc., after the Bertillon system; samples of keeping records

Note

Available on microfilm reel 288
Index XIIId(1)

Headquarters circulars containing operational directions and instructions to subordinate Okhrana outposts at home and abroad

Index XIIId(1), Folder 8

1894-1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 289
Index XIIId(1), Folder 9

1904-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 289
Index XIIId(1), Folder 10

1909-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 289
Index XIIId(1), Folder 11

1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 290
Index XIIId(1), Folder 12

1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 290
Box: 159-169

(2) Warning lists

Scope and Contents Note

This extensive collection is limited to various Headquarters compilations of warning or watch lists. The arrangement is by years of publication, from 1887 to 1917. The form of the publications changed as the years went by, until the final printed form of rosters was established and adhered to in 1907. These rosters were then issued weekly until the end of the Okhrana. They contained separate lists, each in alphabetical order, of persons subject to investigation, surveillance, or arrest; of persons previously mentioned in rosters but currently declared of no further interest to Okhrana organs, etc.
In addition to the printed rosters, the Okhrana published in mimeographed form circulars on individual revolutionaries, giving in these circulars more detailed biographical accounts and outlining the activities for which Okhrana action was ordered. The circulars on important revolutionaries were extracted from this compilation for inclusion under separate folders in XVII.
The biographical materials on individual political offenders, published in the weekly rosters from 1907 to 1917 is all reproduced in biographical cards stored under Index Number XIIIf(4)(c). These cards and photographs are in fact a reprint, one individual per card, from the paragraph on the person appearing in the roster.
Folders Nos. 3, 17, and 27 contain special rosters issued as circulars on individuals expelled from Russia. Among these are foreign nationals discovered or suspected to be foreign agents.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 290-312
Index XIIId(2), Folder 1

1887-1889

Scope and Contents Note

Circulars of the 3rd Branch of the MVD, addressed mostly to guberniia police. The Paris office at this time retained only circulars dealing with revolutionaries abroad or those in contact with émigrés

Note

Available on microfilm reel 290
Index XIIId(2), Folder 2-3

1891

Scope and Contents note

Includes roster of foreign nationals expelled from Russia and 60 circulars numbered 164-5580

Note

Available on microfilm reel 290
Index XIIId(2), Folder 4

1892

Scope and Contents Note

16 circulars numbered 684-5117

Note

Available on microfilm reel 291
Index XIIId(2), Folder 5

1893

Scope and Contents Note

48 circulars numbered 357-7454

Note

Available on microfilm reel 291
Index XIIId(2), Folder 6-8

1894

Scope and Contents note

Includes 92 circulars numbered 162-9344 and a roster of expelled foreign nationals. Circular no. 1800 gives a biographical and political police account of 195 people and a roster of names taken off the watch list

Note

Available on microfilm reels 291-292
Index XIIId(2), Folder 9-10

1895

Scope and Contents note

82 circulars numbered from 430-10882

Note

Available on microfilm reel 292
Index XIIId(2), Folder 11-12

1896

Scope and Contents note

82 circulars numbered from 53-11121

Note

Available on microfilm reels 292-293
Index XIIId(2), Folder 13-14

1897

Scope and Contents note

84 circulars numbered from 524-11384

Note

Available on microfilm reel 293
Index XIIId(2), Folder 15-17

1898

Scope and Contents note

Includes roster of foreigners expelled from Russia from 1894-1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 294
Index XIIId(2), Folder 18-19

1899

Scope and Contents note

46 circulars numbered from 132-2263

Note

Available on microfilm reels 294-295
Index XIIId(2), Folder 20-21

1900

Scope and Contents note

46 circulars from 43-2862

Note

Available on microfilm reel 295
Index XIIId(2), Folder 22-23

1901

Scope and Contents note

41 circulars from 131-4292

Note

Available on microfilm reel 296
Index XIIId(2), Folder 24-27

1902

Scope and Contents note

66 circulars from 111-8268 and roster of foreigners expelled from Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reels 296-298
Index XIIId(2), Folder 28-30

1903

Note

Available on microfilm reels 298-299
Index XIIId(2), Folder 31-33

1904

Scope and Contents note

38 circulars from 630-14771. Circular no. 5500 includes the police background on Dzhugashvili (Stalin)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 299-301
Index XIIId(2), Folder 34-36

1905

Scope and Contents note

47 circulars from 132-14994

Note

Available on microfilm reels 301-302
Index XIIId(2), Folder 37-40

1906

Scope and Contents note

Includes roster of persons permitted to go abroad instead of being exiled to Siberia

Note

Available on microfilm reels 302-303
Index XIIId(2), Folder 41-43

1907

Scope and Contents note

30 rosters. The numbering system for Headquarters biographic cards begins with this volume of circulars, with numbers up to 5152

Note

Available on microfilm reels 303-304
Index XIIId(2), Folder 44

1908

Scope and Contents note

14 rosters numbered to 10673

Note

Available on microfilm reel 304
Index XIIId(2), Folder 45-47

1909

Scope and Contents note

Includes printed rosters numbered to 16949

Note

Available on microfilm reel 305
Index XIIId(2), Folder 48-49

1910

Scope and Contents note

41 rosters with file numbers for biographical cards up to 20332

Note

Available on microfilm reel 306
Index XIIId(2), Folder 50-52

1911

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards from 20336-22800

Note

Available on microfilm reels 307-308
Index XIIId(2), Folder 53-54

1912

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards up to 25537

Note

Available on microfilm reels 308-309
Index XIIId(2), Folder 55-56

1913

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards up to 28595

Note

Available on microfilm reels 309-310
Index XIIId(2), Folder 57-58

1914

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards up to 32013

Note

Available on microfilm reels 310-311
Index XIIId(2), Folder 59-60

1915

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards from 32014-34833

Note

Available on microfilm reels 311-312
Index XIIId(2), Folder 61-62

1916-1917

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with file numbers for biographical cards to 39341

Note

Available on microfilm reel 312
Box: 169

(3) Warnings on dismissed agents

Scope and Contents Note

This collection gives some insight into Okhrana practices within Russia with regard to security checking and other counter-intelligence activities for purposes of weeding out or keeping out of the service unreliable agents. These circulars, dated from 1909 to 1916, refer to particular individuals whose services had been proven as unreliable or whose loyalties were subject to questioning. In some cases, no reasons for dismissal are given; in others it is obvious that decisions were made on the basis of investigation.
Only one of these documents is actually a roster of a large number of such dismissed agents. In it a statement is made that the individuals were supplying the service with information but were proven as unreliable or actually provocateurs on behalf of the revolutionaries.

Note

Available on mirofilm reel 313
Index XIIId(3), Folder 1

1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 312
Index XIIId(3), Folder 2

1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 312
Index XIIId(3), Folder 3

1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 312
Index XIIId(3), Folder 4

1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIId(3), Folder 5

1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIId(3), Folder 6

1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIId(3), Folder 7

1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Box: 170-173

e. Journals for incoming and outgoing messages

Scope and Contents Note

A journal or log book of incoming and outgoing dispatches was probably kept from the very beginning of the Okhrana service in Paris. The files, however, contain only the journals dating back to the year 1891, one book for the first ten years for each, incoming and outgoing. These entries were nothing more than a record-keeping device and a check upon what messages had been attended to. Some entries give brief statements of the contents or comments concerning replies to communications.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 313-316
Index XIIIe

Incoming messages

Index XIIIe, Folder 1

1891-1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIIe, Folder 2

1901-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIIe, Folder 3

1902-1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIIe, Folder 4

1905-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 313
Index XIIIe, Folder 5

1908-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe, Folder 6

1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe, Folder 7

1912-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe, Folder 8

1916-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe

Outgoing dispatches

Index XIIIe, Folder 9

1891-1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe, Folder 10

1901-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 314
Index XIIIe, Folder 11

1902-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 12

1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 13

1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 14

1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 15

1913 January-July

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 16

1913 August-December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 17

1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 18

1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 315
Index XIIIe, Folder 19

1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 316
Index XIIIe, Folder 20

1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 316
Index XIIIe, Folder 21

1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 316
Box: 173, 229-240

f. Index card system

Box: 173, 230-233

(1) Reference card index files on

Box: 173, 230-232

(a) Individuals

Box: 230

Main operational index file

Scope and Contents note

Contains about 85,000 cards giving the surname and, in most instances, the given name and patronymic of various individuals. References to incoming, outgoing dispatches, circulars, or other documents are also recorded. In some instances, the cards also give the individual's alias, occupation, party, or subversive affiliation, photograph available, and reference to his residence. Among the entries are references also to spies (working for foreign governments) and to deserters from the Russian services
Contains about 85,000 cards in Russian rearranged in Roman alphabetical order as follows: a, b, c (Russian CH), d, e, f, g, h (Russian KH), i, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s (includes Russian SH and SHCH), t, u (Russian IA and IU), v, z (includes Russian ZH). Entries for the letters S-T were filmed slightly out of sequence.
Box: 230

Aage-Alekseev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 403
Box: 230

Alekseev-Apraksin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 404
Box: 230

"Apsis"-Azef

Note

Available on microfilm reel 405
Box: 230

Azef-Bariatinskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 406
Box: 230

Baryshnikova-Berzin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 407
Box: 230

Berzin-Bliumenfel'd

Note

Available on microfilm reel 408
Box: 230

Bliumenfel'd-Boiartsev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 409
Box: 230

Boiartsev-Budkevich

Note

Available on microfilm reel 410
Box: 230

Budo-Bzheski

Note

Available on microfilm reel 411
Box: 230

Chachin-Chistoserdov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 412
Box: 230

Chistoserdov-Diakonov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 413
Box: 230

Diakova-Dolinda

Note

Available on microfilm reel 414
Box: 230

Dolinda-Eikhman

Note

Available on microfilm reel 415
Box: 230

Eikhner-Eropkina

Note

Available on microfilm reel 416
Box: 230

Eropkina-Fetskin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 417
Box: 230

Fevarot-Frol'kis

Note

Available on microfilm reel 418
Box: 230

Frol'kis-Garanzhe

Note

Available on microfilm reel 419
Box: 230

Garaveli-German

Note

Available on microfilm reel 420
Box: 230

Germann-"Glebushka"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 421
Box: 230

Glik-Gol'dsmit

Note

Available on microfilm reel 423
Box: 230

Gol'dsmit-Gotlib

Note

Available on microfilm reel 422
Box: 230

Gotovitskii-Groisman

Note

Available on microfilm reel 424
Box: 230

Groisman-Gus'kov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 425
Box: 230

Guskvarna-Hmelevskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 426
Box: 230

Hmurzhinskii-"Iosif"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 427
Box: 230

"Ios'ka"-Kameneva

Note

Available on microfilm reel 428
Box: 230

Kamenskii-Kasper'

Note

Available on microfilm reel 429
Box: 230

Kasperovich-Kissina

Note

Available on microfilm reel 430
Box/Folder: 230

Kist'-Kolarov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 431
Box/Folder: 230

Kolbasa-Kostovich

Note

Available on microfilm reel 432
Box/Folder: 230

Kostovich-Krigs'

Note

Available on microfilm reel 433
Box/Folder: 230

Krikman-Kuznetsov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 434
Box/Folder: 230

Kuznetsov-Lebedev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 435
Box/Folder: 230

Lebedev-Levin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 436
Box/Folder: 230

Levin-Litvak

Note

Available on microfilm reel 437
Box/Folder: 230

Litvak-Liubimov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 438
Box/Folder: 230

Liubimov-"Maksim"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 439
Box/Folder: 230

"Maksim"-Manuil'skii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 440
Box/Folder: 230

Marmork-Meier

Note

Available on microfilm reel 441
Box/Folder: 230

Meier-Minevskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 442
Box/Folder: 230

Minin-Moldavan

Note

Available on microfilm reel 443
Box/Folder: 230

Moritts-Naumov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 444
Box/Folder: 230

Naumov-Nordshtrem

Note

Available on microfilm reel 445
Box/Folder: 230

Nordshtrem-Orlov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 446
Box/Folder: 230

"Pavel"-Pire

Note

Available on microfilm reel 447
Box/Folder: 230

Pirino-Pototskaia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 452
Box/Folder: 230

Potlazhan-Raevskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 448
Box/Folder: 230

Radlov-Rembitskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 449
Box/Folder: 230

Reper'-Rotshtadt

Note

Available on microfilm reel 450
Box/Folder: 230

Rottshtadt-Rudzit'

Note

Available on microfilm reel 451
Box/Folder: 230

Rud'skii-"Sasha"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 453
Box/Folder: 230

"Sasha"-"Sergei"

Note

Available on microfilm reel 454
Box/Folder: 230

"Sergei"-Shchegoleva

Note

Available on microfilm reel 455
Box/Folder: 230

Shchegoleva-Shishkin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 456
Box/Folder: 230

Shishkin-Shreider

Note

Available on microfilm reel 457
Box/Folder: 230

Shreider-Siblei

Note

Available on microfilm reel 458
Box/Folder: 230

Siblin-Speranskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 459
Box/Folder: 230

Spert'-Srvandstian

Note

Available on microfilm reel 460
Box/Folder: 230

Srvandstian-Tornan'

Note

Available on microfilm reel 463
Box/Folder: 230

Stoliarchik-Teshko

Note

Available on microfilm reel 465
Box/Folder: 230

Stoliarchik-Sysoev

Note

Available on microfilm reel 461
Box/Folder: 230

Sysoev-Uiarskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 462
Box/Folder: 230

Torn'-Tselen

Note

Available on microfilm reel 464
Box/Folder: 230

"IU"-Iazykov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 466
Box/Folder: 230

"V"-Vasich

Note

Available on microfilm reel 467
Box/Folder: 230

Veber-Vinogradov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 468
Box/Folder: 230

Vinogradov-Voronov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 469
Box/Folder: 230

Voronov-Zarkhi

Note

Available on microfilm reel 470
Box/Folder: 230

Zarin-Zolov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 471
Box/Folder: 230

Zolov-Zhiull'era

Note

Available on microfilm reel 472
Box/Folder: 231

Pre-1907 operational index

Scope and Contents note

An earlier operational index file in French containing about 22,655 cards. This file, first started from French and other Western police records on Russians abroad, gives the names, passport records, residence, affiliations and other data on the target individual and on émigrés of interest to the Okhrana. References to dispatches and agent reports are made only in a few entries.
Box/Folder: 231

A-B

Note

Available on microfilm reel 473
Box/Folder: 231

C

Note

Available on microfilm reel 474
Box/Folder: 231

D-E

Note

Available on microfilm reel 475
Box/Folder: 231

F-I

Note

Available on microfilm reel 476
Box/Folder: 231

J-K

Note

Available on microfilm reel 477
Box/Folder: 231

L-M

Note

Available on microfilm reel 479-481
Box/Folder: 231

K-N

Note

Available on microfilm reel 481
Box/Folder: 231

N-P

Note

Available on microfilm reel 482
Box/Folder: 231

O-S

Note

Available on microfilm reel 483
Box/Folder: 231

T-Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 484
Box/Folder: 232

Police Department index

Scope and Contents note

Index contains about 7,650 cards, giving names and references to revolutionaries abroad reported on in the Police Department circulars prior to the latter's introduction of biographic cards published by Headquarters. Only the full names and references are given. In Roman alphabetical order
Box/Folder: 232

A-B

Note

Available on microfilm reel 485
Box/Folder: 232

C-I

Note

Available on microfilm reel 486
Box/Folder: 232

K-M

Note

Available on microfilm reel 487
Box/Folder: 232

P-R

Note

Available on microfilm reel 488
Box/Folder: 232

R-S

Note

Available on microfilm reel 489
Box/Folder: 232

S-V

Note

Available on microfilm reel 490
Box/Folder: 232

W-Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 491
Box: 233

(b) Organizations

Scope and Contents note

Approximately 5,500 operational reference cards giving the names of organizations and publications advocating a revolution in Russia or sympathetic to the revolutionaries. All subversive, Marxist, anarchist, and minority groups are included. The cards reference dispatches, circulars, telegrams and other documents. Organized in Roman alphabetical order
Box/Folder: 233

A-L

Note

Available on microfilm reel 492
Box/Folder: 233

L-R

Note

Available on microfilm reel 493
Box/Folder: 233

R-Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 498
Box: 229

(2) Biographic card file

Scope and Contents note

These cards were published by Okhrana Headquarters as reprints of the texts contained in the rosters collected under XIIId(2) (available on microfilm reels 290-312). There is one card per subject individual, including a reproduction of the police photograph and profile where available.
The information on the cards follows a standard form, giving the police file number from the roster, full name of the individual, date and place of birth, religion, antecedents, siblings, marital status, and his police record of offenses and punishments. The card also indicates the action to be taken by the Okhrana: arrest, surveillance, etc.
These cards on file are numbered up to 37,000, while the latest rosters of warning lists, from which these cards were reprinted, number above 39,000.
Box/Folder: 229

Main index

Note

This portion of the collection was not microfilmed.
Box/Folder: 229

Asians

 

A-B

Note

Available on microfilm reel 503
 

C-H

Note

Available on microfilm reel 504
 

I-L

Note

Available on microfilm reel 505
 

M-O

Note

Available on microfilm reel 506
 

O-S

Note

Available on microfilm reel 507
 

T-Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 508
 

Z

Note

Available on microfilm reel 509
Box: 233-234, 237

(3) Operational and intelligence topics

Scope and Contents Note

Two small files of cards used for reference purposes for mounting operations and preparing intelligence dispatches.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 492-502
Box/Folder: 233

Financial management; targets; codes; operational addresses, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 496
Box/Folder: 233

Index cards to Socialist Revolutionary Party activities

Note

Available on microfilm reel 496
Box/Folder: 233

Meetings and conferences

Note

Available on microfilm reels 496-497
Box/Folder: 233

Sensitive operational documents on targets

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Operational file on Zhitomirskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Deep cover agents

Note

Available on microfilm reels 494-495, 497
Box/Folder: 233

Agentura

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

USA - Canada

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Unions

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Illegal use of passports

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Photographic operations

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box/Folder: 233

Surveillance and espionage

Note

Available on microfilm reel 497
Box: 173

(4) Photographs

Scope and Contents Note

A folder of dispatches in this collection (XIIIf(4)) is illustrative of the growing use of photographic documentation in mounting operations and reporting counter-intelligence. Under Index Number Xg are stored the albums of photographs of important revolutionaries for the use of agents and case officers. This collection of photographs may have served similar purposes, but more likely it was a repository used together with all other biographical and reference material as an aid in the preparation of intelligence reports. Doubtlessly also, the photographic materials were organized in some alphabetical or other order. The complete mix-up of all photographs in boxes when the files were received by the Hoover Institution was probably due to the frantic identification searches by the Investigation Commission of 1917, which contributed greatly to the disorder of the files.
The dispatches in this folder relate various transmittals of photographs, requests for them, etc. The first seven boxes of photographs are now organized in alphabetical order (Xlllf(4)(a)). Many individuals in the box of group photographs have also been identified. One box contains some portrait-type pictures of leading revolutionaries.
Included in the collection are three boxes of negatives on glass plates, some still in good condition (Xlllf(4)(b)). Many of these wereapparently obtained from various photographic studios in Paris catering to Russian émigrés but under some control by the Okhrana (see Xb).
Also placed with this collection as a matter of sampling is a collection of Russian and German police records with photographs and anthropometric data on a number of individuals (Xlllf(4)(c)).

Note

This portion of the collection was not microfilmed.
Box: 235-236

(a) prints

Box: 238-240

(b) negatives

Box: 173

(c) police identity reports

Box: 173-180

g. Émigré rosters

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana abroad developed in its very early years of operation the practice of keeping a complete record of all émigrés abroad. The purpose of this was to take the obvious first step in intelligence efforts against the revolutionaries and their activities. Any new names of subversives or suspects were checked against these records as to his or her name, address, occupation, passport, and the like. The bulk of information on émigrés entered in the large ledgers or specially printed folios was obtained from various cooperating police offices and, in fewer cases, from non-Russian investigation agents.
This extensive collection of rosters in book form dates back to 1887 and continues through the years. There is little uniformity in the ledgers; and specially prepared rosters, some of which are not even in alphabetical order, some of which are incomplete, and some of which list the names only, or the names and addresses, while others, with folios arranged in columns, render considerable other details.
The collection is arranged chronologically, most of the books covering Paris and Prance. A comprehensive collection on Belgium shows that the uniform collection could have been secured only by transcription from police records. The records on émigrés in Switzerland, in German cities, and others are in similar order.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 317-323
 

By year

Index XIIIg, Folder 1

1887

Note

Available on microfilm reel 316
Index XIIIg, Folder 2

1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 316
Index XIIIg, Folder 3-4

1891

Note

Available on microfilm reel 317
Index XIIIg, Folder 5

1892-1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 317
Index XIIIg, Folder 5-8

1893-1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 317
Index XIIIg, Folder 9

1894-1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 317
Index XIIIg, Folder 10

1897-1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 318
Index XIIIg, Folder 11

1898-1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 318
Index XIIIg, Folder 12

1899-1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 318
Index XIIIg, Folder 13

1900-1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 318
Index XIIIg, Folder 14

1902

Note

Available on microfilm reels 318-319
Index XIIIg, Folder 15-17

1903

Note

Available on microfilm reels 319-320
Index XIIIg, Folder 18

Undated roster

Scope and Contents note

Book with entries by agent Neuhaus in Berlin on Russians in Germany

Note

Available on microfilm reel 320
Index XIIIg, Folder 19

1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 320
 

By location

Index XIIIg, Folder 20

Belgium 1910-1914

Scope and Contents note

Folios on Russian émigrés in printed form from Belgian police registers of foreigners

Note

Available on microfilm reels 320, 322
Index XIIIg, Folder 21

Switzerland 1915-1916

Scope and Contents note

Rosters with about 2500 entries from Bern, Zurich, and Lausanne

Note

Available on microfilm reel 322
Index XIIIg, Folder 22

France 1891-1894

Scope and Contents note

Includes roster of "jeunes gens faisant partie de la colonie russe" at Nancy. Rosters include subjects of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Poland

Note

Available on microfilm reel 322
Index XIIIg, Folder 23

Various

Scope and Contents note

Includes émigrés in Darmstadt, Germany; Russian physicians in Paris (1905); list of Russians in Tilff, Belgium (1912); émigrés in Heidelberg; Russian revolutionaries in London (November 1905); Russian revolutionaries in Italy (1910-1913); etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 24

Without dates or locations

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 25

Roster of Russian anarchists and Narodovoltsy (People's Will) in Paris 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 26

List of newspapers and magazines in England and the United States; names and addresses of Russian revolutionaries in London 1894-1896

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 27

Russian revolutionaries in Bern, Switzerland 1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 28

Alphabetized catalog of revolutionaries with photographs available

Scope and Contents note

Letters A-D only. Under "Remarks," there are entries on the individual's political affiliation, police action, and references

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 29

Alphabetized roster used as a working ledger 1900-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 30

Alphabetized ledger of agent reports on émigrés 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIg, Folder 31

Rosters of émigrés and students in Paris and Germany 1902-1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Box: 181-183

h. Rosters of Russian students attending schools abroad

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana's collection of rosters on Russian students abroad began in 1893 through agents enrolled as students. As some of the documents in this collection indicate, the agent-student compiled lists of his student compatriots or submitted short biographic cards on each. This was the practice at the University of Paris and some German schools, but only for a few school years.
The Okhrana then resorted to the simpler method of obtaining printed school catalogues, which listed teachers and students, and kept these as a reference on Russian students. All such catalogues found in the files are listed in the inventory.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 323-329
Index XIIIh, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning rosters of students abroad 1910-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 323
Index XIIIh

Faculty of Medicine in Paris

Index XIIIh, Folder 2

1898-1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 3

1899-1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 4

1900-1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 5

Montpellier, France 1896, 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 5

Nancy, France 1910, 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 6

University of Liege, Belgium 1909-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 7

Germany 1904-1907

Scope and Contents note

Includes rosters from Leipzig, Mittweida, and Saxony

Note

Available on microfilm reel 324
Index XIIIh, Folder 8

Zurich and Bern undated

Note

Available on microfilm reel 325
Index XIIIh, Folder 9

University of Geneva

Scope and Contents note

Includes Liste des Autorités, Professeurs, Etudiants de l'Universite de Genève

Note

Available on microfilm reel 325
Index XIIIh, Folder 10

University of Lausanne 1893-1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 325
Index XIIIh, Folder 11

University of Bern 1893-1898; 1909-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 325
Index XIIIh, Folder 12

Hochschule Zurich 1893-1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 326
Index XIIIh, Folder 13

ETH Zürich 1895-1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 326
Index XIIIh, Folder 14

Fribourg, Zurich, and Darmstadt 1893-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 326
Index XIIIh, Folder 15

University of Lausanne 1898-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 326
Index XIIIh, Folder 16

University of Geneva 1900-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 327
Index XIIIh, Folder 17

Unidentified medical school 1893-1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 327
Index XIIIh, Folder 18

Zurich 1898-1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 327
Index XIIIh, Folder 19

Berlin 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 327
Index XIIIh, Folder 20

Darmstadt 1903, 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 328
Index XIIIh, Folder 21

University of Bern 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 328
Index XIIIh, Folder 22-23

Munich 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 328
Index XIIIh, Folder 24

Paris 1891

Note

Available on microfilm reel 328
Index XIIIh, Folder 25

Russian students in contact with revolutionaries 1892

Note

Available on microfilm reel 328
Box: 184, 24

XIV. Communications

Box: 184

a. Pouch systems with home office

Scope and Contents Note

Written communications between the Paris Office and Headquarters were carried by pouch as well as regular, registered mail. Some instructions from Headquarters on the preparation of pouches, the use of double envelopes, the sealing of letters and packages, and addressing are still extant among the papers in this collection. Also included are a few sample envelopes of registered Okhrana mail, with the Police Department wax seal, and post office receipts.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVa, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes referring to communications by Okhrana pouch through diplomatic courier 1907-1917

Scope and Contents note

Includes directives on how to address the mail, preserved samples of addresses, envelopes of regular registered mail with wax seal, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Box: 184

b. Correspondence between field installations

Scope and Contents Note

Normally all field correspondence between the Paris Office and subordinate establishments or agents abroad, as well as correspondence with Okhrana provincial offices in Russia, went through regular postal and telegraphic channels. For this reason, the correspondents resorted heavily to the use of double talk and words with meanings as agreed upon in advance. The use of word and number codes, usually some ad hoc system, was frequent not only for telegrams but for intelligence reporting in general. Difficulties arose in wartime when various governments began to introduce censorship. The documents in this collection discuss that problem as well as various other points in the handling of communications in the field.
At the end of the collection (in Folder No. 2) is a log book for incoming registered mail from July 1915 to March 1917. Only the dates and the names of sender and addressee are entered. Both mail from Russia and from field correspondents is entered; correspondents from Russia are addressed by their true name, those from abroad usually by their pseudonym. Letters from the field are more numerous than those from Russia.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVb, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning codes used in correspondence between field offices 1906-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVb, Folder 2

Journal for incoming registered mail from operatives in the field and in Russia 1915-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Box: 184, 24

c. Code systems

Scope and Contents Note

A series of circular dispatches from Headquarters reveals how from time to time a code system was compromised or suspected as possibly being learned by unauthorized persons. These memoranda show that Okhrana Headquarters never gave these matters the benefit of the doubt. The slightest suspicion meant that the code had to be replaced by another one. Several samples of codes are included herein. Others may be found in the collection of coded and decoded messages collected in XIVd.
The code used very extensively for non-Russian operators for many years (included in this collection) was a simple transposition of letters. A printed card giving the system of encoding and decoding was given to all investigation agents of some standing.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVc, Folder 1

Dispatches containing code systems; Headquarters circulars on codes compromised and withdrawn from use; notes and instructions on the handling of codes and coded messages 1903-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVc, Folder 2

Glass plates with a British code

Note

This portion of the collection was not microfilmed.
Index XIVc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XIVc, Folder 4

Reference: See operational card index file for reference to Okhrana codes

Box: 184

d. Encoded and decoded messages, drafts, worksheets

Scope and Contents Note

This collection supplements Index Number XIVc with examples of actual encoding of outgoing telegrams and deciphering of encoded incoming messages. Experts on code can detect from the worksheets in these folders that the Paris Office and Okhrana Headquarters preferred three fairly simple systems. The most common practice was to use four variable, two-number digits for 25 letters of the Roman alphabet. The table simply listed the letters, giving four sets of digits for each, e.g.:
a - 75, 23, 14, 09
b - 33, 11, 88, 70
Using such a variable choice of digits was deemed completely secure as long as the key or tables on encoding and decoding were safe.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVd, Folder 1-2

Drafts of encoded outgoing telegrams, coded and deciphered incoming messages, and worksheets 1894-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVd, Folder 3

Envelopes

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Box: 184

e. Secret writing

Scope and Contents Note

Only a set of "cyclostyle" sheets were found in the Okhrana files, indicating that someone had probably been using them for a simple type of secret writing. There are no evidences among the files of agent reports that any method of secret writing was employed.
On the other hand, Okhrana people used chemicals and the application of heat to detect secret writing in the intercepted mail of the revolutionaries. The intercepted correspondence of Krupskaya (Lenin's wife), for instance, has more examples marked that the text was developed from "chemical inks" than those without such notations.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVe, Folder 1

Two sheets of used cyclostyle paper

Note

Available on microfilm reel 329
Index XIVe, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Index XIVe, Folder 3

Reference: See case officer Litvin's report from London in 1915, in IIIb, folder 23

Box: 185-188

XV. Security of establishments and personnel

Box: 185

a. Physical security of Okhrana establishments and documents

Scope and Contents Note

Assuring secrecy of operations and security of files, in view of constant efforts by the revolutionaries (Burtsev) to penetrate the Okhrana and expose its agents, constituted a permanent worry for Headquarters and the chiefs of the Paris Office. Instructions, issued in this matter by Headquarters, were very strict.
At the beginning of World War I, when French authorities were evacuated from Paris, the Okhrana office also moved to Bordeaux but soon returned to its readjusted and re-equipped office at 79 rue de Grenelle.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 1

Dispatches 1896-1916

Scope and Contents note

Includes instructions from Headquarters for security measures of Okhrana establishments

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 2

Reports on the purchase of sample gas bombs and hand grenades to use against rioters 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 3

Report on the visit of officers Tregulov and Lebedev 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 4

Letters and reports on renting an apartment for Iosefovich 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 5

Temporary transfer of the Paris office to Bordeaux and return to Paris 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVa, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVa, Folder 7

Reference: For a report on the transfer of the Okhrana offices to Bordeaux, August 22, 1914, see IIe, folder 6

Box: 185

b. Security of agents

Scope and Contents Note

The files on agents under Indices Ille and Illf and VId and VI-1 illustrate in many instances that the lives of Okhrana agents abroad, as in Russia, were subject to frequent threats of exposure and murder by the revolutionaries. To protect its people, the Okhrana abroad developed and adhered to its system of code names and to its practice of communicating with agents in such a way that most of the Okhrana permanent employees did not know the true identity of the agents. The case officers did not visit the Okhrana office, and the agents did not know each other. Two of them might have known each other as fellow revolutionaries, but not as agents.
The collection in these folders does not contain specific papers on the security of agents; but the collection of dispatches, papers on individual cases, and some of the circulars on security matters yield a fair insight into the practices relating to the matter of preventing agent exposure. Some of the papers show also that the Okhrana was interested in modern protective equipment for the use of the agents. One set of papers dealing with security precautions for traveling imperial personages is included in Folder No. 1 because parts of it also concern the security of agents themselves.
The collection of court proceedings against agent Rips for his attempt to kill case officer Colonel von Kotten in 1910 is included because of the many references to physical security of Okhrana personnel exposed to the revolutionaries in Paris.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 330-331
Index XVb, Folder 1a

Passes issued in Russia (1887-1882); assignment of agent Gutman; security investigation of agent Kavtaradze 1887-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVb, Folder 1b

Agent code names, pseudonyms, true names 1907-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVb, Folder 1c

Okhrana's interest in modern protective equipment 1913-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVb, Folder 1d

Security measures to protect imperial personages abroad 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 330
Index XVb, Folder 2a

Dispatches relating to security precautions for agents 1894-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVb, Folder 2b

Notes on the trial of agent Rips for his attempt on the life of case officer Colonel von Kotten 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVb, Folder 2c

Forms on agent's pay; security regulations on agent handling 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVb, Folder 2d

Garting's apprehension that Lopukhin exposed Azef

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVb, Folder 2e

Activities of Burtsev and Bakai (revolutionary police)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVb, Folder 3

Case of defected agent Rips in the French court: complete summary of proceedings 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 332
Index XVb, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 185

c. Methods of checking on the security of agents

Scope and Contents Note

Only three dispatches with attached letters were placed in this folder. They refer to cases of Manasevich-Manuilov in Paris, the revolutionary Lopatin in possession of a list of Okhrana agents in Italy, and an agent named Abramov in Moscow. More background material on this topic may be located in agent folders under IIIe, Illf, and VId.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 331
Index XVc, Folder 1

Correspondence found in the possession of Manasevich-Manuilov 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 332
Index XVc, Folder 1

Dispatch advising that revolutionary Lopatin has a list of Okhrana surveillance agents in Italy 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 332
Index XVc, Folder 1

Correspondence found in the possession of agent Abramov in Moscow 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 332
Box: 185-188

d. Security of high personages traveling abroad; physical safety

Scope and Contents Note

One of the major responsibilities of Okhrana establishments abroad, essentially different from the normal tasks of collecting intelligence on revolutionaries, was the perennial requirement of participating in the task of providing physical safety of the traveling monarch, members of the imperial family, and other high personages. They traveled on state visits and incognito. Regardless of the method or purpose of travel, the separate imperial security in St. Petersburg participated not only as corporal guards but in advance preparations for transits safe from interferences by revolutionaries.
Invariably the Paris Okhrana was called upon for assistance, by doubling and tripling surveillance over the movements of terrorists, and by engaging foreign liaisons for special protection. Non-Russian agents of the Okhrana, called from the more routine posts in a given locale, were set up in teams to guard trains and stations or the areas surrounding the intended lodging for the distinguished visitors. Okhrana planning was methodical, as the various security programs in this collection of documents indicate, depending heavily on its own agent resources and synchronizing its plans of watchfulness with that of the imperial security corps and the local organs of the respective countries.
The folders in this collection are assembled to cover separately each major trip of the Tsar, the Dowager Empress, and the Grand Dukes and Princes. Some of the folders are selections of day-to-day-surveillance reports. Folder No. 17 is a booklet containing Okhrana regulations on security measures for the safety of an imperial trip.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 332-338
Index XVd, Folder 1

Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich's trip to France 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 332
Index XVd, Folder 2

Travels of the Russian Empress in Europe 1909-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 333
Index XVd, Folder 3

Tsar's travels in Europe 1895-1897

Note

Available on microfilm reel 333
Index XVd, Folder 4

Tsar's trip to Paris 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 333
Index XVd, Folder 5

Tsar's trip to Paris 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 6

Daily reports from agent Maurice Vogt on the stay of imperial personages in London 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 7

Surveillance reports on German ports in connection with security arrangements for travel 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 8

Lecointe's accounts of the visits of Queen Aleksandra to England, Denmark, and Sweden 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 9

Bint's report on his assignment to protect an incognito lady and child in Bad Elster, Germany 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 10

Agent Vogt's reports on the visit of royalty to Vichy and Biarritz 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 11

Instruktsiia (Regulations regarding security measures for imperial trips abroad) 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 12

Tsar's trip to Konstanz 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 334
Index XVd, Folder 13

Imperial trip to Germany 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 335
Index XVd, Folder 14

Miscellaneous notes 1897-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 335
Index XVd, Folder 15

Tsar's visit to Berlin 1913 May

Note

Available on microfilm reel 336
Index XVd, Folder 16

Tsar's trip to Hesse 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 336
Index XVd, Folder 17

Grand Duke Mikhail Aleksandrovich's travels in Europe 1910-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reels 336-337
Index XVd, Folder 18

Tsar's tour of the Baltics 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVd, Folder 19

Bittard-Monin's report on attempt on the life of the Russian Minister of Education, in Nice 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVd, Folder 20

Notes and wires regarding the protection of the Minister of the Interior in Germany 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVd, Folder 21

Partial roster of personnel serving Russian royalty

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVd, Folder 22

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVd, Folder 23

Reference: See the operational card index file for references to security arrangements during the trips of Russian royalty abroad

Index XVd, Folder 24

Reference: See outgoing telegram, September 26, 1903, relaying the Tsar's order for Lopukhin to go to Italy to discern the political climate for a potential visit

Box: 188

e. Control of information passed to security organs of other countries

Scope and Contents Note

Despite the close cooperation with foreign security organs, the Paris Okhrana was extremely cautious in passing information to them, not only in order to protect its sources, but to restrict the flow of intelligence only to the essentials or to those elements that were to the Okhrana's advantage if the cooperating organs were informed on. The Paris Office fully realized that it could not expect adequate control over the information passed on to the French and German services.
These four dispatches pertain to relations with the Belgian, French, and Prussian security organs. In each case, revealing information to them threatened the security of sources. In fact, one of the reasons that Okhrana key agent Maurice Leroy had to be dismissed was the lack of control of the information revealed to the French.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVe, Folder 1

Dispatches regarding the exchange of information passed to security organs in countries other than France: the cases of Chicherin, Leroy, and Mantenfel

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Box: 188

f. Intelligence transmitted to services of other countries

Scope and Contents Note

When the war came, the exchange of intelligence information between the Okhrana and representative organs of the Allied services in Paris became a daily routine, as may be noted in the folders on the wartime Okhrana under Index Number Ille and on counter-espionage in VIIb, as also various folders on liaison, in Index Numbers under V. The collection under this title (XVf) contains only samples of the materials transmitted. The copies are for the most part duplicates of other copies placed under other indices according to the contents of the subject matter.
These samples show that information was transmitted in sanitized form, never mentioning the source or anything that might possibly help to disclose the source. The degree of reliability of source or substance of the information is given in some of these transmittals. It appears also that the Paris Okhrana refrained from classifying these intelligence notes. Only a few original drafts (on Paris Office letterhead), addressed to the Italian chief of service in Paris, carry the classification of "confidential". In contrast, Okhrana memoranda to Headquarters were normally marked "secret" (sekretno) or "top secret" (sovershenno sekretno).

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Index XVf, Folder 1

Intelligence reports in French on individuals and organizations transmitted to French, Italian, and British intelligence services during the war 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 338
Box: 189-196

XVI. Target groups

Box: 189

a. History of revolutionary movements

Scope and Contents Note

The paramount and openly stated task of the Okhrana establishments abroad was to seek contacts with foreign security services in order to provide security for the traveling imperial personages and to prevent terrorist plots at home and abroad. In line with this assignment, Russian revolutionary groups of all philosophic and ideological description became the agency's principal targets. It watched and studied all émigré groups by collecting intelligence about them and penetrating them by placing agents posing as revolutionaries in revolutionary committees, councils, conferences, and congresses. In many instances, the Paris Okhrana was informed daily on the revolutionary meetings, frictions, and cooperation, agenda, and conspiracies. As an intelligence agency, it reported faithfully and without bias to Headquarters, thus leaving in the carbon copies now collected under these indexes some truly authentic source materials on the history of the Russian revolutionary movement.
In addition to the papers on the early history of the Russian revolutionary groupings abroad, Index XVIa includes documents discussing all revolutionary groups, papers that could be placed under nearly all sub-titles on political parties and minority groups.
Much of the material in these folders is on the nihilists, including handwritten tracts and memoirs of known revolutionaries abroad. In Folder No. 1, a draft report of 1890, probably intended for the French Sûreté, discusses the nihilists in Paris; another similar draft, based on correspondence with Leon Jolivard, deals with nihilists in London and Berlin. Rachkovskii's notes on George Kennan are dated 1893 and a draft of 1901 points to the cleavage between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
Folder No. 2, starting with the year 1889, contains general reports on student groups, Narodnaia Volia, the Bund, general materials on leftist organizations and leaders. At the end is a Headquarters circular (1916) giving the history of Russian revolutionary movements. A chart at the end shows graphically the structure of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party and its affiliation with the national minority parties.
Folder No. 5 contains a 1906 intelligence brief on revolutionary groups within Russia. A special issue of L'Eclair, Paris, July 5, 1890, treats in detail and with illustrations the famous trial of the nihilists in Paris (Folder No. 6).

Note

Available on microfilm reels 339-340
Index XVIa, Folder 1

Reports from the Paris Okhrana on revolutionaries, including correspondence with Leon Jolivard regarding nihilists in London 1890-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 339
Index XVIa, Folder 2

Chart of the composition of the Social Democratic Workers Party; information on revolutionaries; reports, circulars, and intercepted letters 1889-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 339
Index XVIa, Folder 3

Data on individual revolutionaries; handwritten memoirs, reports, and letters 1887-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 339
Index XVIa, Folder 4

Matters pertaining to revolutionary publications abroad: Burtsev's correspondence; handwritten articles; tracts; and memoirs on revolutionary parties (from the mid-19th century)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIa, Folder 5

Headquarters circulars (no. 1510 and supplement) on revolutionary groups within Russia 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIa, Folder 6

Articles from the foreign press on nihilists, including the July 5, 1890 issue of L'Eclair on the Paris trial of the nihilists 1890

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIa, Folder 7

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIa, Folder 8

Reference: For letters and reports from various agents in London in French, Polish, and Russian from 1891-1902, see XIIIa

Index XVIa, Folder 9

Reference: For agent Farce's report of 1902 containing a list and description of revolutionaries and their publications in London and the United States, see VIk, folder 23

Index XVIa, Folder 10

Reference: See "L'Affaire Azef" in Hors de Loi, in XIIc(1)

Box: 189-195

b. Individual groups

Box: 189

(1) Narodovoltsy

Scope and Contents Note

The Okhrana files are comparatively meager on documents dealing with the Narodnaia Volia (People's Will), or Narodovoltsy. This organization had already become a fairly cohesive political group among the émigrés abroad even before the Okhrana developed into a full-fledged agency in Paris. The terrorist excesses hurt the organization, and by the 1890s, most of the outstanding leaders were affiliated with the larger political grouping of Socialist Revolutionaries in Prance or the Anarcho-Communists in England. The Narodovoltsy may thus be considered as the antecedents of the Socialist Revolutionaries and their extremist terrorist detachments. In fact, some of the enclosed documents in this collection refer to the Narodovoltsy and Socialist Revolutionaries as almost one and the same group, so that no line can be drawn as to where the antecedents ended as an organized grouping and the successor took over.
Folder No. 1 of the collection contains several long drafts of reports to Headquarters and other communications on the party and its leaders. In Folder No. 2, much information on the same is given in three Headquarters circulars. Lavrov, one of the theoreticians of the group in London, wrote a large number of Narodnaia Volia tracts, a collection of which is placed in Folder No. 3.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIb(1), Folder 1

Drafts and dispatches on the Narodovoltsy and early Socialist Revolutionaries 1886-1907

Scope and Contents note

Includes intercepted letters concerning revolutionary publications

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIb(1), Folder 2

Reports and personal data on various Narodovoltsy; circulars from Headquarters; personal data and intelligence analysis of Rubinovich 1888-1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIb(1), Folder 3

Mimeographed tracts by Lavrov 1892

Note

Available on microfilm reel 340
Index XVIb(1), Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 190

(2) Social Democrats

Scope and Contents Note

This collection of Headquarters and Paris Office dispatches, notes, publications, intercepted letters, newspaper clippings, and short published and unpublished tracts includes many documents dealing with the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party (RSDWP) and its leaders. The bulk of it could therefore be classed also under XVIb(6), which deals specifically with the RSDWP and its fractions, the Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and the narrow group of Lenintsy. The researcher studying the background of Russian Social Democracy, the RSDWP, and the emerging communist party would thus find it essential to consult the papers under all these indices and also the special personal folders on Lenin, Plekhanov, and Trotsky under XVII.
In many of the documents in this collection the term "Social Democrats" is used almost as a generic term. The Duma faction is referred to as the "Social Democrats" and many intelligence reports refer to the RSDWP simply as S. D. Then, there is a number of smaller groups, such as Social Democratic Internationalists, Social Democratic Independents, or Free Socialists, organized in Paris by Vsevolod Mikhailovich. This collection includes also papers pertaining to the Social Democracy in Western Europe.
Each folder is organised in chronological order. In Folder No. 1, which holds various correspondence, a draft at the beginning of the set gives a short chronology of the Social Democrats since 1876 and refers to the Russian Social Democratic Party as the "United Social Democratic Workers Party".
Folder No. 2 is somewhat specific on Lenin's role in the Party, showing his maneuvering of the Bolsheviks to supremacy. Folders 4 and 6 concern the Latvian, Jewish, and Polish groups participating in the Russian Social Democratic Party, while Folder No. 5 contains a set of resolutions and proclamations of the Party. Some of these are also found among the unassorted materials in Folder No. 8.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 341-343
Index XVIb(2), Folder 1

Correspondence between Headquarters and Paris; reports on the activities of Social Democratic party groups in Europe, the United States, and Russia 1876-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 341
Index XVIb(2), Folder 2

Dispatches on Lenin's methods on the road to power; manuevering of the Bolsheviks within the party; gains and losses by the Mensheviks 1904-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 341
Index XVIb(2), Folder 3

Dispatches on the attitude of the Social Democratic party toward the war 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 341
Index XVIb(2), Folder 4

Dispatches on the activities of the Latvian group in the Russian Social Democratic Party 1904-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 341
Index XVIb(2), Folder 5

Resolutions, proclamations, appeals, and circulars issued by the party 1904-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6a

Dispatches on the disagreements between the Bolsheviks (Lenin) and the Polish group of the party 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6b

Dispatches concerning the Internationalists

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6c

Dispatches concerning Social Democratic propaganda schools in Bologna and Longjumeau 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6d

Dispatches on party contacts with similar parties in Europe and the United States 1912-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6e

Circular issued by the Jewish section of the Social Democratic party 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6f

Dispatches concerning the revolutionary press; reports by agent Bint; articles in Vorwärts 1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 6g

Reports from agent Powell on revolutionaries in London and their contacts with British nihilists 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 7

Dispatches and reports on Social Democratic leaders, their movements, activities, functions, and addresses 1904-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 8

Intercepted letters 1902-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 342
Index XVIb(2), Folder 9

Incomplete manuscripts on the Social Democrats in Russia (undated part of a novel), booklet of dues, and small pamphlets

Note

Available on microfilm reel 343
Index XVIb(2), Folder 10

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIb(2), Folder 11

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 31, May 1, 903, for a draft of the by-laws of the 2nd RSDWP Congress in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIb(2), Folder 12

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 64, December 18, 1903, for a survey of the composition and organization of the RSDWP in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIb(2), Folder 13

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 67, January 8, 1904, for report on the Brussels congress of the RSDWP in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIb(2), Folder 14

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 132, April 7, 1905, for the program of the 3rd RSDWP Congress in XIIIc(2), folder 6

Index XVIb(2), Folder 15

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 154, September 8, 1905, for the program of a RSDWP conference in Ekaterinodar in XIIIc(2), folder 6

Box: 191-192

(3) Socialist Revolutionaries

Scope and Contents Note

This political organization was by far the most formidable target for the Okhrana. Among its leaders were men of higher educational qualification -- professional people, a number of them with funds of their own, and more widely spread than all other political factions. They also proved to be more aggressive, with separate clandestine sections for the promotion and carrying out of terror, than other rebel groups. In addition, they developed an intelligence organization of their own, not only to carry conspiracies into Russia, but to counteract the efforts of the Okhrana at home and abroad.
The collection under this Index Number does not include all Okhrana materials on the Socialist Revolutionaries. The subsequent index, XVIb(4), with the collection of papers on the militant terrorist units, includes many documents on the fighting and mobile units maintained as the more clandestine and conspiratorial branches of the Party. The separate files under XVII for leaders like Chernov, Gots, and Savinkov likewise contain much information on the activities of the Party. Finally, the file on Vladimir Burtsev, the self-styled intelligence chief of the revolutionaries, gives another aspect of the activities of the Socialist Revolutionaries.
Among the contents in the folders on the Socialist Revolutionaries, the following are of particular significance: Folder No. 1: Instructions and briefs supplied by Headquarters. The case of Azef and its impact on the Party; Folder No. 3: Rosters, personal data on party leaders; Folder No. 5: Socialist Revolutionary groups by countries, conventions and conferences.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 343-346
Index XVIb(3), Folder 1

Dispatches and circulars

Scope and Contents note

Includes instructions and intelligence on the Socialist Revolutionary Party from Headquarters (1901-1909); terrorism and expropriations (1905-1914); the Azef case and its impact (1909-1913); Socialist Revolutionary party activities in Russia (1910-1914); attitude toward the war (1914-1916); financial problems of the party (1903-1915); secret addresses for letters

Note

Available on microfilm reel 343
Index XVIb(3), Folder 2

Various revolutionary publications

Note

Available on microfilm reel 344
Index XVIb(3), Folder 3

Rosters, reports, and circulars with personal data on individual members 1903-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 344
Index XVIb(3), Folder 4

Reports on the activities of Socialist Revolutionary groups abroad (rifts, splits and attempts at unification) 1903-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 345
Index XVIb(3), Folder 5

Reports on Socialist Revolutionary groups in New York, Montreal, Belgium, Switzerland, England, and Germany 1901-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 345
Index XVIb(3), Folder 6

Reports on conventions of Socialist Revolutionary groups abroad 1904-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 345
Index XVIb(3), Folder 7

Reports on the Socialist Revolutionary Party Central Committee, the Regional Committee, and the Council 1908-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 345
Index XVIb(3), Folder 8

Dispatches pertaining to the activities of Socialist Revolutionary groups in Paris 1910-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(3), Folder 9

Publications, resolutions, and other materials 1903-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(3), Folder 10

Intercepted letters 1905-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(3), Folder 11

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIb(3), Folder 12

Reference: See operational card file index for references to Socialist Revolutionary activities and congresses

Index XVIb(3), Folder 13

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 7, November 11, 1902, for a review of the activities, membership, and publications of the Socialist Revolutionary party in Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 1

Index XVIb(3), Folder 14

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 43, July 23, 1903, for plans for organization of a foreign branch in Geneva, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIb(3), Folder 15

Reference: See directive circular no. 10412, 1906, for instructions for the peasant union of the Socialist Revolutionary party, in XIIId(1), folder 9

Index XVIb(3), Folder 16

Reference: For a listing of individual leaders in the party and in its fighting unit, see XVIIn

Index XVIb(3), Folder 17

Reference: For "Report on Savinkov," 1915, see XVIIi

Box: 192

(4) Militant terrorist units

Scope and Contents Note

The collection of documents under this subject is supplemental to the materials gathered under XXIVi on terrorist techniques and XXVIId, threats upon the life of security personnel. All revolutionary groups resorted to terror, not so much to eliminate by assassination the individuals considered as oppressive tyrants, but for the purpose of creating confusion and, often, to eliminate popular personages in the Tsarist governmental and social structure. Of all the revolutionary groups, however, it was only the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries that maintained permanent fighting units (boevaia druzhina) which carried on a systematic program of terror under the subsequent leadership of Gershuni, Azef, and Savinkov. (See XVIIi.)
The Social Democratic Workers Party (Bolsheviks), at times on record as being opposed to terror as a revolutionary instrument, had in time of stress (1905) instructions on its program for attacks on government establishments, arsenals, banks, and liquidation of government organs. Also, the bloody armed robbery in Tiflis and similar excesses were organized by the RSDWP leaders, but the purpose of these was to obtain funds needed for the revolution rather than mere terror. The funds from the Tiflis and other robberies went for the needs of Lenin, Litvinov, Krassin, and their revolutionary plans. (See particularly the files on Litvinov and Krassin in XVII-1, XVIIm, and XXVc.)
The folders of this file contain dispatches about terrorists from 1890 to 1914. Folder No. 4 has a series of Headquarters circulars on individual terrorists.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 346-347
Index XVIb(4), Folder 1

Dispatches on terrorists, arms smuggling in Russia, and other activities 1890-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(4), Folder 2

Clippings, reports, and dispatches on terrorist publications, acts of terror, Burtsev's role, and criticism of his behavior (Bakai) 1906-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(4), Folder 3

Intercepted letters written by terrorists 1905-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 346
Index XVIb(4), Folder 4

Data on individual terrorists, with emphasis on Savinkov's group in Paris 1903-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 347
Index XVIb(4), Folder 5

Reference: See operational card index file for reference to terrorist units

Index XVIb(4), Folder 6

Reference: For "Liste des actes terroristes et des pillages a main armee en Russie, commis depuis 15 octobre 1907 jusqu'au 8 avril 1910," a statistical and chronological account, see XXIVi

Box: 192-193

(5) Anarcho-Communists

Scope and Contents Note

This collection contains documents on anarchists of the "school" that followed the teachings of Prince Petr Kropotkin in his London and other European exiles, the descendants of the old nihilist school, and several factions that variously called themselves Anarcho-Communists.
As the files show, all these "schools" were strongly influenced by the Western European anarchists, fairly fashionable in pre-World War I days. The files show also that the Russian Anarcho-Communists were an assortment of militant exiles, but not as organized as the terrorist bands of the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries. Their principal purpose was akin to that of the West European anarchists -- to kill off the crowned monarchs or the ruling heads of governments, but by aiming primarily at the Russian rulers. The adherents were a conglomerate from all strata ?an occasional nobleman like Kropotkin, malcontent intellectuals, deserters, unemployed émigrés, and also ordinary criminals, as some of the police records indicate.
A document in Folder No. 1 reports on the plan of Italian anarchists in Hamburg conspiring attempts on the lives of the crowned heads of Europe. Several papers in other folders refer to European anarchists. The dispatches in Folder No. 1 deal with various acts of terror, such as the Houndsditch robbery and murders, committed by Russian Anarcho-Communists, which led to close cooperation with Scotland Yard.
Folder No. 2 has dispatches referring to anarchist publications, including five handwritten unpublished tracts and copies of the "Worker's Friend" in Yiddish.
Prince Kropotkin's file, in Folder No. 3 has papers on Russian liaison with European and American anarchists, intercepted letters, etc.
In Folder No. 4, a 61-page account on the First Conference of the Russian Anarcho-Communists in December 1913 is included. And Folder No. 5 has a Headquarters circular which gives a comprehensive brief on the Anarcho-Communists in 1909 and their organization and activities.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 347-350
Index XVIb(5), Folder 1

Dispatches, letters, and reports 1901-1915

Scope and Contents note

Includes reports on planned attemps by Italian anarchists in Hamburg on the lives of crowned heads of Europe; acts of terrorists and banditry committed by anarchists outside of Russia (including the Houndsditch affair)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 347
Index XVIb(5), Folder 2

1905-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 347
Index XVIb(5), Folder 3

Letters and reports on and by Prince Kropotkin; reports on the liaison of Russian Anarcho-Communists with European and American anarchists (1909-1916); intercepted letters (1895-1909); list of non-Russian anarchists not permitted to enter Russia; appeals of anarchists against the war 1895-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 348
Index XVIb(5), Folder 4

Dispatches on anarchist activities in Paris, London, Switzerland, and Belgium, including a protocol of the 1st United Conference of Russian Anarcho-Communists Abroad 1907-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 348
Index XVIb(5), Folder 5

Exchange of intelligence on Anarcho-Communists between Headquarters and the Paris office 1893-1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes a 120-page brief for agents (1909); dispatches referring to anarchist activities in the United States (1914); established identity and personal data on individual anarchists (1903-1916); Headquarters circulars (1910-1911); copies of the publication V pomoshch in Russian and Yiddish (1910-1913)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 348-350
Index XVIb(5), Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIb(5), Folder 7

Reference: See operational card index file for references to anarchist organizations

Index XVIb(5), Folder 8

Reference: For a listing of individual Anarcho-Communists, see XVIIn

Index XVIb(5), Folder 9

Reference: For letters, raw reports from various agents in London, in French, Polish, and Russian, 1891-1902, see XIIIa

Index XVIb(5), Folder 10

Reference: For letters on Erofeev, drafts of telegrams on "Falstaff," see XIb

Index XVIb(5), Folder 11

Reference: See agent Farce's reports from London, 1901-1907, in VIk, folder 23

Box: 193-194

(6) Russian Social Democratic Workers Party

Scope and Contents Note

Many papers in this collection have sections dealing with Bolshevik and Menshevik factions, for which materials are grouped under subsequent specific index numbers. These two folders cover general papers and reviews discussing all the factions of the party.
A set of circulars from Headquarters includes extensive intelligence briefs based on all available intelligence on the structure, leadership, programs, and activities of the party. These valuable documents, based on information obtained from Okhrana agents participating in the party, are analyses made at various periods of growth,from 1903 to 1916.
A number of charts in the collection adds to the interpretation of the RSDWP and its relation to the Polish, Latvian, and Jewish parallel organizations. A chart prepared by the Okhrana in 1909 depicts the pattern of subsequent Communist Party pyramidal structures, from the local and functional cells to the hierarchy of the Central Committee and the top bureau. Full texts of resolutions and appeals of the party, or excerpts from them, add further to the historic source materials on the pre-revolution Russian communist movement.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 350-351
Index XVIb(6), Folder 1a

Exchange of intelligence between Headquarters and the Paris office 1901-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 350
Index XVIb(6), Folder 1b

Structural charts of the RSDWP (1909); letter with official seal 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 350
Index XVIb(6), Folder 1c

Circulars and briefs from Headquarters on the RSDWP and its leaders 1903-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 350
Index XVIb(6), Folder 1d

Intercepted letters 1904-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 350
Index XVIb(6), Folder 1e

Resolutions and appeals issued by the Party 1905-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 350
Index XVIb(6), Folder 2

Drafts and reports on the RSDWP 1903-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6), Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIb(6), Folder 4

Reference: For summary report by principal agent Henry Bint, May 16, 1916, see VIk

Box: 194

(a) Bolsheviks

Scope and Contents Note

The rudiments of split in the RSDWP into the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions became apparent in the very first years of its existence. Much of the information on the growing friction because of ideology, tactics, as well as differences in the character of the leaders, may be observed in many documents of the preceding folders under XVIb(6).
This folder concerns the emerging Bolshevik or Communist Party. At the end of the file are two copies of the leaflet announcing the publication of the newspaper Kommunist in Geneva.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 350-351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 1

Drafts and dispatches on the RSDWP 1908-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 2

Activities of the Latvian group in the Party (intercepted letters) 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 3

Intercepted letters referring to the Bolsheviks; Aleksinskii's letters 1904-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 4

Report on the Russian revolutionary press in Paris 1915 December

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 5

Circular issued by the Social Democratic group "Vpered" 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 6

Letters with official seals; announcement of the publication Kommunist 1905, 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(a), Folder 7

Reference: For a review of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, see XVIb(6), folder 1

Box: 194

(b) Mensheviks

Scope and Contents Note

The split between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks widened particularly after the outbreak of World War I. Lenin's partisans dubbed those of Plekhanov the "Social-patriots". Roughly, the major issue of the two was exemplified in dispute as to whether Russia and the Allies should be supported to win the war, against Germany or not. While the Mensheviks were vacillating and some of them were even in favor of supporting the imperial regime to win the war, to the Bolsheviks, the defeat of Russia became the most desirable step for the advancement of the revolution.
Among the documents in this file dealing with the activities of the Mensheviks is a Headquarters circular giving the contents of a resolution the Mensheviks adopted at Lausanne in August 1915. The included list of leaders shows that the majority of the important revolutionaries abroad, even up to 1916-1917, were Mensheviks, holding on to the socialist ideology but supporting the war effort against the Central Powers. (For materials on Plekhanov, leader of the Mensheviks, see XVIIlb.)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 350-351
Index XVIb(6)(b), Folder 1

Dispatches and circulars pertaining to the Mensheviks and activities of various groups 1909-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(b), Folder 2

Dispatches and circulars on Menshevik leaders ("Socialpatriots") 1910-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(b), Folder 3

Intercepted letters 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(b), Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 194

(c) Lenintsy

Scope and Contents Note

The term "Lenintsy" (Lenin's men) was used primarily in some of the Okhrana Headquarters circulars relating to a rather narrow circle within the Bolshevist group of the RSDWP. Essentially the same group was originally referred to as the "Iskrovtsy" (from Iskra, the paper founded by Lenin at the turn of the century). During the war, this informal group of zealous supporters aggressively advocated the defeat of Russia and was, for that reason, often referred to as Germanophile.
The circulars in this collection carry pre-war dates. They refer to the illegal, secret organization of the Lenintsy and the conspiratorial work to foment the revolution. Several notes in French dated 1916 discuss the activities of Lenin, Trotsky, and others, and their publication Nashe Slovo.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(c), Folder 1

Drafts and reports on the activities of Social Democratic "Lenintsy" group 1902-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(c), Folder 2

Headquarters circulars briefing officers and agents of the Okhrana on the "Lenintsy" group 1912-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 351
Index XVIb(6)(c), Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 194-195

(7) Students and other émigré groups

Scope and Contents Note

Hundreds of students from Russia were enrolled by the end of the 19th century in French, Swiss, and German universities. Many of these came from Russian universities, where they had already been subjected to much of the prohibited revolutionary propaganda. Abroad, the exposure to leftist ideologies became more intense. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in particular was interested in spreading its ideology among students. Various circles were formed -- early student unions, mutual self-help units, most of which soon became little more than front organizations for the RSDWP. Similarly, other émigrés not organized in the major political groups but forming circles, libraries, mutual aid clubs like the "Emigrantskaia Kassa" (a kind of émigré savings and loan unit), though loyal to the regime as individuals, often became convenient front organizations of the RSDWP.
There is no record to show that the Okhrana used such groups as anti-propaganda instruments. Instead, it engaged individual students for reporting on the activities of these leftist front organizations. (On the latter, see XXIVg, on early types of communist front organizations.)
Folders 1-4 of this collection contains dispatches, drafted reports, and rosters of Russian student groups in European countries. In Folders 5-13, the reports are on Polish and Georgian students, activities of all-Russian Émigré organizations, etc.
Folder No. 14 contains a collection of 15 intelligence summaries on student movements in Russia, published by Okhrana Headquarters in book form through school semesters of 1900 and 1901. There is no evidence whether these lengthy summaries were discontinued after 1901. In the box at the end of this collection are some 600 handwritten cards prepared by agents for biographic information on Russian students in Europe in 1899-1901. (A much more extensive record on students in Europe has been placed under Xlllh.)

Note

Available on microfilm reels 352-353
Index XVIb(7), Folder 1

Correspondence between Headquarters and the Paris Okhrana referring to the actitivies of Russian students abroad, including 3 reports 1901-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 2

Rosters and data on individual Russian students in Western Europe 1893-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 3

Dispatches and reports referring to conventions and meetings of Russian students abroad 1910-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 4

Dispatches on the activities of Russian students in London, Germany, Paris, Switzerland, and Belgium

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 5

Reports on Polish student organizations in Krakow and on Georgian student organizations of a revolutionary character 1911, 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 6

Intercepted letters 1899-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 7

Student Iosif Gotthelf's notes on the Swiss government; drafts of articles on social problems 1902, 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 8

Dispatches relating to activities of Russian émigré organizations of political and social character 1912-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 9

Dispatch concerning the failure of revolutionaries to gain teachers for their cause when touring Western Europe 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 10

Dispatches on the dormant organization Independent Socialists and its leader Mikhailovich 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 11

Dispatch on Wallach (Litvinov) and Lebedev, leaders of a Russian émigré group in London 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 12

Dispatch reporting on the Jewish colony in London (Whitechapel) and pro-German feelings 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 13

Leaflets issued by the Russian Seaman's Union Abroad (front organization) 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 352
Index XVIb(7), Folder 14

Weekly intelligence summaries from Headquarters on the student movement 1901-1902

Note

Available on microfilm reels 352-353
Index XVIb(7), Folder 15

Student biographic cards and circulars issued by students 1899-1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 353
Box: 195-196

c. Congresses and important conferences

Scope and Contents Note

Conventions and meetings of Russian revolutionaries were of prime importance to the Okhrana for the following reasons: most of them were held outside of Russia, thus escaping surveillance of the home police; these gatherings disclosed plans of action; they revealed contacts the revolutionaries had with other leftist organizations in Europe and America as well as the degree of their cooperation; and the conferences often disclosed sources of funds for the revolutionaries.
While many conferences of the revolutionaries were held in secret, with the place and time known only to the subversives, they were usually well covered by the Paris Office through penetration agents, at times themselves attending as recognized revolutionaries. Detailed reports on the composition, agenda, resolutions, and plans of action were thus forwarded to Headquarters promptly. The latter, in turn, informed the Paris Office on certain conferences not attended by agents of the Paris Okhrana.
Folders 1-4 contain dispatches from and to Headquarters pertaining to various meetings of the RSDWP, the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries, all-Russian conferences and meetings (mostly during World War I), and meetings with foreign groups. Folders 5-7 have the correspondence on the international socialist movement and cooperation of Russian revolutionaries, their attendance at conferences at Stuttgart, Copenhagen, London, Vienna, Zurich, Zimmerwald, Bern, Kintal, and The Hague (1906-1916). Resolutions and manifestos and some intercepted mail is included. Folders 8-9 contain data on revolutionary leaders and meetings of the Baltic Slavs, Maksimalists, Austrian Slavs, Macedonian revolutionaries, the Russian cultural congress in Italy, Trade Union Conventions in London, the Zionist Conference in Vienna, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 354-355
Index XVIc, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning conventions and meetings of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party 1901-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 2

Dispatches, notes, and letters on conventions and meetings of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party 1906-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 3

Dispatches pertaining to meetings and contacts with Bulgarian anarchists (Chashin) 1901-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 4

Dispatches and drafts on all-Russian conferences, meetings, and unified actions 1908-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 5

Dispatches and reports on the International Socialist movement 1906-1916

Scope and Contents note

Includes directives on contacts with Russian revolutionaries at congresses and conferences in Stuttgart, Copenhagen, London, Vienna, Zurich, Zimmerwald, Bern, and The Hague

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 6

Resolutions and manifests of the Socialist Revolutionary and Social Democratic parties 1909-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 354
Index XVIc, Folder 7

Intercepted letters referring to revolutionary congresses 1904-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVIc, Folder 8

Data on individual revolutionary leaders and their activities 1909-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVIc, Folder 9

Miscellaneous reports

Scope and Contents note

Topics include the Maksimalists (1907); convention of Macedonian revolutionaries and elections of the Supreme Committee (1908); meeting of the right wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries in Paris on the Azef case (1909); Congress of Austrian Slavs in Krakow (1911); Social Democratic Party conference in Vienna (1912); Russian cultural congress in Italy (1913); International Zionist Conference in Vienna (1913); 1st Trade Union Convention in London (1914); meetings of Balkan Slavs in Sofia and Bucharest (1915). Also includes notebook listing revolutionary conferences and meetings (1914)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVIc, Folder 10

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIc, Folder 11

Reference: See operational card index file for references on revolutionary meetings and congresses

Index XVIc, Folder 12

Reference: See operational card index file for references to International Socialist conferences

Box: 196

d. Cohesion, cleavage, and morale

Scope and Contents Note

Unity in planning and agreement on common action among Russian revolutionaries abroad as well as between various parties were generally elusive or of temporary character. The fact that all revolutionary groups were against the Tsarist government did not carry enough weight to prevail over diversified methods with which they endeavored to attain their only goal ?the revolution in Russia.
Inside each revolutionary party there were differences of opinion, clashes between individuals, invariably interfering with the ultimate, purpose. The struggle between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, out of which of characteristic of Lenin came victorious, is characteristic to almost all revolutionary groups. Congresses and conferences served more often as battlegrounds for ambitious leaders than as forums for coordinated action.
This unity in purpose and disharmony in action created a gap deepened by the war to; the point of making any span impossible.
The collection in Folder 1 contains drafts and reports describing or revealing the cleavage and action for unification of revolutionary groups abroad between 1894 and 1917. Among the intercepted letters in Folders 3 and 4, there are several from or addressed to Lenin and other important revolutionaries, discussing frictions between and within their groups.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 355-356
Index XVId, Folder 1

Drafts and reports on cleavage and action for unification among revolutionary groups abroad 1894-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVId, Folder 2

Reports on the attitude of revolutionary organizations toward war and divided opinions on its outcome 1914-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 355
Index XVId, Folder 3

Intercepted letters mailed from Russia abroad 1902-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reels 355-356
Index XVId, Folder 4

Intercepted letters mailed to Russia from abroad 1901-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 356
Index XVId, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 196-205

XVII. Revolutionary leaders

Box: 196-197

a. Vladimir Il'ich Lenin and Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya

Scope and Contents Note

The earliest document in Lenin's file, dated June 6, 1895, is a dispatch from St. Petersburg, advising that Lenin had departed from Russia. There is also a dispatch dated September. 7, 1900, regarding Lenin's second departure abroad, where he published for a while the newspaper Iskra with Martov (Tsederbaum), Potresov, and Plekhanov.
Folder No. 1 contains copies of a number of intercepted letters between various individuals, mostly revolutionaries, discussing Lenin and his views. This file further contains a lengthy report on the 1903 Social Democratic Congress in Brussels, prepared by Chief Rataev of the Paris Okhrana Office (Outgoing Dispatch #168/1903).
The inventory sheets for Folders Nos. 2-5 are prepared in considerable detail, listing individual letters written by Lenin and Krupskaya or received by them. The letters are copies rendered verbatim by the Okhrana's offices from intercepted mail. Since it was the practice of Okhrana offices to return to the post offices the mail for delivery to addressees, it is possible that much of the original mail was thus lost, while the Okhrana's copies remained.
Since copies of intercepted correspondence that became subjects of dispatches were kept at Petersburg Headquarters, they came into Bolshevik hands like most all of the other Okhrana documents. As Lenin's Polnoe sobranie sochinenii compilation reveals, many of these copies were preserved. Most of those included in the printed collection are verbatim reproductions, while some of them differ in small details from the samples in this collection. The letters of Lenin's wife, Krupskaya, included in this collection are not printed in the Sochineniaa.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 356-358
Index XVIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches and letters pertaining to Lenin and Krupskaya; intercepted correspondence between revolutionaries referring to Lenin or Krupskaya 1900-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 356-357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2a

Memorandum from Headquarters advising that Ulianov departed from Russia for abroad 1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2b

Letter from Nizhnii Novgorod to Liege discussing disagreements between the Lenin and Martov factions 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2c

Report on the split among the "Iskrovtsy" 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2d

Excerpt from a letter from Lenin in Geneva to his mother in Kiev 1904

Scope and Contents note

Includes an English translation

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2e

Report on "Katia" Krupsakaya as an important member of Iskra 1904

Scope and Contents note

Includes an English translation

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2f

Letter from Lenin, Zverev, and Glebov in Darmstadt to Dauge in Moscow 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2g

Letter from Lenin in Nuremberg to Dr. Aleksandrov in Gomel 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2h

Letter from Krupskaya in Nuremberg to Shpolianskaia in Moscow 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2i

Letter from Lenin to Anton Peres in Moscow 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2j

Letter from Lenin in Nuremberg to Sokolovskii in Odessa 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2k

Dispatch from Headquarters advising that Bogdanov is giving financial help to Lenin 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2l

Report on the 3rd London RSDWP Congress and Lenin's role 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2m

Letter from Krupskaya in Leipzig to Vera Mikler in Moscow 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2n

Letter from Lenin in Munich to Pushenskii 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2o

Letter from Lenin in Munich to Pushenskii in Kherson (with English translation) 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2p

Report on the Social Democratic Conference in Vyborg and Lenin's role 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2q

Letter from Krupskaya to Lenin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2r

Report on the All-Russian Conference of the Social Democratic Party in Paris 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2s

Roster of the members of the RSDWP-Bolshevik faction abroad 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2t

Letter from Moscow to Krupskaya containing the texts of agitation pamphlets 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2u

Letter from Lenin in Paris to his sister in Russia discussing peace with the Mensheviks 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2v

Report on the composition of the RSDWP Central Committee including Lenin 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2w

Letter from Lenin in Paris to I.K. Frim in Bucharest 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2x

Letter from Krupskaya in Paris to Iukevich in St. Petersburg 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2y

Report on Lenin's attempts to sue Tsetkina for 80,000 francs, an inheritance left by Schmidt 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 2z

Memorandum from Headquarters reporting on a conference of Lenin's political partisans 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3a

Report on Lenin and Zinovyev (Grigorii Radomysl'skii) moving to Krakow to be closer to Russia during the Duma elections 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3b-3e

Letters from Lenin in Krakow to the Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3f

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Nazarov in St. Petersburg 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3g

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to the editorial office of Sovremennyi mir in St. Petersberg 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3h-3k

Letter from Krupskaya to Akselrod in St. Petersburg 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3l-3m

Letter from Krupskaya to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3n-3o

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to the Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3p

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Lazurkin in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3q

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Bel'skii in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3r-3u

Letters from Krupskaya in Krakow to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3v

Letters from Lenin in Krakow to his sister Mariia in Saratov 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3w

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Kvaleva in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3x

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3y

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Knipovich in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 3z

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Rymash in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4a

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Kvaleva in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4b

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4b

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4c

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Kolkov in St. Petersburg

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4d

Letter from Lenin in Zakopane to Podvoiskii in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4e

Letter from Lenin in Krakow to Pravda editorial office in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4f

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Sekorskii in Tiflis 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4g

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Kavtaradze in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4h

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Za pravdu in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4i

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Samolei in St. Petersburg reporting on the strike movement 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4i

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Samolei in St. Petersburg reporting on the strike movement

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4j

Report on the 2nd Regular Conference of the RSDWP and Lenin's role 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4k

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Antoshevskaia in Viatka 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4kl

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Elizarova in St. Petersburg 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4m

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Anton Samolei in St. Petersburg 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4n

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Nina Krug in St. Petersburg 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4o

Letter from Krupskaya in Krakow to Voitsekhovskii in St. Petersburg 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4p

Letter from Krupskaya in Vienna to Sikorskii in Tiflis regarding preparations for a congress 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4q

Letter from Krupskaya in Zakopane to Proveshchenie in St. Petersburg on the 2rd International Conference of Women Socialists and Female Workers' Organizations 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4r

Letter from Krupskaya in Rabka to Ivan Samovarov 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4s

Letter from Krupskaya in Poronin to Enukidze in St. Petersburg asking for information on Georgian and Armenian newspapers published in the Caucasus 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4t

Letter from Krupskaya in Austria to Ivan Samovarov in Kremlevo Station 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4u

Report advising that Lenin is not in prison in Krakow, but is living in Berlin 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4v

Letter from Lenin's sister Mariia in Petrograd to Lenin in Bern containing family news 1915

Scope and Contents note

Includes English translation

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4w

Report on Lenin's attitude towards terrorism 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4x

Briefs on Safarov, relative of Krupskaya, Ludmila Stiglis and Selikmann 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4y

Report on Lenin's defeatist views regarding Russia's participation in the war 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 4z

Letters in French by or about Lenin 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 357
Index XVIIa, Folder 5a

Lenin's letter to Safarov in French 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5b

Chronological review of Lenin's activities from February 1904-April 1916 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5c

Surveillance reports on Lenin by agent Bint 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5d

Report on Lenin's lecture, "Conditions of Peace and the National Question" 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5e

Resume of Lenin's report in Zurich entitled "The War and Two Internationals" 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5f

Statements by Lenin to Safarov on French revolutionaries 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5g

Resume of a lecture delivered by Lenin in Geneva entitled "Two Currents in the International Workers' Movement" 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5h

Report on the Geneva Conference of Émigré Treasuries, with Krupskaya as secretary 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5i

Cable about Lenin receiving the protection of Germany 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5j

Report on Lenin's participation in the Bern Conference of International Socialist Commissions 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5k

Draft of a declaration to be published by the RSDWP Central Committee (represented by Lenin) on the conference of socialists of the "concordat" countries 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5l

Report on existing opinion on Lenin's attitude towards terror 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5m

Report concerning Lenin's mistress Inessa Armand 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5n

Okhrana circular on Nadezhda Krupskaya

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5o

Safarov's letters to Krupskaya 1915-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 5p

English translations of Lenin's correspondence

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIa, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIa, Folder 7

Reference: For agent Zhitomirskii's (Daudet) reports on Lenin and his group from 1911-1913, see IIIf, folder 36

Index XVIIa, Folder 8

Reference: See agent Bint's 1917 report on Inessa Armand in VIk, folder 5

Index XVIIa, Folder 9

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 61, 1903, on Anichkin, a student in St. Petersburg, involved in a plot with Lenin in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIIa, Folder 10

Reference: See outgoing telegram no. 224, January 9, 1916, advising that Lenin's courier "Liza" is departing Switzerland for Russia, in XIIIb(2), folder 8

Box: 197

b. Georgii Valentinovich Plekhanov

Scope and Contents Note

The collection of papers on this Marxist theoretician, founder of the Russian Social Democratic Party, and comrade and opponent of Lenin, dates from 1891 to 19l6. Folder No. 1 contains an assortment of various dispatches, while the documents in Folder No. 2, individually described, refer to his various activities, organizational work, funding, extraditions, and differences with the Bolshevik faction of the Party. Of considerable interest are the intercepted letters. As later with Lenin, Plekhanov had troubles with P. Lavrov, the anarchist leader in London. Also includes Headquarters circulars giving Plekhanov's physical description and photo- graph.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 1

Various dispatches referring to Plekhanov 1894-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2a

French surveillance agent reports on Plekhanov 1891

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2b

Letters on Plekhanov and his work 1892

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2c

Plans of the French government to deport Plekhanov and Selikrevskii 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2d

Report that Plekhanov still visits Geneva 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2e

Plekhanov's intention to withdraw from the Party 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2f

Views of the Kostroma Committee regarding Plekhanov's desire to represent the Party at the International Socialist Bureau 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2g

Letter from Smirnov to Plekhanov in Geneva about Deutsch and Zasulich 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2h

Letter regarding a financial contribution for Plekhanov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2i

Okhrana's circular on Plekhanov with his photograph 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2j

Physical description of Plekhanov 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2k

Report that Burtsev and Plekhanov are planning to go to Russia 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2l

Plekhanov's letter on preparations for the Duma elections 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2m

Plekhanov's letter on non-recognition of Lenin's Central Committee as the central organization of the Party 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2n

Report that Plekhanov enrolled in electricians' school in Paris 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2o

Report that Plekhanov arrived in Paris to organize a meeting of the conciliatory faction 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2p

Letter to Plekhanov concerning the "liquidation" theory and other party theories 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2q

Lecture delivered by Plekhanov on "The National Question and the Social Democrats" 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2r

Lecture entitled "War and the Social Democracy" delivered by Plekhanov in Lausanne 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2s

Report on the publication Edinstvo by Plekhanov 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2t

Dispatches concerning the whereabouts of Plekhanov 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 2u

Background and activities report on Plekhanov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIb, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 197

c. Leon Trotsky

Scope and Contents Note

The collection in Folder No. 1 covers the period from 1901 to 1917. The intercepted letters of Natalia and Lev Bronstein and those of Trotsky's wife are of particular interest, pertaining mostly to Party matters. Differences and reconciliations with Lenin are referred to in this as well as in individually inventoried documents in the second folder. Correspondence with the Socialists in the Duma, Trotsky's stay in the United States, his travels, and editorial work, particularly on Nashe Slovo are covered. Several Okhrana intercepts and copies include Trotsky's letters.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 1

Various dispatches and letters pertaining to Trotsky 1901-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2a

Report on RSDWP member Bronstein in Geneva and his relations with Helfand 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2b

Letters from "Sasha" in St. Petersburg to her husband Trotsky in Vienna 1908-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2c

Letter from Trotsky in Kiev to de Montbrand in Lausanne 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2d

Data on Trotsky's wife 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2e

Letter from Trotsky in Vienna to Duma deputy Pokrovskii 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2f

Report of the Nikolaevsk Okhrana chief on Trotsky, his wife, and other revolutionaries 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2g

Report of the Odessa Okhrana chief on Trotsky and his wife 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2h

Letters from an unidentified writer to Akselrod in Zurich and Trotsky in Vienna on the German Social Democratic Party conference 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2i

Letter from Trotsky in Vienna to the editor of Luch 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2j

Trotsky's letter to Duma member Chkheidze praising his speeches and commenting on Leninism 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2k

Report that Trotsky arrived in Paris 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2l

Trotsky's speech in Paris on "The Defense of the Homeland" 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2m

Trotsky's speech in a workers' club in Paris 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2n

Bint's report on Trotsky's activities 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2o

Report on Chernov and Trotsky touring Switzerland and agitating for the cessation of the war 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2p

Report on the pro-German stance of Trotsky's newspaper Nashe slovo 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2q

Bint's report revealing Trotsky as an Austrian agent 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2r

Meeting of the Committe for the Resumption of International Relations and Trotsky's role in it 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2s

Documents pertaining to the deportation of Trotsky from France 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2t

Documents pertaining to Trotsky's efforts to obtain a Swiss visa 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2u

Moscow millionaire Shakhov's offer of financial assistance to Trotsky 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2v

Agent Bint's reports on Trotsky 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2w

Letter from Trotsky to his friends in New York 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2x

Arrival of Trotsky and his family in New York 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2y

Report on Trotsky as the editor of Nashe slovo

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 2z

Official Okhrana circulars on Trotsky

Note

Available on microfilm reel 358
Index XVIIc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIc, Folder 4

Reference: See reports on Trotsky's daily newspaper Nashe slovo and on the polemics of its banning, in XVIIr(1)

Index XVIIc, Folder 5

Reference: See report on Nashe slovo for 1916, banned as being pro-German, in VIIIb, folder 3

Box: 197-198

d. Vladimir L'vovich Burtsev

Scope and Contents Note

This extensive collection is the most telling proof that Vladimir Burtsev and his work represented a continuous and important target for the Okhrana in Paris. A competent writer, propagandist, and advocate of terror and assassination as a means leading to revolution, he developed also an active revolutionary counter-intelligence with the purpose of exposing Okhrana agents and discrediting the Okhrana as an establishment in European countries. In this connection, many of the documents concerning Burtsev are also located under XXIVa and XXIVb, since the bulk of revolutionary intelligence and propaganda was either directed by Burtsev or closely affiliated with his functions.
Folder No. 1, in two sections, contains general materials of Burtsev, dispatches on him and his writings, copies of intercepted letters, various agent reports, etc. His functions and the contributions of Okhrana defector Mikhail Bakai in exposing Evno Azef are well covered, as is also Burtsev's exposure of Okhrana Chief Garting.
Folders Nos. 2 to 5 have documents concentrating on certain periods and events, as for instance, Folder No. 5, with papers on Burtsev's stay in Rumania and England, his imprisonments in London, and the case of agent Bullier. Folder No. 3, in two sections, for the period from 1899 to 1917 concentrates on Burtsev's work in Paris, revealing the nature of the revolutionary police and Burtsev's methods of intelligence operations and press campaigns. Surveillance reports on him and his intelligence service are dated from 1906 to 1914.
Folder No. 4 covers the Okhrana's attempts to have Burtsev and his group deported from France, while the last folder (No. 5) contains information on his return to Russia, official trial records, intercepted correspondence from the jail, disposal of his archive and personal effects in Paris, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 359-361
Index XVIId, Folder 1

Miscellaneous documents including intercepted letters, dispatches, and agent reports pertaining to Burtsev and the defector Mikhail Bakai 1890-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 359
Index XVIId, Folder 2

Documents on Burtsev's stay in Romania and England, his arrest and imprisonment in London, and the case against agent Charlotte Bullier 1890-1899

Note

Available on microfilm reel 360
Index XVIId, Folder 3

Collection of papers pertaining to Burtsev's work in Paris; Burtsev's revolutionary police; publication of Budushchee; detailed Okhrana report on his mode of operation; his press campaign against Garting and the Paris Okhrana; collections of surveillance reports on Burtsev; Burtsev's trip to the United States 1899-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reels 360-361
Index XVIId, Folder 4

Dispatches and reports concerning the Okhrana's attempts to have Burtsev deported from France 1904, 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIId, Folder 5

Documents pertaining to Burtsev's imprisonment in Russia: official trial records, intercepted correspondence between the imprisoned Burtsev and Paris concerning the disposition of his personal affairs in Paris 1914-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIId, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIId, Folder 7

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 17, January 24, 1903, regarding Burtsev and Krakov in the Socialist Revolutionary Fighting Unit, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 8

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 42, July 16, 1903, on Burtsev's role in the plot to assassinate the Minister of the Interior, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 9

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 62, December 4, 1903, on Burtsev in England and Switzerland, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 10

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 94, July 15, 1905, concerning Burtsev and Krakov, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIId, Folder 11

Reference: For letters addressed to Burtsev and reports on his accusations against Okhrana censorship and perlustration, see Xc

Index XVIId, Folder 12

Reference: For reports on Jollivet's assignments on Burtsev and Leroy, 1914-1915, see VIk, folder 33

Index XVIId, Folder 13

Reference: See Charlotte Bullier's personnel file for reports on her contacts with Burtsev, in IIIe, folder 3

Index XVIId, Folder 14

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 166, January 21, 1903, for instructions concerning surveillance over Krakov between Bern and the Russian border, in XIIIc(3), folder 14

Index XVIId, Folder 15

Reference: See outgoing telegram, June 2, 1903, informing of a secret courier en route from Burtsev to St. Petersburg, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 16

Reference: See outgoing telegram, November 12, 1903, advising that Burtsev is about to publish the fifth issue of Narodovolets, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIId, Folder 17

Reference: See outgoing telegram, March 23, 1904, advising that Burtsev and Krakov left Paris secretly for an unknown destination, in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Index XVIId, Folder 18

Reference: See outgoing telegram, June 15, 1904, advising that Burtsev is expecting an event of grave consequences to take place in Russia, in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Box: 198

e. Grigory Yevseyevich Zinovyev

Scope and Contents Note

A large number of documents pertain to this important Bolshevik leader, closest associate of Lenin, writer, and orator. However, most of the Okhrana dispatches pertaining to his work and activities deal also with other top revolutionaries and have therefore been placed under various other index numbers. (See the cross-reference sheet in Folder No. 6. )

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 1

Letter from Zinovyev in Paris to Mlle. Levin in St. Petersburg about the publication of a magazine 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 2

Letter from Zinovyev in Paris to Duma member Poletaiev regarding the placement of a newspaper announcement 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 3

Zinovyev's brochure "Elections to the Fourth Duma and Our Tasks" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 4

Report that Zinovyev is in St. Petersburg 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 5

Okhrana circular on the background of Zinovyev ("Radomyslskii")

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIe, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 198

f. Pavel Nikolaevich Miliukov and Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky

Scope and Contents Note

The file on Miliukov consists of dispatches sent by Headquarters to the Paris Office, dating back to 1897 and giving his background and his contacts with Russian revolutionaries abroad. The Paris Office reported twice to Headquarters on Miliukov's comments on conditions which would assure the revolutionaries victory (May 1916) and on his meeting with Bulgarian minister Todorov (December 1916) in Lausanne. Miliukov was representing the Cadet Party in the Third and Fourth Dumas.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1a

Background information on Miliukov 1897

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1b

Letters from Soskis in Paris to Miliukov transmitting a manuscript for publication 1898

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1c

Dispatch giving background information on Miliukov 1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1d

Letter from Miliukov in London on his plans for a lecture tour of America 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1e

Memo advising that Miliukov left Russia again 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1f

Letter from "Shklovskaia" in London to Miliukov in St. Petersburg 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1g

Newspaper item titled "Les atrocitiés bulgares" on the role of Miliukov 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1h

Copy of La Courier Européen, co-published by Miliukov 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1i

On O. Masarik's correspondence with Miliukov 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1j

Clipping from L'Oeuvre with Miliukov's article 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1k

Report on Miliukov's meeting with Todorov 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 1l

Letter from Chaikovskii in London to Miliukov in Sofia requesting participation in a revolutionary publication

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2a

Political background of Kerensky 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2b

Letter to Kerensky asking for legal advice 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2c

Official Okhrana circulars on Kerensky 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 2d

Report on the activities of the "Russian Maritime Union" in London 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIf, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 198

g. Viktor Mikhailovich Chernov

Scope and Contents Note

Viktor M. Chernov, a prolific writer, was one of the most militant revolutionaries advocating terrorism. At the age of 24 he was in exile and at the head of the Socialist Revolutionary Central Committee in Paris, where he was constantly followed at close quarters by local Okhrana agents.
Arrested in October 1905 in Russia, which he entered illegally to edit a clandestine publication, Mysl, he fled abroad to become again a subject of surveillance. He maintained contacts with Gorky, Savinkov, Aleksinskii, and attended the Socialist Revolutionary Congress in London in 1908.
It was during the War that Chernov attained the peak of his importance as a revolutionary. A Paris report of November 1914 underlines his extremely energetic action among the revolutionaries in Paris, who felt caught between party allegiance and patriotic feelings, for serving purely revolutionary aims.
The Paris Office reported in 1915 that, in his anti-tsarism and anti-militarism, Chernov went so far as to merit the label of a Germanophile. Supported by Martov, he advocated the defeat of Russia and preached alliance with the German socialists.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 361-362
Index XVIIg, Folder 1

Intercepted letters to and from Chernov and his wife; Okhrana dispatches on Chernov and his group; agent surveillance reports 1903-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 361
Index XVIIg, Folder 2a

Surveillance reports on Chernov by agent Fehrenbach 1900

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2b

Letter to Chernov from Goldstein containing Shimel' Sikorskii's biography, one of Pleve's assassins 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2c

Letters from Kropotkin and other individuals 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2d

Chernov reports on a Petersburg meeting which included the participation of the Socialist Revolutionaries and Kadets 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2e

Plans to assassinate the Tsar, prepared by the Fighting Unit and involving Chernov 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2f

Chernov's reports on Iudelevskii's theories and the London Conference 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2g

Arrival of Chernov's wife in St. Petersburg 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2h

Circular on Chernov with photograph 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2i

Chernov's comments on the booklet "Conclusions of the Azef Affair Investigation Commission" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2j

Drafts of Savinkov's letters to Chernov 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2k

Arrival of Chernov in Paris from Italy to participate in discussions of a split in the Socialist Revolutionary Party 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2l

Report that Chernov does not belong to the extreme left wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2m

Lecture delivered by Chernov in Paris on "The Moral Problem in Ropshin's [Savinkov's] novels" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2n

Lecture delivered by Chernov in Paris on the "Current Political Situation in Russia" 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2o

Letters to and from Chernov and his wife 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2p

Report on Chernov's mother 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2q

Report that Chernov is in Italy, not engaged in revolutionary work 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2r

Dispatches and drafts for reports on Chernov's activities during the war, his propaganda to defeat Russia, editorial work, lectures, etc. 1914-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2s

Lecture on "Evaluation of the Zimmerwald Conference" 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2t

Official Okhrana circular on Chernov 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 2u

Report on Chernov and Martov in a Germanophile, anti-militarist campaign 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIg, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIg, Folder 4

Reference: See outgoing telegram, April 15, 1904, advising that Sazonov had spent two months with Chernov in Geneva in XIIIb(2), folder 3

Box: 198

h. Mikhail Rafailovich Gots

Scope and Contents Note

Gots emigrated from Russia in 1900 with an impressive political record as a terrorist and devoted member of the Socialist Revolutionary party. Upon his arrival in Paris in early 1901, he established close contacts with Chernov, Rubanovich, Rappoport, and Gavronsky and became the subject of surveillance by the Paris Okhrana, who followed him to Nice, Rome (where he was arrested), and Geneva, where he settled in 1903. Soon all activities of the Socialist Revolutionary party abroad centered around Gots's home. After his death in Berlin in 1906, his wife Vera continued to be active in the Socialist Revolutionary ranks until 1916.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Mikhail Gots and his wife 1902-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2a

Reports on Gots and agents Fehrenbach and Bint 1901

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2b

Draft of a report to Headquarters 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2c

Report on Gots's arrest in Italy 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2d

Report on Gots in Geneva 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2e

Clippings on Gots's particular view of terrorism 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2f

Report on Gots's illness 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2g

Terrorist Ivanov summoned by Gots to Geneva to plan an act of terror 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2h

Perlustrated correspondence of Gots and his wife Vera 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2i

Funeral arrangements for Mikhail Gots 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2j

Gots's funeral in Geneva 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2k

Circular on Vera Gots 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2l

Vera Gots's plans to go to Russia 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2m

Agent Durin's reports on Vera Gots 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2n

Agent Bint's reports on Vera Gots 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 2o

Perlustrated letter from Vera Gots 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIh, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIh, Folder 4

Reference: See outgoing telegram, March 16, 1903, on attempts to arrest Gots in Italy, in XIIIb(2), folder 2

Index XVIIh, Folder 5

Reference: See outgoing telegram, September 11, 1906, report that Gots is dead, in XIIIb(2), folder 4

Box: 199

i. Boris Viktorovich Savinkov

Scope and Contents Note

Boris Savinkov, Socialist Revolutionary terrorist, was a key figure plotting the assassination of Minister of the Interior Pleve in 1904 and of the Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich in 1905, thereby gaining the attention of the Okhrana, which continued throughout his revolutionary career abroad, despite the fact that his importance as a revolutionary terrorist dwindled considerably after the two assassinations mentioned above.
The dispatches in the last folder of this series give accounts of the changes that took place in this Savinkov. Once a ruthless schemer of assassinations, he first lost his fervor in drinking and reckless living. When sobering up, he became opposed to terror as a revolutionary method and when the war came he practically broke away from revolutionary activities by engaging in war correspondence.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 362-365
Index XVIIi, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes, and reports on Savinkov 1904-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 362
Index XVIIi, Folder 2a

Okhrana circular on Savinkov's background

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2b

Agent Fehrenbach's report on Savinkov 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2c

Savinkov's police record 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2d

Savinkov working in Tiflis 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2e

Savinkov located in Tiflis 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2f

Report in German on the arrival of Savinkov in Copenhagen from Finland 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2g

Report on Savinkov in Paris, perlustrated letters, including letter from his mistress breaking off their relationship 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2h

Agent Durin's surveillance reports on Savinkov from Paris, Villefranche, and Genoa 1908-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2i

Savinkov and his mistress, Evgeniia Somova, in Paris 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2j

Savinkov's withdrawal from revolutionary work 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2k

Savinkov's trip to Brussels 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2l

Report on difficulties maintaining surveillance over Savinkov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2m

Incident between Savinkov and Okhrana surveillance agent 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2n

Official Okhrana circulars on Savinkov, one with a photograph 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2o

Okhrana's interest in Savinkov's mother 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2p

Physical description of Savinkov 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2q

Savinkov's suspicions of provocation in the Socialist Revolutionary Party 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2r

Incident involving false information on Savinkov's presence in Frankfurt 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2s

Savinkov's trip to Berlin and re-entry into the Fighting Unit 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2t

Letter from Savinkov to his wife Vera in St. Petersburg 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2u

Savinkov's sudden departure from Paris 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2v

Revolutionaries collecting money to organize the assassination of the Tsar and Stolypin 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2w

Agent Andre's surveillance reports on Savinkov in Monte-Carlo 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2x

Agent Pouchot's surveillance reports on Savinkov 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2y

Agent Robail's surveillance reports on Savinkov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 2z

Agent Lecointe's surveillance reports on Boris and Sofiia Savinkov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 3a

Report on Savinkov and other top terrorists 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 363
Index XVIIi, Folder 3b

Surveillance reports by Vogt and Lecointe on Sofiia Savinkov at Menton 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 364
Index XVIIi, Folder 3c

Okhrana circular with Savinkov's physical description 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 364
Index XVIIi, Folder 3d

Agent Bittard-Monin's reports on Savinkov 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3e

Agent Aubert's surveillance of Savinkov 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3f

Savinkov and entourage at Monte-Carlo 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3g

Savinkov's contacts and activities 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3h

Savinkov's withdrawal from the Fighting Unit 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3i

Report on preparations to keep Savinkov under constant surveillance 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3j

Letter from Savinkov to his wife in Paris about family matters 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3k

Correspondence between Savinkov in Théoule and Kolosov in Cavi di Lavagna 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3l

Note and drafts in Savinkov's handwriting 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3m

Draft letter in Savinkov's handwriting to Fundaminskii 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3n

Savinkov's stay in Paris 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3o

Mme. Richard's surveillance reports on Savinkov 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3p-3q

Agent Fontaine's reports on Savinkov 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3r

Agent Vogt's reports from Cannes and San Remo 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3s

Agent Sauvard's reports on Savinkov and Somova in Paris and Cannes 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3t

Savinkov-Malmberg's salvaged correspondence 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3u

Natanson as Savinkov's adversary 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3v

Agent Barthes's surveillance reports from San Remo 1912-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3w

Savinkov's opposition to terrorism 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3x

Report on the techniques used to maintain surveillance over Savinkov 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3y

Two samples of Savinkov's handwriting 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 3z

Two personal letters 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4a

Agent Delangle's surveillance reports from Nice 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4b

Dispatch and three letters by Savinkov 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4c

Agent Bint's surveillance reports from Paris 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4d

Reports on Savinkov's activities 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 4e

Savinkov as a war correspondent 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIi, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIi, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 85, May 13, 1904, in which Savinkov is reported in Russia, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XVIIi, Folder 7

Reference: See circulars on Savinkov's fellow conspirators, 1909-1912, in XVIb(4), folder 4

Index XVIIi, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 294, March 20, 1909, with instructions for strict surveillance of Savinkov, in XIIIc(3), folder 28

Box: 200

j. Roman Malinovskii

Scope and Contents Note

Roman Malinovskii was a Tsarist police agent and a Bolshevik representative in the Duma who subsequently resigned from the Duma and went to Germany in 1914. The documents yielded by the Okhrana Archives on Malinovskii cover the period from December 1913 to August 1914 and consist of copies of two intercepted letters to Malinovskii, one intercepted letter mentioning him, and a number of dispatches on his resignation from the Duma and presence in Paris and on the accusations of provocation leveled against him by the Social Democratic faction.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIj, Folder 1

Dispatches and Malinovskii's intercepted correspondence 1913-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIj, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 200

k. Aleksandr Antonovich Troianovskii

Scope and Contents Note

Aleksandr Troianovskii joined the revolutionary movement in 1902 and the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1904. He was exiled to Siberia in 1909, escaping abroad in 1910. He joined the RSDWP Central Committee and attended the 1912 congress in Basel as a delegate. The documents on Troianovskii consist of copies of intercepted letters to Troianovskii along with dispatches on his background and activities.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIk, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning Troianovskii and intercepted letters addressed to him 1913-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIk, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 200

l. Meer Wallach (Maksim Litvinov)

Scope and Contents Note

Maksim Litvinov (Wallach, "Papasha," "Feliks") became a member of the Social Democratic Party in 1898. He traveled throughout Europe and was a key figure in the attempts by the revolutionaries to change 500 ruble bank notes obtained in the Tiflis holdup. Litvinov was also very active in smuggling operations of the revolutionaries supplying revolutionaries in Russia with weapons.
The documents on Litvinov are arranged in chronological order in both folders and consist of outgoing and incoming dispatches as well as raw reports from agents in the field. They cover Litvinov's gunrunning activities, his attempts to exchange 500 ruble bank notes stolen in Tiflis, and his involvement in a bomb-making workshop. Also included are several copies of intercepted letters from Litvinov. On Litvinov's participation in arms smuggling and "expropriation" banditries, also see XXIVh and XXVc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes and telegrams pertaining to Wallach (Litvinov)

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2a

Wallach (Litvinov) in Russia 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2b

Methods of transferring money to Wallach (Litvinov) in Berlin for the purchase of weapons 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2c

Letters from Wallach (Litvinov) concerning money for arms purchases 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2d

Perlustrated and transcribed letters 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2e

Letters from Wallach (Litvinov) in Brussels on arms struggling 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2f

Letters from Litvinov on the purchase of arms to smuggle into Russia 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2g

Departure for St. Petersburg to raise 30,000 marks for arms 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2h

Case of security violation in handling information about Litvinov 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2i

Litvinov's activities in Vienna and Bulgaria 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2j

Report of the Berlin police chief on Wallach (Litvinov) 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2k

Plans to go to St. Petersburg and Moscow 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2l

Wallach's (Litvinov's) role in changing 500 ruble bank notes stolen in the Tiflis robbery and attempts by the Russian government to extradite him to France 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2m

Deportation of Wallach (Litvinov) from France to England 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2n

Reports from London Okhrana agents on Litvinov as a German spy 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2o

Litvinov's wartime activities in London 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 2p

Draft report on Litvinov as a German spy 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIl, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIl, Folder 4

Reference: For a report on Litvinov's talks with Krassin on counterfeiting bank notes, 1907, see XXVc, folder 2L

Box: 200

m. Leonid Borisovich Krasin

Scope and Contents Note

This collection includes three circulars issued by Headquarters, with photographs, personal data and the revolutionary record of Leonid Krasin ("Nikitich"), dispatches, and a note in German with his address in Zellendorf, near Berlin.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 1

Okhrana circulars on Krasin ("Nikitich") with photograph, report on general background, and request for surveillance 1909, 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 2

Krasin's address in Berlin

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 3

Request to interrogate "Nikitich," arrested in Moscow, but not to expose secret agentura abroad 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 4

Identification of Social Democrat "Vadim" (Postalovskii) as equal in importance to Nikitich 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 5

Report on Krasin in Paris 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 365
Index XVIIm, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Index XVIIm, Folder 7

Reference: For reprot on Litvinov's talks with Krasin on counterfeiting bank notes, 1907, see XXVc, folder 2L

Box: 200-201

n. Other important revolutionaries

Scope and Contents Note

This collection is a continuation of the separate file kept by the Okhrana on revolutionaries whose activities warranted, at one time or another, special watchfulness. Of significance in this collection are the mimeographed Headquarters circulars giving a biographic account of these individuals and their political and police records. Many of the circulars also attach photographs. Two bound collections of the circulars are enclosed in Folder No. 8, together with indices of names. The entire set in Folders Nos. 1 to 6 is arranged in alphabetical order, with the names listed in the inventory of contents.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 366-368
Index XVIIn, Folder 

Circulars and reports in alphabetical order

Index XVIIn, Folder 1

A-F

Scope and Contents note

Includes Agabekov, Akselrod, Akshtein, Akulov, Aleksinskii, Andrikanis, Argunov, Avksentiev, Babaev, von Bach, Balivich, Bartenev, Berdo, Bernstein, Birzhishko, Borisov, Braginskii, Breshkovskaia, Buchholtz, Butkevich, Bychkovskii, Cherevanin, Chernenkov, Cherniavskii, Chernov (Vladimir), Chicherin, Chichinadze, Chkheidze, Deich (Deutsch), Dekabrev, Denisenko, Denisov, Dombrovskii, Donskoi, Dubrovinskii, Durko, Elanchik, Fabrikant, Fedorov, Feit, Figner,Frolenko, and Fundaminskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 366
Index XVIIn, Folder 2

G-K

Scope and Contents note

Includes Gavronskaia, Galkin, Galperin, Gedeonovskii, Gershuni, Glotov, Goguelia, Goldsmith, Gonecki, Gurvich, Igaev, Il'in, Iogikhes, Ionov, Izbitskii, Karskii, Karpovich, Khovrin, Klimova, Kochetkova, Koigen, Kollontai, Komorskii, Kopel'zon, Kovalenko, Kozlova, Kropotkin, Kudriavstev, and Kukhranov

Note

Available on microfilm reel 366
Index XVIIn, Folder 3

L

Scope and Contents note

Includes Lagunov, Lanne, Lazarev, Lebedev, Lechenev, Leder, Levin, Listov, Liubin, Lopatin, Lorinskii, Lukanov (see also Lechenev), Lunacharskii (Lunacharsky), and Lunkevich

Note

Available on microfilm reel 367
Index XVIIn, Folder 4

M-P

Scope and Contents note

Includes Maksimov, Malantovich, Malinovskii, Malstev, Mandelstam, Mankovskii, Martov, Maslov, Mdivani, Medem, Meerovich, Meisner, Menkes, Medvednikov, Mikelson, Mikhalkovskii, Minor, Moiseenko, Mokhov, Molochnikov, Mrost, Nakhamkis, Natanson, Naumov, Nesterovskii, Nikol'skaia, Nosar', Nudel'man, Ovsiannikov, Ozol', Pelipeiko, Piker, Podwicki, Poletaev, Popov, Portnov, Potapov, Potresov, and Povilus

Note

Available on microfilm reel 367
Index XVIIn, Folder 5

R-S

Scope and Contents note

Includes Rabinovich, Rakhmilevich, Rakitnikov, Ramishvili, Rikhter, Rosenblum, Rozenfeld, Rubanovich, Sasha(?), Seiliger, Seliuk, Sereda, Serezhnikov, Shantser, Shapiro, Shestakov, Shishkin, Shishko, Shliapnikov, Shtammer, Shuliatikov, Shweidt, Sissoev (Sysoev), Skipotis, Skrypnik, Sklowski, Sladkopevtsev, Slepov, Sletov, Sokolov, Solomonovich, Soskis, Speranskii, Starynkevich, Starosel'skii, and Stiglis

Note

Available on microfilm reel 368
Index XVIIn, Folder 6

T-Z

Scope and Contents note

Includes Teplov, Tkachenko, Todorov, Troitskii, Ulianov (Aleksand