NAGA Report
Volume 1
Scientific Results of Marine Investigations of the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand 1959–1961
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NAGA Expedition: Station Index and Data

by

James L. Faughn[1]

The University of California Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California
1974

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The late Anton Fr. Bruun with students in Bangkok
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The RV Stranger on the Chao Phya River, Thailand
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The author and participating scientists aboard the RV Stranger
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The author aboard the RV Stranger off the coast of South Viet Nam


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Introduction

The Naga Expedition of 1959–1961 was one of a series of efforts on the part of the Government of the United States of American to cooperate in the development of the resources of Southeast Asia. Under a general economic accordance with the Governments of Thailand and South Viet Nam a supplementary tripartite agreement was reached early in 1958 to conduct an exploratory survey of the marine resources potentially available for development in the Gulf of Thailand and in that portion of the South China Sea adjacent to South Viet Nam[2] and to train marine scientists and technicians of the two Southeast Asian countries.

To implement its part of the agreement the United States Government invited the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (S.I.O.), University of California, to submit a proposal for such an investigation, including technical direction, research staff and a suitable oceanographic research vessel. Professor Roger R. Revelle, Director of S.I.O. at the time, submitted a proposal through the Regents of the University of California to the International Cooperation Administration (ICA). This proposal resulted in a Letter-of-Agreement which became effective on May 7, 1959. On August 26, 1960, a contract embodying and implementing the terms of the original agreement was negotiated.

Financial support for the project from the United States was supplied through this contract. A portion was subcontracted by the Regents of the University of California to the George Vanderbilt Foundation (GVF) of Stanford University. Thai and South Viet Namese participation and facilities were funded by the respective governments and participating universities. Subsequent support has been supplied from the University of California general funds and grants from the Office of Naval Research (O.N.R.), the U.S. Public Health Service (U.S.P.H.S.), the George Vanderbilt Foundation and, more recently, the National Science Foundation (N.S.F.).

Two independent advisory bodies were established to assist in the planning, coordination and execution of the project. The first, established by the terms of the agreement between the three cooperating countries, consisted of representatives of Thailand, South Viet Nam and respective branches of the United States Operations Mission (U.S.O.M.) and was called the "Coordinating Committee". The second body, known as the "Southeast Asia Panel", was an S.I.O. campus committee established by Director Revelle. It consisted of members of the staff and campus-associated agencies including the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and California Marine Life Research Program. The Project Officer of the expedition worked closely with these two groups and directed programs in the field.

The principal objectives of the project were as follows:

  • 1. "To demonstrate the importance of oceanography and marine biology in relation to fisheries."
  • 2. "To train oceanographic and fisheries scientists and technicians, to develop scientific understanding and appreciation and to accelerate the progress of science in the Gulf of Thailand and adjacent portions of the South China Sea."
  • 3. "To lay scientific and administrative groundwork for early and continued development of marine resources in the Gulf of Thailand and adjacent portions of the South China Sea."

The agreement further stated:

"Major effort will be placed on carrying out the kind of basic studies which will be of value to the Southeast Asians over the next several decades. These studies will lead to an understanding of the


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oceanography of the region, including the circulation, methods of enrichment, primary productivity and to the nature, distribution and abundance of the important marine resources.

A lesser, but equally important, effort will be placed on recognizing and acting on a specific problem, or problems, in the solution of which it is possible to demonstrate the practical applications of scientific findings.

To the extent possible, shipboard facilities will be provided for local scientific personnel to work as an integral part of the research group. Also, to the extent possible, resident staff members and visiting specialists will cooperate with local institutions such as the Chulalongkorn University and the University of Saigon in giving a series of lectures or short-term courses in their specialties. Scientific results arising from this project will be published in local and other suitable journals when feasible. In any case, summaries will be published locally."

The George Vanderbilt Foundation at Stanford University was asked to establish a program directed toward a marine faunal survey of the Gulf of Thailand and adjacent regions. This would include especially the preparation of a well documented collection of fishes. The collection would be deposited eventually in the United States and the Southeast Asian repositories where it would be available to biologists for study and loan.

It was planned that the Gulf of Thailand and adjacent portions of the South China Sea would be surveyed in a descriptive manner during the first year. The extent of the area would be determined by scientifically significant, rather than geographical, boundaries. In the second year monitoring cruises would be made as required to determine how typical were the conditions of the first year. Additional cruises, designed to attack specific problems raised by the descriptive studies and to train personnel, would be made.

The general plan of operation called for the expedition vessel to work alternately in the Gulf of Thailand and in the South China Sea on a seasonal basis predicated by the major climatic phenomena, the northeast and the southwest monsoons. These climatic regimens largely control environmental factors such as the ocean currents, temperature, precipitation and runoff. While these phenomena follow a roughly uniform pattern from year to year, there are significant variations in their onset, intensity and duration. There is even greater variation in the periods of transition between reversals of the system. Because of this and other factors, the final details of cruise schedules were not established in advance of the vessel's arrival in the area.

The RV Stranger, a 325-ton research vessel of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, was to conduct the principal field investigations. Other ships and small craft were supplied through the courtesy of the Department of Fisheries of Thailand, the Royal Thai Navy and the Institut Oceanographique de Nhatrang, South Viet Nam. In addition to sea-going operations, collections were made at fish markets and fish landings in both Thailand and South Viet Nam.

Field work of the project began with the departure of the Stranger from San Diego, California, on June 15, 1959, and terminated with its return there on June 24, 1961. The regular survey cruises of the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea were begun following a short orientation course for participating nationals, including a nine-day cruise in the Gulf of Thailand in September, 1959; eleven survey cruises were completed before the vessel began its return to the United States in 1961.

Laboratory analyses, begun in 1959 on the collections of animals, including fish and planktonic forms and on the samples of bottom sediments, have continued. References are included in the Literature Cited and are indicated with an asterisk. Analysis and interpretation of physical, chemical, topographic and meteorological data have been made. Many of the studies have been or will be published by the Naga Report series of the University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California (of which this is Volume 1); several have been published elsewhere.

It is the purpose of this volume to provide a chronological list of all research activities carried out on the Stranger during the expedition: the voyage to Southeast Asia and the eleven survey cruises and the return voyage East. It is intended to give as much data, collected, processed and analyzed, as is feasible, or to


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indicate, where not given, how the information (or collections) may be retrieved by interested researchers. That which does not appear here, but is none-the-less important, is the effect of the education of students, trainees, technicians and scientists from the three participating countries in the fields of Oceanography, Marine Biology and Marine Geology.

The total number of these participants was sixty-nine of whom fifty-eight were from Thailand and South Viet Nam. Of the latter group 57% made two or more cruises; 28% made four or more cruises. Nearly all who participated in four or more survey cruises were selected for four additional months of experience. For three months of this time the participants filled staff billets on board the Stranger during her return voyage to the United States. Following this, they spent two to four weeks at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography before returning home. Thus sixteen persons, 28% of the total number from the two participating countries, were gaining experience in the marine sciences for periods of twelve to twenty-four months.

Acknowledgments

Administrative headquarters for the expedition were provided by the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok, who also provided freezer storage space at the Bangkok Fish Market, laboratory space and technical help at the Department of Fisheries' Technical Laboratory, ship personnel (diesel engineer) as well as field trainees and technicians. Instructors from the College of Fisheries at Kasetsart University (Bangkok) participated in the field work on the RV Stranger, in the laboratory work at Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok), and at the George Vanderbilt Foundation laboratories in Bangkok.

The Royal Thai Navy assigned hydrographic technicians, officers and petty officers to act as crew as well as scientific assistants and trainees on the Stranger. The Hydrographic Department provided both laboratory space and personnel at Bangkok to perform all the routine chemical salinity determinations. These numbered several thousand from the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea. It also provided medical and hospital facilities, berthing and repair facilities at Bangkok and at Sattahip. Additional berthing facilities for the vessel at Bangkok were arranged by the Royal Thai Navy through the courtesy of the Marine Division, Department of Police.

The Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Science staff and students participated in the biological collection, preservation, sorting and identifications and made available laboratory, office and storage facilities in their Department of Biology. Seminars, training courses and special field cruises were also held or initiated there.

The George Vanderbilt Foundation established field headquarters, including laboratory space and staff housing facilities at Bangkok. The laboratory was equipped with photographic facilities and a staff of two photographers. Besides processing their own fish market and shore collections, this laboratory accepted for identification, classification and preservation the pelagic and demersal fishes collected by the Stranger.

The Institut Oceanographique de Nhatrang made available facilities and living accomodations on numerous occasions and provided the motor boat Mao Tien for ferry service and collection aid in the Bay of Nhatrang.

The University of Saigon hosted ship and personnel on all Saigon stops and provided trainees and personnel throughout the expedition.

As part of the invaluable contributions to the expedition by these institutions, one hundred eight staff or students took part in the expedition on the Stranger, eighty-three of whom participated in one or more of the regular survey cruises. The entire expedition was characterized by exceptional cooperation of all participants. The project leader wishes to make special mention of those who bore extra administrative and decision-making burdens in the field and whose ingenuity and patience finally made this pilot project survey a success:

  • Dr. Anton Fr. Bruun, University of Copenhagen and University of California
    Captain Amporn Penyapol, Hydrographic Office, Royal Thai Navy, Bangkok

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  • Mr. Boon Indrambarya, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok
    Professor Supachai Wanich Watana, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
    Rector Nguyen Quang Trinh, University of Saigon
    Dr. Le Van Thoi, University of Saigon

Participants in the Naga Expedition on the RV Stranger were:

  • Ba, Nguyen Van
  • Banasopit, Thien
  • Banner, Christopher
  • Blei, Raymond M.
  • Bolin, Dr. Rolf
  • Boonlapo, Bhaisal
  • Boonma, Bunya
  • Boonyuen, Vicharn
  • Brinton, Dr. Edward
  • Bruun, Dr. Anton Fr.
  • Buphavesa, Chaiyos
  • Calvert, Stephen
  • Chaitiamwong, Supachai
  • Chalernpol, Lt. Cmndr. Sawang
  • Chamsuksai, Bundith
  • Chomsukprakit, Bhinyo
  • Clampitt, Clanton W.
  • Curray, Dr. Joseph R.
  • Debananda, Lt. Sg. Chuta
  • Faughn, Capt. James L.
  • Gallardo, Ariel
  • Gonyea, Louis J.
  • Greenbaum, Richard H.
  • Hai, Nguyen
  • Haxo, Dr. Francis T.
  • Hongkolohandha, Ens. Suchat
  • Hoodharasint, Kosol
  • Indrambarya, Kanok
  • Jacobs, William S.
  • Kasijan
  • Khang, Nguyen Duc
  • King, M.
  • Knudsen, Dr. Jorgen
  • Llarco, M
  • Loi, Tran Ngoc
  • Luom, Nguyen Van
  • Matsui, Tetsui
  • Mero, Dr. John
  • Miller, Capt. Frank
  • Mingmitra, Chamnarn
  • Moodharasint, Kosol
  • Muus, D.
  • Nam, Sompong Mim
  • Nam, Tran Dinh
  • Na-Nagara, Yong Yudh
  • Nhon, Tran Dai
  • Nugulrak, Likit
  • Onnom, Songsukdi
  • Pankasem, Narong
  • Penyapol, Capt. Amporn
  • Phoonsavad, Sompong
  • Pinyoying, Sujet
  • Pirmoi, Sathuen
  • Piyakarnchana, Twesukdi
  • Potibutra, Wong
  • Prakitsri, Rangsarit
  • Quang, Tran Viet
  • Sach, Nguyen Van
  • Saichua, Pairat
  • Sainampuurg, Boonsong
  • Saisithi, Prasert
  • Saomain, Asani
  • Scholander, Dr. Per F.
  • Sdubbundhit, Lt., j.g. Cha-Erb
  • Serene, Dr. Raoul
  • Shipek, Carl J.
  • Smith, Charles H.
  • Smelser, Clifford E.
  • Songnark, Jumnong
  • Sripajumpiya, Bhaisal
  • Srivirojna, Lt., j.g. Amnuay
  • Subagjo
  • Suboon, Lt., j.g. Anan
  • Sunpanich, Thumnoon
  • Suwanarit, Prachuab
  • Tanthikul, Soontorn
  • Thien Tu Trinh
  • Thompson, Robert W.
  • Trac, Cao Xuan
  • Tu, Tran Van
  • Ucharatana, Chavalit
  • Vajrasthira, Chai
  • van Andel, Dr. Tj. H.
  • Van Landingham, John W.
  • Varothai, Siri
  • Veevers, J.J.
  • Villarta, R.
  • Wooster, Dr. Warren S.
  • Worawoothi, Pasok
  • Yamsri, Chala
  • Yuenyong, Satcha
  • ZoBell, Dr. Claude E.
  • ZoBell, Mrs. Jean S.

In addition to cruise participants were those specialists who came to Southeast Asia to give instruction in their respective fields or to give special laboratory or cruise-planning assistance: Dr. Theodore Chamberlain, Professor Eugene La Fond, Mrs. Margaret K. Robinson, Dr. Douglas L. Inman, Dr. Robert Parker, jr., Mrs. Marcia Rottman, Dr. Garth Murphy.

Members of the George Vanderbilt Foundation in Bangkok were: Dr. Adair Fehlmann, Mr. Herbert Frey and Dr. R. R. Rofen.

Also cooperating with the project through the auspices of the National Institutes of Health were Dr. Francis T. Haxo and Dr. Beatrice M. Sweeney.


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Methods of Collection and Observation

References to various sources in which descriptions of the procedures, methods and data-processing followed by the Naga Expedition are given below. Citations for specific literature (accompanied by an asterisk), whose content includes material from the Naga Expedition collections or data, are also provided.

I. Physical and Chemical

A. Collections and Observations

Serial hydrographic casts carrying three to thirteen Nansen bottles were lowered at each hydrographic station. Samples were then analyzed for oxygen, salinity and phosphate. Paired, protected reversing thermometers accompanied each Nansen bottle. In addition unprotected reversing thermometers were used with the protected ones at all depths greater than 100 m. Hydrographic casts were routinely made to within a few meters of the bottom in the Gulf of Thailand and in shelf waters off South Viet Nam. In the basin of the South China Sea, casts were to 1000 m and, at selected deep station, to 4000 m.

Bathythermograph (BT) records were obtained at each hydrographic station, at two equally spaced locations between consecutive hydrographic stations, at each special biological station and at observed current discontinuities.

Weather observations were made simultaneously with each BT observation and at special six-hour intervals on request by local weather offices. The observations included wind direction and speed, cloud types and coverage, humidity determination (wet and dry bulbs), barometric pressure and air temperature.

Surface water temperature was recorded with each BT observation using a "bucket" thermometer; surface water temperature as a continuous function of distance was recorded by thermograph.

Station positions were determined whenever possible by star sights, sun lines or by observations of terrestrial features. Dead reckoning, substantiated by soundings, was continually subject to adjustment as more precise fixes became available.

Bottom topography was recorded continuously on a Raytheon recording fathometer (Model de 705, Explorer).

Special observations include anchor stations occupied for hydrography over a lunar tidal day (Robinson, 1974a*), current and drift observations (Robinson, 1974a*, and Cruise S9 in this volume), extra BT observations, water sampling and net hauls in areas of known or suspected discontinuity, upwelling or notable phytoplankton concentration, surveys of topographical features and photography of observed surface phenomena.

B. Analyses and processing of Physical Data and Water Samples

The procedures for collecting, recording, analyzing and processing of data and of water samples were as described in U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Publication No. 607 (1968). The observed data for temperature, salinity, and oxygen and the computed data for T and t, are tabulated in the Appendix of this volume according to location, depth, wind, weather and sea state and wire angle for each hydrographic station. Specific information applicable to the data processing of the Naga Expedition cruises appears at the beginning of the Appendix.

The BT slides were photographed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Copies were distributed to the Royal Thai Navy Hydrographic Office, Bangkok, Thailand, the Institut Oceanographique de Nhatrang, South Viet Nam, and the United States National Oceanographic Data Center, Washington, D.C., and, although the individual BT traces will not be published, copies may be obtained upon request from S.I.O. or from N.O.D.C.

Dissolved oxygen concentration was determined for each water sample as it came on board ship. Salinity titrations were completed by the Royal Thai Navy personnel at their Hydrographic Department laboratory.

Water samples, obtained from Nansen bottles, were frozen on shipboard for subsequent dissolved phosphorous (PO4-P) analysis at shore laboratories. In spite of care taken in preserving the samples, replicate


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samples show a significant scatter and thus are considered to be unreliable. The apparent cause of the difficulties is as follows: Intermittent thawing of the samples may have occurred prior to analysis, leading to unanticipated bacterial activity. In addition, interaction between the samples and their plastic containers may have taken place so as to alter the initial PO4-P concentrations. For these reasons the values obtained are not considered sufficiently reliable to justify their publication. They are available upon request at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Wyrtki (1961) has already been cited for background material applicable to the general physical characteristics of the area. Robinson's (1974a* and 1974b*) physical studies are specifically of the Naga Expedition data. Parke, Emery, Szymankiewicz and Reynolds (1971) incorporate Naga Expedition data in a broad study of the continental margin structure.

II. Geological

Bottom sediments were collected with a small (N.E.L.) snap sampler and with a small Phleger corer (Niino and Emery, 1961* and Emery and Niino, 1963*). A 150-pound gravity corer was used on the Expedition in the open Pacific in conjunction with underwater camera photography (Mero, 1965*). Shell and chain dredges were used in the Timor Sea on cruise S11A (van Andel and Veevers, 1967*).

The geological collections made oneach cruise are indicated in the Station Index of each cruise under the column "Bio. Activity" (i.e., Phl. core, NEL, camera, grav. core, etc.); the sediment bottle number appears in the last column on the right. Both may be correlated with the Hydrographic Station number in the first column on the left.

Descriptions of sediments obtained in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea may be found following the Station Index for S1, S2 and S9A respectively (see also under III. Biological, Benthic Sampling). Equipment descriptions and handling techniques for the snap sampler and corer may be found in the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Publication No. 607 (1968).

III. Biological

Sampling was by various plankton net tows, various benthic grabs, trawls and dredges, and shore collections by rotenone poison. Collections were also made by hand methods such as hook-and-line, trolling, dip netting, bird or flying-fish on deck (FoD) or surface bottle sampling of phytoplankton blooms.

The Station Index for each cruise includes one column, "Bio. Activity" (occasionally "Geo. Activity"), indicating the type of collection made at each station, and each biological activity is indicated by a "Bio. Sta.__" (second column). The Biological Station Number (which in some cases appears on specimen labels) may be correlated with the Hydrographic Station Number (first column, "Hydro. Sta.__"). The last column on the right lists the S.I.O. fish collection number ("Fish No."; occasionally "NEL bottle No.").

Zooplankton samples are curated in the Scripps Zooplankton Collections at S.I.O. (Snyder and Fleminger, 1972) and at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok. Biological material sorted from grabs, trawls and dredges is curated at the Institut Oceanographique de Nhatrang and in the Scripps Invertebrate Collections. Fish collections are to be found in the Scripps Vertebrate Collections and at the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. In cases where biological material has already been studied, the author of the published work should be contacted (Naga Expedition collections or data in the Literature are indicated by an asterisk).

Studies including material from the Naga Expedition biological collections are: Alvarino (1967), Banner and Banner (1962 and 1966), Brinton (1961 and in press), Cherbonnier [1960 (1961)], Fauchald (1967), Gallardo (1967), Imbach (1967), Matsui (1970), Piyakarnchana (1962), Piyakarnchana and Vajropala (1961), Rofen (1963), Rottman (in press), Serene and Lohavanijaya (1973), Shiino (1963), Southeast Asia Research Program (1963), Stephenson (1967), Sudara (1971), Sweeney and Haxo (1961) and ZoBell (1961).

A. Plankton Sampling

The 1 m net tow was routinely used for the collection of zooplankton. The mouth is circular, 1 m in width and 0.79 m2 in area. The netting forms a cylinder for a distance of 1 m behind the mouth which is followed by a


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cone about 4 m long. The cone terminates in a removable cod end bag. The mesh width of the net is 0.65 mm and of the cod end, 0.3 mm.

Standard procedure for towing is along an oblique transect of the water column with the vessel moving at 1.5–2 knots. The course is usually with the wind on the starboard bow, the wire and net leading out from a davit on the starboard or windward side. A weight of 100 pounds, the same used for the hydrographic casts, is attached to the end of the towing wire. The net's towing line is clamped to the wire at a distance of 5–10 m above the weight. Timing of the tow begins when the net enters the water. The wire is paid out at 50 m/min. until the desired length of wire is out, usually 200 m when the water depth permits. The net is then retrieved at a constant speed of 20 m/min. The ship's speed is regulated in the course of the tow so that the wire maintains an angle of approximately 45° with the vertical. This assures that the net moves at a constant speed through the water.

A list of the 1 m net tows made on the Naga Expedition follows the Station Index for each cruise. (The Hydrographic Station Number in the first column may be used to locate the station data in the Appendix.) The depth of haul (m) was calculated from the amount of towing wire paid out and the angle of the wire with the vertical (usually approximately 45°): Maximum depth of Net = (wire paid out) (cosine of wire angle) While towing, the wire approximated a straight line (Smith and Ahlstrom, 1948).

For estimation of the volume of water (m3) strained by the net a TSK flow meter was mounted in the center of the mouth of the net. The volume of water filtered by the net for each tow was calculated, not read directly from the flow meter. The meter was initially calibrated by being raised vertically for a known distance through the water while clamped to the hydrographic wire while the vessel was stopped. The meter was raised at the approximate speed to be used in towing—about 2 knots. The number of revolutions made by the meter's impeller per unit distance raised was the calibration factor used in estimating the horizontal distance traversed by the net in the course of the standard oblique plankton tows:

figure
Equation

The net usually strained about 300–400 m3 of water during a standard haul with 200 meters of wire out (MWO). Tows were of shorter duration in the Gulf of Thailand and over the Sunda Shelf.

Data presented for the net tows made on cruises S11A and S11B include depth of haul as "meters of wire out" (MWO). An approximation of the actual depth of the tow may be calculated by multiplying MWO by the cosine of 45°. Similarly, an estimation of the volume of water strained by the net is not included for S11A and S11B. An approximation of this value may be obtained by assuming 20 m3 of water to be strained for each minute of towing time.

Plankton volume was measured for each sample taken on cruises S1 through S10 and was standardized to 1000 m3 of water strained. Volumes were obtained by the wet displacement method. The preserving fluid was


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drained off through a piece of bolting cloth having the same mesh width as the cod end of the net. The moist plankton was then added to a known volume of pure fluid, the resulting volume being then equal to wet plankton plus fluid.

Sky conditions are considered relevant to zooplankton data particularly in view of the vertical migrations preferred by a number of species and the ability of others to avoid capture in daylight. The amount of sky covering is tabulated in tenths of a scale of 1 to 10. Cloud types are listed using the abbreviations noted in U.S. Naval Oceanographic Publication No. 607 (1968).

The ½ m net refers to the Marotoku plankton net the use of which on the Naga Expedition was discussed in Brinton, et. al. (*1961). The net is actually of 45 cm mouth diameter and the mesh aperture width is 0.32 mm. The net was hauled vertically from a depth near the sea floor or from 200 m when sea-depth permitted. This net proved suitable for the collection of an array of organisms of a somewhat smaller size than those retained by the 1 m net which has twice the mesh aperture width.

The 20 cm, or phytoplankton, net has a mouth diameter of 20 cm and a mesh aperture width of 0.14 mm. Sampling by vertical haul, this net was used for the collection of the smaller zooplankton and the larger phytoplankton cells.

The 2 m stramin net is a large ring net with a mouth diameter of 212 cm and a mesh width of approximately 1 mm. The side length of the net bag is about 720 cm. It was towed nightly at the surface behind the ship with 100–200 m of wire out at a speed of 2–3 knots. Deeper oblique hauls to about 400 m were routinely made at six to eight stations per cruise in the oceanic South China Sea area.

The micro-nekton samples collected with the 2 m net were sorted in the biological laboratory at Chulalongkorn University. Major categories were sorted; e.g., fishes, pteropod molluscs, squid, euphausiid crustaceans, decapods, amphipods, pelagic tunicates. Smaller organisms such as chaetognaths and copepods were retained in the unsorted residue.

The 2 m net tows are listed in the Station Index for each cruise where they occur in chronological order of station activities (see column headed "Bio. Activity"). They are designated serially by cruise for cruises S3, S4, S6, S7, S8, S9, S9A, S10, S11 (all); i.e., S3-201, S3-202...,S4-201, S4-202..., etc. Those taken en route to Southeast Asia and on cruises S1, S2 and S5 bear only their hydrographic and/or biological station number (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972).

B. Benthic Sampling

In addition to the descriptions of bottom sediments which follow the Station Indexes for S1, S2 and S9A, Bay of Nhatrang bottom sediments descriptions may be found in Gallardo (*1967).

Quantitive benthic samples were taken with van Veen (U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Publication No. 607, 1968) and Petersen (Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming, 1946) O.1 m2 grab samplers. Qualitative benthic samples were taken with a 2-foot biological dredge and with a 2.5-foot wire dredge. Nekton collections were made with a 6-foot, a 10-foot and, in one instance, a 7-foot beam trawl and with a 40-foot and a 16-foot otter trawl.

The sedimentary material sampled by the Peterson and van Veen grabs was washed through metal screens on shipboard, usually through mesh of .333 mm width, in order to remove the silt and fine sand. The residual sand, shells and living organisms were separated immediately, where practicable, and preserved separately. In the laboratory, these were sorted to molluscs, crustaceans, annelids, etc. When the residue was large, a preliminary sort was performed to separate out the delicate animals such as polychaetous annelids and tanaeid crustaceans. The remaining material was preserved in toto. These "shell and sand" samples, mainly deriving from cruise S9A, are retained in the geological collections at S.I.O.


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The Cruises

The westward voyage from San Diego to Bangkok is not to be considered an essential part of the routine survey. Geological investigations were made on one leg between San Diego and Honolulu, June 18–28, 1959, which correlated various bottom and core samples with deep sea photography, particularly of managanese nolules (Mero, 1964*). The several net tows, the hydrographic, bathythermographic and weather data collections may be considered of an equipment-testing nature and for the purpose of establishing a coordinated working routine.

The return voyage eastward in 1961, Cruise S11, included five legs. The first, S11A, consisted of two parts of which the earlier (March 15-April 2) continued routine surveying (1 m and 2 m net tows, BT and weather observations) at closely spaced regular intervals through the Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea and adjacent waters to Darwin, Australia. The latter half of this leg (April 6–20) was primarily a geological survey of the Timor Sea (van Andel and Veevers, 1967*, and Robinson, 1974b*) on which BT and weather data and collections were made coordinate with and in addition to cores and dredges, but no net tows were made. Biological activities included only dipnetting and flying fish records.

The second leg, S11B, continued a regular survey routine including BT, weather observations and 1 m and 2 m net tows from Darwin to Manila through the Banda, Molucca, Celebes and Sulu Seas. On the remaining three legs of the return voyage, to Guam, Honolulu and San Diego (S11C, S11D, S11E), 1 m net tows were discontinued, but 2 m net tows, BT and weather observations were continued.

The plans of the routine Southeast Asian cruises included serial alternation of the two survey areas; i.e., odd-numbered cruises (S1, S3, S5, S7, S9 and S9A) refer to Gulf of Thailand surveys. Even-numbered cruises (S2, S4, S6, S8 and S10) refer to South China Sea cruises. In all latter cases, the ship departed from Bangkok (stations made en route to pattern area are designated Underway or U) making for Nhatrang. South China Sea cruises included stops both at Nhatrang and at Saigon which procedure facilitated rendezvous schedules for staff, student trainees and guests.

The cruise track and station pattern planned for each of the two areas was adhered to for each following cruise, respectively in the same area, except where weather or sea conditions interfered.

The cruise pattern for the Gulf of Thailand consisted of five transverse lines, oriented roughly perpendicular to the coastlines, crossing the Gulf in a northeast-southwest direction. The southernmost line ran from the Thai-Malaysian border near Kota Bharu toward Poulo Obi at the southern tip of the Indo-Chinese peninsula. The remaining four lines were parallel at selected intervals (not equidistant) to the north. Hydrographic stations (numbered consecutively by cruise: i.e., S1-1, S1-2...: S3-1, S3-2... etc.) were spaced at 30 to 40 mile intervals along each line. Two additional bathythermograph-weather stations (designated A and B) were located equidistantly between succeeding stations. Cruising distance was approximately 2,000 miles requiring 14 to 17 days.

The cruise pattern for the South China Sea consisted of stations aligned along six lines, perpendicular or nearly so, to the eastern coast of South Viet Nam, extending from near shore to approximately 250 miles off-shore. The northernmost line ran due east-west at latitude 15°40'N, falling at the southern edge of the Gulf of Tonkin, passing just south and clear of Triton Island in the southern Paracels. The remaining lines were spaced at approximately 100-mile intervals, the southernmost approaching the southern tip of South Viet Nam (at Poulo Obi) from the south. Hydrographic stations (numbered consecutively by cruise: i.e., S2-1, S2-2...: S4-1, S4-2... etc.) were spaced at 40-mile intervals along the track lines. Two additional bathythermograph-weather observation stations (designated A and B) were located equidistantly between succeeding stations. Cruising distance was approximately 3,800 miles requiring 30 to 40 days.

Biological sampling activities on all cruises were carried out in conjunction with hydrographic or bathythermograph-weather observation stations, as well as in between such stations, and were numbered chronologically consecutively by year; i.e., 59–1 through 59–131, 60–101 through 60–1106, 61–1 through 61–343


16
(the latter includes all legs of the return voyage, cruise S11, as well as the regular survey, cruise S10). The correlation of the several kinds of activities at stations, including geological, is indicated in the Station Index for each cruise where the hydrographic (or BT-weather station) number, or ditto mark, indicates that the position of the biological, or geological, station is identical with it but that the time is later, usually included also.

The time given in the Station Index for all regular cruises is local time (zone = -7). Those for cruise S11 are local time; zone changes when occurring are indicated in the Index.

All cruises were conducted at 10 knots except cruise S5 which was at 9 knots due to engine trouble.

Charts showing track and station pattern and indicating each kind of activity on each cruise are given following the Station Indexes.


17

NAGA Cruise Index

                                         
Cruise   Date   Hydrographic Station Numbers   Biological Station Numbers   Principal Survey Area   Page  
Initial Voyage  June 15–August 28, 1959  NH1—NH47 (BT's = 1-21)  59-1—59-32  Pacific Ocean  18 
South China Sea 
Gulf of Thailand 
S1  Oct. 19–31, 1959  S1-1—S1-35  59-1—59-76  Gulf of Thailand  22 
S2  Nov. 16–Dec. 16, 1959  S2-1U—S2-82U; S2-1—S2-32; S2-33U—S2-50U  59-77—59-131  South China Sea  27 
S3  Jan. 19–31, 1960  S3-U1—S3-U29; S3-1—S3-32  60-101—60-178A  Gulf of Thailand  33 
S4  Feb. 15–Mar. 21, 1960  S4-U1—S4-U39; S4-1—S4-42  60-200—60-306  South China Sea  38 
S5  Apr. 21–May 3, 1960  S5-U1—S5-U13; S5-1—S5-34C  60-307—60-416  Gulf of Thailand  44 
S6  May 23–June 28, 1960  S6-U1—S6-U31; S6-1—S6-42  60-417—60-562  South China Sea  49 
S7  Aug. 2–15, 1960  S7-1—S7-42E  60-563—60-699  Gulf of Thailand  55 
S8  Sept. 6–Oct. 8, 1960  S8-U1—S8-U4; S8-1—S8-43; (incl. S8-S11—S8-S25)  60-700—60-843  South China Sea  60 
S9  Nov. 9–25, 1960  S9-U1—S9-U4; S9-1—S9-41  60-844—60-1008  Gulf of Thailand  67 
S9A  Dec. 8–14, 1960  S9A-1—S9A-20  60-1009—60-1106  Gulf of Thailand  75 
S10  Jan. 10–Feb. 13, 1961  S10-U1—S10-U31; S10-1—S10-21; S10-S1—S10-S7B; S10-U32—S10-U77  61-1—61-156  South China Sea (and Gulf of Thailand)  79 
S11A  Mar. 15–Apr. 21, 1961  S11A-1—S11A-192; S11A-V165—S11A-V377  61-156—61-256  Bangkok to Darwin  86 
S11B  Apr. 23–May 3, 1961  S11B-1—S11B-92  61-257—61-297  Darwin to Manila  86 
S11C  May 6–20, 1961  S11C-1—S11C-126  61-298—61-332  Manila to Guam  86 
S11D  May 23–June 10, 1961  S11D-1—S11D-119  61-333—61-338  Guam to Honolulu  86 
S11E  June 13–24, 1961  S11E-1—S11E-107  61-339—61-343  Honolulu to San Diego  86 
         
NH  used only for stations on initial voyage 
Stranger  
Underway (en route or return to South China Sea regular stations) 
S11A-S11E  return voyage legs 


18

Initial (San Diego to Bangkok) Voyage. Pacific Ocean, South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand

The initial voyage of the Stranger on the Naga Expedition was directly from San Diego, California to Bangkok, Thailand by way of Hawaii, Guam, Manila, and Nhatrang, South Viet Nam. Except for geological material gathered on the first leg, the voyage was primarily utilized as an early opportunity to test equipment and to coordinate a working ship's routine to encompass desired data and material collecting as far as possible.

The geological investigations made June 18–28 between San Diego and Honolulu were to correlate various bottom collections (gravity cores and dredges) with deep-sea underwater camera photographs (Mero, 1965*).

Biological stations (59-1 through 59-32) and BT stations (1–21) are coordinated with station numbers (NH1 through NH47) in the Station Index. Data for 2 m net tow collections may be found listed in Snyder and Fleminger (1972).

Itinerary:

  • depart San Diego, June 15, 1959—arrive Honolulu, June 29,
  • depart Honolulu, July 3—arrive Guam, July 21,
  • depart Guam, July 24—arrive Manila, August 8,
  • depart Manila, August 13—arrive Nhatrang, August 17,
  • depart Nhatrang, August 19—arrive Sattahip, August 24,
  • depart Sattahip, August 28—arrive Bangkok, August 28.
  • (Student training cruise in northern Gulf of Thailand, September 8–17.)


19

figure
Table, pg. 19

20
figure
Table, pg. 20

21
figure
Table, pg. 21
figure
Sattahip, August 24–28
Bangkok, August 28–September 8
Student Training Cruise, September 8–17


22

Cruise S1. Gulf of Thailand

The first survey of the Gulf of Thailand was timed to coincide with the transitional period between the ending of the seasonal southwest monsoon and the beginning of the northeast monsoon (Wyrtki, 1961, pg. 18).

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, October 19, 1959,
  • (stops at Ko Mak and Ko Samet)
  • return to Bangkok, October 31.

35 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • —serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • —BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • —weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • —surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • —dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentrations later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 33 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 3 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 1 2 m (night) stramin net tow,
    • 3 40' Otter trawls.
  • Geological:
    • 33 Phleger cores,
    • 34 Nel snap
    • —continuous fathometer recording.


23

figure
Table, pg. 23

24
figure
Table, pg. 24

25
figure
Table, pg. 25
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)

26
figure
Table, pg. 26


27

Cruise S2. South China Sea

Cruise S2 continued and extended into the South China Sea the working routine of collections established on cruise S1, including the systematic bottom sampling with the Phleger corer and the NEL snap sampler at stations where the depth is less than 150 m.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, November 16, 1959—arrive Nhatrang, November 21,
  • depart Nhatrang, November 25—return Nhatrang, November 29,
  • depart Nhatrang, November 30—arrive Saigon, December 6,
  • depart Saigon, December 9—return Bangkok, December 16.

32 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • —serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • —BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • —weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • —surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • —dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentrations later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 26 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 16 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 3 2 m (night) stramin net tows,
    • 1 40' Otter trawl,
    • 2 biological dredges (I.O.N.).

Geological:

  • 5 Phleger cores,
  • 14 NEL snap samples,
  • —continuous fathometer recording.


28

figure
Table, pg. 28

29
figure
Table, pg. 29

30
figure
Table, pg. 30

31
figure
Table, pg. 31

32
figure
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)
figure
Table, pg. 32


33

Cruise S3. Gulf of Thailand

This second survey of the Gulf of Thailand included stops at Songkhla, Ko Kra (for three fish poison stations), Ko Chang and Ko Samit (for one fish poison station). Weather and sea conditions were good throughout the cruise. Bottom sampling was for biological purposes using a 6' Beam trawl, a 30' Otter trawl and a 2' biological dredge.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, January 19, 1960,
  • return Bangkok, January 31.

32 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • —serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • —BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • —weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • —surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • —dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentrations later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 33 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 32 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 9 2 m (night) stramin net tows,
    • 9 6' Beam trawls,
    • 1 30' Otter trawls,
    • 1 2' biological dredge,
    • 4 fish poison stations.
  • Geological:
    • —(biological trawls and dredge)
    • —continuous fathometer recording.


34

figure
Table, pg. 34

35
figure
Table, pg. 35

36
figure
Table, pg. 36

37
figure
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


38

Cruise S4. South China Sea

Rough weather, occurring on the underway segment, Bangkok-Nhatrang, caused a delay wherein near-shore work off Nhatrang preceded the regular cruise pattern in open sea; a bottom fauna survey was conducted which included grabs (van Veen and Petersen grab sampling data collected February 23–24 are here omitted but may be referred to in Gallardo, 1967*, who includes bottom descriptions), trawls and two fish-poison stations during the period of February 20–26. Completion of the first half of the routine survey in good weather permitted further special collections near Poulo Cecir de Mer, including two 6' Beam trawls, a biological dredge and one fish-poison station en route Saigon. Observations made on this cruise indicated the desirability of a future survey of two seamounts and the environs of Triton and Spratley Islands (see cruise S6).

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, February 15, 1960—arrive Nhatrang, February 17,
  • (bottom sampling off Nhatrang, February 20–26)—return Nhatrang, March 3,
  • arrive Saigon, March 11,
  • depart Saigon, March 15—return Bangkok, March 21.

42 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • —serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • —BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • —weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • —surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • —dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentrations later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 42 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 29 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 21 2 m (all but one at night) stramin net tows,
    • 9 10' Beam trawls,
    • 2 6' Beam trawls,
    • 1 2' biological dredge,
    • 3 fish-poison stations.
  • Geological:
    • —(biological grabs, trawls and dredge)
    • —continuous fathometer recording.


39

figure
Table, pg. 39

40
figure
Table, pg. 40

41
figure
Table, pg. 41

42
figure
Table, pg. 42

43
figure
Table, pg. 43
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


44

Cruise S5. Gulf of Thailand

Because the period April-May invariably represents the changeover from the northeast to southwest winds and the introduction of the rainy season to Thailand (Wyrtki, 1961, pg. 17), and since the preliminary plankton analyses of collections from cruises S1 and S2 indicated fish egg and larval abundance in two specific areas, cruise S5 included special intensive biological surveys (closely spaced stations of 1 m net tows) in addition to routine survey of the Gulf. The first area was on the east side of the Gulf between Ko Rong and the mainland along a line across the mouth of the Baie de Kompang Som. The second (western) area was the large bay south of Chumphon. In addition a series of thirteen 1 m net tows were taken along the entire western coast of the Gulf from Ban Hua Hin to Pattani.

Weather was generally of light variable winds with smooth to slight seas, although much small-scale cyclonic activity and many water spouts were observed at the southern tip of Indo-China. Due to engine problems the entire cruise was made at 9 knots instead of the usual 10 knots.

An interpretation of the bathythermograph temperature data from this cruise may be found in Robinson and Srivirojna (1961*).

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, April 21, 1960,
  • (one stop at Ko Kra, April 29)
  • return Bangkok, May 3.

34 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • —serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • —BT observations at each level, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • —weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • —surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • —dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 67 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 7 2 m (night) stramin net tows,
    • 3 6' Beam trawls.
  • Geological:
    • —continuous fathometer recording.


45

figure
Table, pg. 45

46
figure
Table, pg. 46

47
figure
Table, pg. 47

48
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


49

Cruise S6. South China Sea

Weather and sea conditions on cruise S6 reflected the arrival of the southwest monsoon season. Underway stations along the eastern Gulf included 1 m and 2 m net tows to be added to those from this area taken on S5.

The first leg of the regular cruise pattern in the South China Sea included an especially good fathometric record of the southern and southwestern periphery of the base of Triton Island.

The second stop at Nhatrang included a series of bottom sampling made between Hon Dung and Hon Lon (Gallardo, 1967*, pg. 278; stations numbered there 341–349 are in fact from cruise S6 (S6-U32—S6-U40), the correct date being June 8, 1960). During the course of the following leg a seamount lying between Poulo Cecir de Mer and Spratley Island, first noticed on cruise S2, was sampled by NEL snap sampler, and serial 1 m net tows and a 2 m net tow were taken there.

The final and return leg to Bangkok (including the Chao Phya River) was utilized in a special (National Institute of Health) water sampling project (ZoBell, 1961*).

Areas of discolored water (previously observed on cruise S4 to occur only south of Line 3 and in the Gulf of Thailand) were found at each Hydrographic Station along Line 1 as well as at a number of stations along Lines 2, 3 and 4. The causative agent was found to be a blue-green alga, Trichodesmium sp. At Station S6–40, directly south of Cape Ca Mau numerous patches of the blue-green alga Lyngbya were observed.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, May 23, 1960—arrive Nhatrang, May 27,
  • depart Nhatrang, May 28—return Nhatrang, June 3,
  • (bottom sampling between Hon Dung and Hon Lon, June 8)—(reconnaissance cruise, June 9–10)
  • depart Nhatrang, June 10—arrive Saigon, June 16,
  • depart Saigon, June 19—return Bangkok, June 28.

42 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • — serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • — BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • — dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 63 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 11 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 19 2 m (all at night except one series of 3, June 3) stramin net tows,
    • 2 6' Beam trawls,
    • 1 2' Biological dredge.
  • Geological:
    • (biological trawls and dredge)
    • 2 NEL snap samples
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


50

figure
Table, pg. 50

51
figure
Table, pg. 51

52
figure
Table, pg. 52

53
figure
Table, pg. 53

54
figure
Table, pg. 54
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


55

Cruise S7. Gulf of Thailand

Cruise S7 was worked from the northernmost line of the regular pattern: i.e., the reverse order of cruises S1, S2, and S3, but in the same direction, east to west. Weather was good to moderate, the season being the southwest monsoon and the runoff of July rainfall into the Gulf of Thailand having begun.

Biological net tows included routine use of 1 m, ½ m, 2 m nets and also a 30 cm phytoplankton net. In addition to the net tows, a 6' Beam trawl and a 2.5' dredge collections were made south of Ko Samui and a 6' Beam trawl collection was made south of Kas Rong. Two NEL snap sampler collections (S7–14, S7–35) were made at specific locations in order to fill two gaps from the geological sampling of the Gulf on cruise S1 (S1–5, S1–26). One stop was made at Songkhla on August 9–10.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, August 2, 1960,
  • (one stop at Songkhla, August 9–10)
  • return Bangkok, August 15.

42 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • — Serial Hydrographic cast at each station,
    • — BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • — dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 61 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 16 ½ m (45 cm) vertical net tows,
    • 7 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows,
    • 15 30 cm (phytoplankton) net tows,
    • 2 6' Beam trawls,
    • 1 2.5' wire dredge.
  • Geological:
    • 2 NEL snap sampler collections (S7–14, S7–35),
    • (biological trawls and dredges),
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


56

figure
Table, pg. 56

57
figure
Table, pg. 57

58
figure
Table, pg. 58

59
figure
Table, pg. 59
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


60

Cruise S8. South China Sea

Cruise S8 continued the regular survey off the east coast of South Viet Nam with only some modifications (as indicated on map) necessitated by difficult weather. The pre-routine leg, en route Nhatrang, included a Petersen grab and an NEL snap sampler collection off Kas Rong Sam Lem in the eastern Gulf of Thailand as well as similar collections off Rach Duong Keo, Poulo Condore, Pt. Vinay and the Cua da Giang river mouth in the South China Sea. Routine 1 m and 2 m net tows were also made.

The first leg of the routine survey included a Petersen grab and an NEL snap sampler collection off Cap An Hoa and a 6' Beam trawl off Cu Lao Re. A special 1 m net tow to greater depths (4252 MWO in 2280 fathoms) was made in the off shore basin of the South China Sea.

The return stay at Nhatrang included bottom sampling of the Bay with 13 van Veen and one Petersen grab and a Phleger corer [this series bears also the designation Loi-11 through Loi-25 and is identical with those listed by Gallardo (1967*, pg. 279) as Station Numbers 350 through 364].

Extra 1 m net tows were made in the area of S8-1 and S8-3. In addition to the routine shallow tows made at night during the cruise with the 2 m stramin net, seven tows of greater depths (800–3000 MWO) were made.

A special bottom sampling (S8-26A) was again made from the ridge southeast of Poulo Cecir de Mer including an NEL snap sampler, a 2.5' wire dredge and a deep (800 MWO) 2 m net tow (see cruise S6-25A through S6-25C).

At Stations S8-32 and S8-42A 156 drift bottles (with plastic card-type floats) were released under the direction of Mr. Hai of Nhatrang Institute (see Notation).

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, September 6, 1960—arrive Nhatrang, September 9,
  • depart Nhatrang, September 11—return Nhatrang, September 17,
  • (bottom sampling, Nhatrang Bay, September 19–20)
  • depart Nhatrang, September 20—arrive Saigon, September 26,
  • depart Saigon, September 30—return Bangkok, October 8.

42 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • — serial hydorgraphic cast at each station,
    • — BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • — dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 49 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 7 ½ m (45 cm) net tows,
    • 16 2 m (all but one at night) stramin net tows,
    • 4 6' Beam trawls,
    • 5 2.5' wire dredges,
    • 13 Petersen grabs,
    • 15 van Veen grabs.
  • Geological:
    • 7 NEL snap samplers,
    • 1 Phleger cores (Bay of Nhatrang S8–S23)
    • (biological trawls, dredges and grabs)
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


61

Notation of Drift Bottle Launching on Cruise S8:

The two launchings were of 156 drift bottles of the Bougis model with cards written in three languages, English, French and Vietnamese.

1. immediately following Station S8-32 off Cap St. Jacques,

             
Total:  78 drift bottles 
Position:  07° 34' N; 107° 42' E 
Date:  October 1, 1960 
Local time:  2000 h (appx.) 
Wind direction:  270 (appx.) 
Sea Condition:  rough 

2. immediately following Station S8-42A near Poulo Obi,

             
Total:  78 drift bottles 
Position:  07° 51' N; 104° 58' E 
Date:  October 6, 1960 
Local time:  0600 h (appx.) 
Wind direction:  220 (appx.) 
Sea conditions:  smooth 

Remark: Each drift bottle has its special number. The list of these numbers is kept by Nhatrang Institute.

Nguyen Hai

October 14, 1960


62

figure
Table, pg. 62

63
figure
Table, pg. 63

64
figure
Table, pg. 64

65
figure
Table, pg. 65

66
figure
Table, pg. 66
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


67

Cruise S9. Gulf of Thailand

Cruise S9 is the first part of two special surveys of the Gulf of thailand (Cruise S9A is the second part). It was designed for the special purpose of broadly spaced more nearly synoptic coverage of physical and chemical ocenaographic data than on previous cruises (S9A was designed with closely spaced biological stations in the northern Gulf only). It compares in pattern with the preceding regular Gulf surveys in that the four northernmost lines were reworked; three additional shorter lines, parallel to, equidistantly spaced between these four lines and lying in the eastern half of the Gulf were also worked.

Four anchor stations (S9–8, S9–15, S9–18, S9–33) at selected locations were occupied each for a period of 24–25 hours (Robinson, 1974a*; Faughn and Taft, 1967). Anchorage at each was in approximately 30 fathoms using 75 fathoms of chain to the starboard anchor. Except for occasional short squalls with winds of 25 to 40 MPH, weather and sea conditions were favorable for anchor station operations, the ship riding usually to the prevailing current. Each anchor station consisted of:

  • — a serial hydrographic cast every 3 hours,
  • — hourly BT, weather and current (drift spar) observations,
  • — 4 to 6 1 m net tows, drifted from stern on 15 m line for 1 hour,
  • — 4 Petersen grabs.
Microplankton was sampled at 3-hour intervals using a 20 cm fine-mesh net in a vertical, bottom to surface, haul at two of the anchor stations.

Due to the unfortunate failure of a current meter to arrive in time for use on these anchor stations, a drift spar was rigged for determination of current speed, its direction being related to the ship's compass heading as modified by the instantaneous angle of the spar from the center line of the vessel. Each tabulated speed represents the average of three such determinations. The reliability of these current data appears warranted by a check made on Anchor Station No. 4 on which the reported current direction was compared with a plot of the average vessel heading from the gyro-actuated course recorder; the reported current speed from a 1 ¼-hour interval was compared with that of a special free-drifting drogue whose distance from the vessel was determined by sextant angle computation, its drift direction being determined by direct observation of true bearing from the vessel. The results compared favorably with those from drift spar.

Physical, chemical and biological procedures at regular hydrographic stations on this cruise followed those of the preceding cruises.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, November 9, 1960
  • (one stop at Songkhla, November 17)
  • return Bangkok, November 25.

41 Hydrographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • — serial hydrographic cast at each station,
    • — BT observations at each station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • — dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level in each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 67 1 m oblique (except where drifted at anchor stations) net tows,
    • 4 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows,

    • 68
    • 20 20 cm (phytoplankton) vertical net tows,
    • 41 Petersen grabs,
    • 6 6' Beam trawls.
  • Geological:
    • (biological grabs and trawls)
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


69

figure
Table, pg. 69

70
figure
Table, pg. 70

71
figure
Table, pg. 71

72
figure
Table, pg. 72

73
figure
Table, pg. 73

74
figure
Table, pg. 74
figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


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Cruise S9A. Gulf of Thailand

Cruise S9A was the second part of this special Gulf of Thailand survey. Its purpose was the collection of biological samples from midwater and bottom surfaces in the upper half of the Gulf. The station pattern followed a base line beginning at the center of the north end of the Gulf running southward as an approximate transect of the Gulf to Latitude 11° N. The track then followed lines perpendicular to the base line working northwards in a zig-zag. The base line thus chosen followed a sediment change from shallow water muddy sands, rich in organic debris, to clay at depths of 60 m as indicated by the rather scattered samples obtained on cruise S9.

The regular stations occupied on this cruise omitted routine hydrographic casts and 1 m net tows. Twenty-nine Petersen grab samples were taken en route to the first bottom trawl station; thirty-eight more were taken along the cruise track. Nineteen bottom trawl stations were occupied. A midwater plankton 2 m stramin net was towed each night.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, December 8, 1960,
  • (5 hour anchorage at Station S9A-15)
  • return Bangkok, December 14.

20 Oceanographic Stations:

  • Physical:
    • (no hydrographic casts)
    • — BT observations at each trawl and grab station and at other selected sites,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • (none)
  • Biological:
    • (no 1 m net tows)
    • 6 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows,
    • 67 Petersen grabs,
    • 1 6' Beam trawl,
    • 5 7' Beam trawls,
    • 13 16' Otter trawls.
  • Geological:
    • (biological grabs and trawls: see Bottom Samples)
    • — continuous fathometer recording


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figure
Table, pg. 76

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figure
Table, pg. 77

78
figure
Cruise S9A Bottom Samples
(collected with the Petersen grab)


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Cruise S10. South China Sea

The first leg of cruise S10, en route Nhatrang from Bangkok, included seven underway stations for biological collections (S10-U1 through S10-U7). A special bottom survey collection (S10-U8 through S10-U24) was made in outer Nhatrang Bay. Seven more biological collections (S10-U25 through S10-U31) were made enroute to the first routine survey (South China Sea) station. Adverse weather and sea conditions limited the intended extent of the South China Sea survey, as is indicated on the map of the Cruise Track and Station Pattern. Upon the return to Nhatrang and following a short study of internal wave action (S10-SH1 through S10-SH7) off the Bay entrance, the next leg of the cruise was run directly to Saigon occupying only three biological stations (biological station-numbers only).

The remainder of the cruise (Saigon to Bangkok, S10-U32 through S10-U77) included; two special BT observations between Poulo Condores and Poulo Obi in a discolored water area from the Mekong River, net hauls from north of Pointe de Ca Mau across lines of increased surface temperatures, intensive surveys with bottom sampling, net hauls and BT records in an area just west of Phu Quoc Island and in an area off Ko Chang (eastward then northward).

The seventeen bottom samples collected with van Veen or petersen grabs from outer Nhatrang Bay were all of fine mud. Both types of grabs were also used for sampling in the larger survey areas (South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand). One bottom sample was collected with a 7' Beam trawl off Cap An Hoa; three samples were collected with a 16' Otter trawl from the Gulf of Thailand.

Collections using a 1 m net (oblique tow) were made at most routine hydrographic survey stations and at many underway stations. A 2 m net tow collection was made each night when possible.

Itinerary:

  • depart Bangkok, January 10, 1961—arrive Nhatrang, January 19,
  • (outer Nhatrang Bay bottom survey, January 21–22)
  • depart Nhatrang, January 23—return Nhatrang, January 29,
  • (internal wave study off Nhatrang Bay, January 31)
  • depart Nhatrang, February 1—arrive Saigon, February 3,
  • depart Saigon, February 8—return Bangkok, February 13.

49 Hydrographic Station:

  • Physical:
    • — serial hydrographic casts were made at the bottom sampling stations in Nhatrang Bay (S10-U8—S10-U24), four stations (S10-U28, -U29, -U30, -U31) en route to the first routine station, at each station on the first leg of the cruise track (S10-1—S10-21) and at seven stations (S10-SH1—S10-SH7) occupied for the internal wave study,
    • — BT observations at each hydrographic station, as well as at two equally spaced locations between consecutive stations, at a few special (visible) water mass boundaries, at periodic intervals during the Bay of Nhatrang survey, and along two 60-mile sections in the eastern Gulf of Thailand,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT observation,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Chemical:
    • — dissolved oxygen, salinity and phosphate concentration later determined from water samples taken with Nansen bottles at each level of each hydrographic cast.
  • Biological:
    • 74 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 9 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows,
    • 1 7' Beam trawl,

    • 80
    • 3 16' Otter trawls,
    • 45 Petersen grabs,
    • 7 van Veen grabs.
  • Geological:
    • (biological trawls and grabs)
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


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Table, pg. 81

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Table, pg. 82

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Table, pg. 83

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Table, pg. 84

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figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


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Cruise S11 (A–E). South China, Timor, Banda, Mollucca, Celebes and Sulu Seas, Pacific Ocean

Cruise S11 included the entire return voyage of the Stranger from Bangkok to San Diego, California, some 11,000 miles of survey requiring over three months. The cruise was divided into five legs, S11A-E (see Itinerary below).

The first leg, S11A, consisted of two parts, the first, a survey of the route from Bangkok to Darwin, Australia, by way of the south coast of Java and the Timor Sea, including bathythermographs, 1 m net tows, nightly 2 m stramin net tows where possible and bottom sampling with Petersen grab and chain dredge near Krakatoa Island. The second part of S11A included a survey of the Timor Sea for the collection of both physical data and geological material (for oceanography see Robinson, 1974b*: for geology see van Andel and Veevers, 1967*). Bottom sampling included the use of shell and chain dredges and one 16' Otter trawl.

The second leg of the cruise, S11B, was a survey of the route from Darwin to Manila, Phillippine Islands, by way of the Timor, Banda, Molucca, Celebes and Sulu Seas. The survey included bathythermographs, 1 m net tows and nightly 2 m net tows.

S11C consisted of a survey of the route from Manila to Guam, Marianas Islands, and included bathythermographs and nightly 2 m net tows (no 1 m net tows).

S11D and S11E respectively constituted the remaining two legs of the cruise: Guam to Honolulu, Hawaii, Honolulu to San Diego. Both included routine surveys of bathythermographs. One 2 m net tow was made on S11D, four on S11E (no 1 m net tows on either leg).

Itinerary:

  • (S11A) depart Bangkok, March 15, 1961—arrive Darwin, April 4, depart Darwin, April 6—return Darwin, April 21,
  • (S11B) depart Darwin, April 23—arrive Manila, May 3,
  • (S11C) depart Manila, May 6—arrive Guam, May 20,
  • (S11D) depart Guam, May 23—arrive Honolulu, June 10,
  • (S11E) depart Honolulu, June 13—arrive San Diego, June 24.

S11A Stations (no hydrographic casts):

  • part 1 (192 BT's)
    • Physical:
      • — BT observations at each oceanographic station,
      • — weather observations to accompany each BT,
      • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
    • Biological:
      • 34 1 m oblique net tows,
      • 8 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows,
      • 1 Petersen grab
    • Geological:
      • 1 chain dredge,
      • — continuous fathometer readings.
  • part 2 (211 BT's)
    • Physical:
      • — BT observations at each oceanographic station,
      • — whether observations to accompany each BT,
      • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
    • Biological:
      • 1 16' Otter trawl.

    • 87
    • Geological:
      • 2 chain dredges,
      • 31 shell dredges,
      • — continuous fathometer recording.

S11B Stations (no hydrographic casts, 92 BT's):

  • Physical:
    • — BT observations at each oceanographic station,
    • — weather observations to accompany each BT,
    • — surface temperature as continuous function of distance throughout.
  • Biological:
    • 28 1 m oblique net tows,
    • 8 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows.
  • Geological:
    • — continuous fathometer recording.

S11C Stations (no hydrographic casts, 126 BT's):

  • Physical:
    • — BT and weather observations and surface temperature as described above.
  • Biological:
    • 21 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows.
  • Geological:
    • — continuous fathometer recording.

S11D Stations (no hydrographic casts, 119 BT's):

  • Physical:
    • — BT and weather observations and surface temperature as described above.
  • Biological:
    • 1 2 m (night) stramin net tow.
  • Geological:
    • — continuous fathometer recording.

S11E Stations (no hydrographic casts, 107 BT's):

  • Physical:
    • — BT and weather observations and surface temperature as described above.
  • Biological:
    • 4 2 m (all at night) stramin net tows.
  • Geological:
    • — continuous fathometer recording.


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Table, pg. 88

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Table, pg. 89

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Table, pg. 90

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Table, pg. 91

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Table, pg. 92

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Table, pg. 93

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Table, pg. 94

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Table, pg. 95

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Table, pg. 96

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Table, pg. 97

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Table, pg. 98

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Table, pg. 99

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Table, pg. 100
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Table, pg. 100 (Cont.)

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Table, pg. 101

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Table, pg. 102

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Table, pg. 103

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Table, pg. 104

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figure
1 m Net Tows (see also Snyder and Fleminger, 1972)


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Chart, pg. 106

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Chart, pg. 107

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Chart, pg. 108

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Chart, pg. 109

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Chart, pg. 110

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Chart, pg. 111

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Chart, pg. 112

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Chart, pg. 113

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Chart, pg. 114

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Chart, pg. 115

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Chart, pg. 116

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Chart, pg. 117

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Chart, pg. 118

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Chart, pg. 119


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Literature Cited

References which have utilized Naga Expedition data or collection material are indicated with an asterisk.

Alvarino, A. *1967. The Chaetognatha of the Naga Expedition (1959–1961) in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand. Part 1-Systematics. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 2. 197 pp., 55 figs. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California. Banner, A.H. and D.M. Banner *1962. Contributions to the knowledge of the Alpheid Shrimp of the Pacific Ocean, VIII. Losses of specimens in the fire of the Hawaii Marine Laboratory. Pacific Science 16: 238–240. *1966. The Alpheid Shrimp of Thailand. The Siam Soc. Mon. Ser. III: i–iv, 1–168, 62 figs., 9 tables. Brinton, E. *1961. Report on use of 45-CM net (Marutoku-B net) by Naga Expedition, July 27, 1960. Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council Proceedings, 1961. Sect. 1, pp. 84–86. *in press, 1974. Euphausiid Crustaceans of Southeast Asian Waters. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 5. (op. cit. publ.) Cherbonnier, G. *1960(1961). Holothuries récoltées par A. Gallardo dans la baie de Nha-trang (sud Viet-Nam). Bull Mus. Hist. Nat(2). 42(5): 425–435, 6 figs. Emery, K.O. and H. Niino *1963. Sediments of the Gulf of Thailand. Geo. Soc. Amer. Bull. 74: 541–554, 7 figs. Fauchald, K. *1967. Nephtyidae (Polychaeta) from the Bay of Nhatrang, South Vietnam. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt 3. (op. cit. publ.) 28 pp., 48 figs. Faughn, J.L. and B.A. Taft 1967. Current measurements at the mouth of the Gulf of Thailand, November, 1964. J. Geophy. Res. 72(6): 1691–1695. Gallardo, V.A. *1967. Polychaeta from the soft sublittoral bottoms of the Bay of Nhatrang, South Vietnam. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt 3. (op. cit. publ.) 200 pp., 59 pls. Imbach, M.C. *1967. Gammaridean Amphipods from the South China Sea. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 1. (op. cit. publ.) 128 pp., 33 pls. Klein, H.T. 1973. A new technique for processing physical oceanic data. SIO Ref. 73–14. Lang, B.T. *1965. Taxonomic review and geographical survey of the copepod genera Eucalanus and Rhincalanus in the Pacific Ocean. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Calif. San Diego (publication in NAGA Report pending) Matsui, T. *1970. Description and distribution of Rastrelliger (Mackerel) larvae and a comparison of the juveniles and adults of the species R. kanagurta and R. brachysoma. NAGA Report, Vol. 5, pt. 1 (op. cit. publ.) 33 pp., 14 figs.
121
Mero, J.L. *1965. The mineral resources of the sea. Elsevier, N.Y. 312 pp. Montgomery, R.B. and W.S. Wooster 1954. Thermosteric anomaly and the analysis of serial oceanographic observations. Deep-Sea Res., 2: 63–70. Niino, H. and K.O. Emery *1961. Sediments of shallow portions of East China Sea and South China Sea. Geo. Soc. Amer. Bull. 72: 731–762, 21 figs. Parke, M.L., jr., K.O. Emery, R. Szymankiewicz and L.M. Reynolds 1971. Structural framework of continental margin in South China Sea. Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 55(5): 723–751, 26 figs., 1 table. Piyakarnchana, T. *1962. Taxonomic study on the lancelets found in the Gulf of Thailand, from the specimens collected by the Naga Expedition in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea (1959–1961). Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc., 20(2): 95–107. Piyakarnchana, T. and K. Vajropala 1961. Some ecological factors that limited the distribution of three species of lancelets in the Gulf of Thailand. J. Nat. Res. Counc. Thailand. 2(4): 1–13. Robinson, M.K. *1974a. The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Thailand, Naga Expedition. NAGA Report, Vol. 3, pt. 1 (op. cit. publ.) *1974b. Bathythermograph (BT) temperature observations in the Timor Sea, Naga Expedition, Cruise Cruise S11. NAGA Report, Vol. 3, pt. 1 (op. cit. publ.) Robinson, M.K. and Lt. A. Srivirojna *1961. Interpretation of bathythermograph temperature data in the Gulf of Thailand April–May, 1960. 10th Pac. Sci. Cong., Honolulu, 1961. Rofen, R.R. *1963. Handbook of food fishes of the Gulf of Thailand. SIO Ref. No. 63–18. The Geo. Vanderbilt Found and Univ. Calif. San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. Rottman, M. *in press, 1974. Euthecosomatous pteropods (Mollusca) in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 6 (op. cit. publ.) Serene R. and P. Lohavanijaya *1973. The Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda) collected by the Naga Expedition, including a review of the Homolidae. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 4. (op. cit. publ.) 187 pp., 186 figs., 21 pls. Shiino, S.M. *1963. Tanaidacea collected by Naga Expedition in the Bay of Nha-Trang, South Viet-Nam. Rep. Fac. Fish, Prefect. Univ. Mie, 4(3): 437–507, 25 figs. Smith, O.R. and H. Ahlstrom 1948. Echo-ranging for fish schools and observations on temperature and plankton in waters off central California in the Spring of 1946. Fish and Wild Life Serv., Spec. Sci. Report No. 44., U.S. Dept. Int., Wash., D.C.
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Snyder, H.G. and A. Fleminger 1972. A catalogue of zooplankton samples in the marine invertebrate collections of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Accessions, 1965–70. SIO Ref. 72–68. Univ. Calif. San Diego, La Jolla, California. Southeast Asia Research Program (comp. and ed.) 1963. Ecology of the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea, a report on the results of the Naga Expedition, 1959–1961. SIO Ref. No. 63–6. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ. Calif. San Diego, La Jolla, California. Stephenson, W. *1967. The portunid Crabs (Crustacea: Portunidae) collected by the Naga Expedition. NAGA Report, Vol. 4, pt. 1 (op. cit. publ.) pp. 4–39, 4 pls. Sudara, S. *1971. The identification of selected families of planktonic hyperiids (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, U. Hawaii. Sverdrup, H.U., M.W. Johnson and R. H. Fleming 1946. The Oceans their physics, chemistry and general biology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., N.Y. 1087 pp. Sweeney, B.M. and F.T. Haxo. 1961. Persistance of a photosynthetic rhythm in enucleated Acetabularia. Science, 134 (3487): 1361–1363. Tiews, K. 1962. Experimental trawl fishing in the Gulf of Thailand and its results regarding the possibilities of trawl fisheries development in Thailand. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Küsten-und Binnenfischerie, Hamburg 25: 53 pp., 20 illus., 1 table. United States Naval Oceanographic Office 1968. Instruction manual for obtaining oceanographic data. (3rd ed.) Pub. No. 607. Wash., D.C. van Andel, Tj.H. and J.J. Veevers *1967. Morphology and sediments of the Timor Sea. Bur. Mineral Res. Australia, Bull. 83: 1–173 Wyrtki, K. 1961. Physical oceanography of the Southeast Asian waters. NAGA Report, Vol 2 (op. cit publ.) 195 pp. ZoBell, C.E. 1961. Marine bacteriology with notes on bacteria in the South China Sea. Microbiol. Soc. Thai., J. 5: 5–12.
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Appendix

This Appendix is arranged in the chronological order of hydrographic stations occupied on each of the Naga cruises; the cruises also appear in consecutive chronological order. Preceding the tabulated data is given for each station: ship's name, date, time (GCT hour), location (latitude and longitude), the depth of (sonic) sounding, wind direction and force, weather conditions, sea condition and wire angle. The time given is that of the messenger times and wire angles are given in the order of increasing depth.

The data from the hydrographic casts made on the Naga Expedition cruises S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9 and S10 appear here as interpolated or as computed. The procedure of data processing is described by Klein (1973). The observed values of temperature (T in degrees of Centigrade), salinity (S in grams per kilogram, or permil, obtained by chlorinity titration) and oxygen (02 as dissolved oxygen in milliliters per liter) are tabulated at depths sampled (Z in meters): The densith anomaly (t function of salinity in grams per liter, Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming, 1946) and the specific volume thermosteric anomaly (T in centiliters per ton, Montgomery and Wooster, 1954) are computed from the tabulated data (except as explained below).

The temperature values given are the average of the corrected readings of the paired reversing thermometers in each Nansen bottle. Where agreement between the two was not within 0.1 °C an alternate value is given in a footnote. Unprotected reversing thermometers accompanied each Nansen bottle which was lowered 100 meters or more for depth determination.

The salinity values were obtained from chlorinity titration (U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Publication No. 607, 1968). Where salinity bottle numbers appear to have been reversed on the data forms the salinity values have been tabulated in the order they appear with the footnote reference "possible transposition". In such case the dependent values of t and T which are entered between parentheses are tabulated as if the samples had been transposed.

The oxygen values represent dissolved oxygen content as determined by the Winkler method (ibid.).

In addition to the above-mentioned footnotes two special notations are used throughout the tabulation for values which were not accepted in the drawing of a property curve;

  • r: rejected value (where the value seems to be definitely wrong), or
  • u: uncertain value (where the value may be correct; occasionally it can influence the drawing of the property curve).
Where salinity values are followed by either of these notations, the dependent values for t and T are entered between parentheses and have been computed from the observed temperature value and a salinity value determined from the T-S diagram as described by Klein (1973).

A hyphen is used to indicate a missing observed value and, thus, the consequentially missing computed values.


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Table, pg. 124

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Table, pg. 125

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Table, pg. 126

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Table, pg. 127

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Table, pg. 128

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Table, pg. 129

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Table, pg. 130

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Table, pg. 131

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Table, pg. 132

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Table, pg. 133

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Table, pg. 134

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Table, pg. 135

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Table, pg. 136

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Table, pg. 137

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Table, pg. 138

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Table, pg. 139

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Table, pg. 140

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Table, pg. 141

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Table, pg. 142

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Table, pg. 143

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Table, pg. 144

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Table, pg. 145

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Table, pg. 146

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Table, pg. 147

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Table, pg. 148

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Table, pg. 149

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Table, pg. 150

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Table, pg. 151

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Table, pg. 152

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Table, pg. 153

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Table, pg. 154

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Table, pg. 155

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Table, pg. 156

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Table, pg. 157

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Table, pg. 158

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Table, pg. 159

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Table, pg. 160

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Table, pg. 161

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Table, pg. 162

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Table, pg. 163

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Table, pg. 164

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Table, pg. 165

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Table, pg. 166

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Table, pg. 167

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Table, pg. 168

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Table, pg. 169

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Table, pg. 170

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Table, pg. 171

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Table, pg. 172

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Table, pg. 173

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Table, pg. 174

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Table, pg. 175

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Table, pg. 176

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Table, pg. 177

Footnotes

1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California.

2. A survey of the state of knowledge of hydrography then available to the participants in these efforts may be reviewed in Wyrtki's (1961) paper, the first to be published in this Naga Report series. Much information is available in the Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Science Congress (Thailand, 1957) particularly in Volume 10-Fisheries and Volume 16-Oceanography. A brief but thorough discussion and bibliography of the Thai fishing industry may be found in Tiews (1962). Various aspects of South Viet Nam, including the Bay of Nhatrang waters and coasts are treated in the Contributions of the Institut Oceanographique de Nhatrang. Relevant specific and general materials also appear in the Occasional Papers, Regional Studies and Special Publications of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council.

About this text
Courtesy of Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library; http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/
http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt0199n5xr&brand=oac4
Title: Naga Expedition, station index and data
By:  Naga Expedition, creator, Faughn, James Lawrence, 1910-1985
Date: 1974 (issued)
Contributing Institution: Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library; http://scilib.ucsd.edu/sio/
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