Consolidated Progress Report of the Mexican Farm Labor Transportation Program of the Farm Security Administration

Through November 20, 1942

30 Van Ness Avenue San Francisco, California


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[INTRODUCTION]

The report which follows is an attempt to give, as of approximately November 20, 1942, a description not only of the various steps involved in the transportation of the first group of 3004 Mexican agricultural workers to the United States by the Farm Security Administration but also an account of many of the problems encountered in handling this program from its inception to a period six weeks after the arrival of the first trainload of workers in California. The report has been prepared not by any one individual but by the various individuals responsible for specific portions of what we have tried to make in operation an integrated and coordinated program. Thus, the authors include the Regional Director; the Assistant Regional Director, MA; the Regional Chief, Farm Labor Transportation Program and members of his staff; the Chief of the Labor Relations Division; the District Engineer; the General Manager of the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association; and the Regional Information Advisor. While the responsibility for final preparation and consolidation of the report fell upon the Assistant Regional Director, MA, he neither claims the pride of authorship nor accepts full responsibility for weaknesses in the report.

Since this is the first attempt at a consolidated report on the Mexican Farm Labor Transportation Program, a considerable portion


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of the report is devoted to the procedures used both in bringing the workers to the United States and in operating the program after their arrival. It is anticipated that future reports will contain more statistical material on the working of the program, better analysis of the problems encountered in operation of the program, and more in the way of an evaluation of its scope and significance.


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THE SELECTION PROCESS

On arriving in Mexico City September 4, 1942, Mr. Gilbert Sussman of the Solicitor's Office and Mr. Laurence I. Hewes, Jr. entered into a series of discussions with the officials of the Labor Department of the Mexican Government. In the course of these discussions, they were advised that the Labor Department had established a register of persons of Mexican birth seeking employment in the United States. Although we did not see this register, it apparently contained some 12,500 names arranged by occupation. The conversations between Mr. Sussman, Mr. Hewes and two officials of the Mexican Labor Department, Senor Fernando Del Campo and Senor Abraham Navas, resulted in final agreement as to the type of contract which would be executed between the Farm Security Administration on behalf of the United States and the Mexican National who was to be transported as an agricultural laborer to the United States. A copy of this contract is attached as Exhibit A in the APPENDIX. Prior to coming to Mexico, Mr. Sussman and Mr. Hewes in conference with officials of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Services and the Selective Service agreed upon a type of permit of entry card. This permit of entry card was to be only good for the purpose of entry into the United States of agricultural laborers contracting with the Farm Security Administration.

At the time that Mr. Sussman and Mr. Hewes were engaging in


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negotiations with Mexican officials, Mr. Frank Brown, Executive Assistant to the Regional Director at Amarillo, Texas, who has been assigned to work in connection with the Mexican transportation program, was engaged in locating space, clerical assistance, photographic assistance, and office furniture to be used in connection with the actual selection process. Upon completion of the drafting of the contract mentioned above, several thousand copies of this contract were printed in Mexico City at the expense of the Farm Security Administration. Other forms necessary to the selecting and processing machinery were devised and likewise printed. Considerable amount of difficulty was met and overcome by Mr. Brown in connection with obtaining office space, light, heat, telephone, etc. These arrangements were finally completed and concurrently there arrived in Mexico City seven representatives of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Services under the supervision of Mr. Leon Brody, Immigrant Inspector at Phoenix, three Spanish-speaking United States Employment Service representatives from Texas, Dr. Joseph E. Spoto, passed Assistant Surgeon, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, temporarily assigned to do physical examination work in connection with the Farm Labor Transportation Program, Dr. Robert L. Allen, United States Public Health Service, El Paso, Texas, and the group of 27 Farm Security Administration employees under the leadership of Mr. Roland C. Lapp, District RR Supervisor, Farm Security Administration, Region IX. The Mexican Government on its part provided personnel from its Labor
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Department, Immigration Service, and six doctors from its Public Health Service.

The Selection machinery human and physical, were housed in a large building formerly used as a warehouse at 87 Calle Republica del Salvador, Mexico, D. F. The personnel was distributed at intervals behind a long trestle arranged continuously in a "U" shape in this building. The arrangement of the trestles was such that applicants for employment entering at the front door began a continuous process according to rejection or acception [sic].

The processing was so arranged that initiation of screening processes could in the first few minutes establish the worker's eligibility and aptitude as an agricultural worker and his capacity to do the work. At this point, if a negative determination was made, the applicant was rejected. The next process was that of health examination which here likewise automatically removed the applicant from further consideration. In the next several steps, subsequent to physical examination, the applicant was required to make out a work history and was vigorously interviewed to determine the agricultural aspect of his work history. Every effort was made to discourage persons from entering upon this program if they were in any way half-hearted or regarded the trip to the United States as a joy ride or a lighthearted adventure. A good many persons were discouraged at this point. Subsequent to this process the workers, having been examined in groups, received a forty-five minute lecture


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on the contract, the employer's rights, and the obligations which they assumed in signing the contract. Also at this time the type of work, loading and topping sugar beets, was carefully explained, as was the method of compensation (piece work, etc.). This explanation was handled by a representative of the Farm Security Administration and the Mexican Department of Labor. Following this, the Mexican national executed the contract, was registered under alien registration, was processed by American Immigration, Mexican Immigration, and was discharged at the final clearance desk where he was advised as to the time the train left and the time he should be at the station. Reference should also be made to several details of interest, such as the establishment by the Mexican Public Health Service of a Venereal Social case worker who took data on those persons rejected for venereal infection and the smallpox vaccination desk which was similarly set up to vaccinate those workers not previously vaccinated.

The above-described machinery began operating on a Monday morning, September 21, 1942, the Mexican Government having already sent out postcards in the mail to several hundred workers listed as agricultural workers in the occupation register previously mentioned. These card holders, together with many hundreds more, appeared at the entrance of 87 Republica del Salvador bright and early in the morning. The first group of four candidates was admitted about 8:30 AM and the machinery began to operate. One of the great


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difficulties encountered was the inability of the private photographer under contract for this work to keep pace with the flow of the candidates, and several very hectic incidents occurred in the first several days in the operation whereby we found ourselves with several hundred workers in the building whose processing through the machinery was stopped because of the failure to quickly obtain photographs for immigration purposes. On the first morning some 45 persons out of the first 150 had been rejected because of venereal infection. From then on the number of candidates with venereal infections dropped off very fast; apparently persons not caring to expose themselves to the embarrassment of being rejected did not present themselves as candidates. The work was extremely hard and gruelling. Every person of the nearly 60 officials was under tremendous strain and worked at top speed. In the first day's work we had completed processing on 85 candidates. The next day we handled over 100. From then on the machinery improved every day and, consequently, we were able to make our first shipment of 500 workers from Buena Vista Station, Mexico City at 11:57 AM, September 25, 1942. The workers were delivered at Stockton on September 29. This was a real satisfaction to us, since the date of arrival of October 1, 1942 was the day we had been "shooting" for at the time of our Washington conferences. As it was, we made delivery two days earlier. By the time the first train was on its way, our machinery was working so perfectly that it was turning out completely examined, certified
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candidates at the rate of 300 a day, ready to get on the train. It can be stated roughly that, to obtain the first 600 so entrained, it was necessary to examine about 650 individuals, medical reasons accounting for the larger portion of rejects. These men tend to be short, average a little over 5 feet, and they are light, averaging about 120 pounds or less. Their physical configuration is good and it is easy to see that they are, although short and light, strong, wiry and well put together.

Looking back on the experience of "starting from scratch" to organize and perfect the selection machinery, a good job was done when we recognize that no person involved in this work had ever done it or anything like it before. The pressure, the long hours, the uncomfortable working conditions, certainly made the task no less easy. Many handicaps presented themselves, such as the unfamiliarity with the Spanish language, our own physical handicaps in working at the high altitude of Mexico City, etc. Our day began at 8:00 AM. At 8:30 the doors were opened and the machinery went into gear. From then on until 1:00 PM no person had time to do anything but work at top speed. From 1:00 until 3:30 we followed the custom and took siesta, that is, some of the personnel did. Some of the others remained to work and complete details forgotten in the morning rush. At 3:30 we recommended and carried on until 7:15 PM. When the last candidate went out the door at 7:15 PM until about 10:30 PM, we completed the necessary detail work, completing


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records, making final checks, etc. It should be borne in mind that only by exercising the most painstaking care and developing systems for close checking to secure accuracy can anything like satisfactory results be obtained from such an undertaking as above. The number of workers must be carefully checked against the number of contracts issued, and these in turn checked against immigration documents, etc. On Friday morning, September 25, 1942, a group of officials of the Farm Security Administration, the United States Immigration Service and the Mexican Immigration Department set up desks at the Buena Vista Station, Mexico, D. F. The accepted candidates filed by these desks and were entrained. The whole entrainment operation took about one and a half hours. The workers were told to be at the station at 8:00 in the morning and they were entrained by 9:30.


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THE TRANSPORTATION PROCESS

When it has been determined that a group of Mexican workers is to be selected in Mexico for transportation to the United by the Farm Security Administration and while the machinery for selection described above is being placed in operation, the Head, Transportation, on the staff of the Assistant Regional Director, MA in San Francisco notifies the Southern Pacific Company in San Francisco, giving them the point of selection and the destination points. The Southern Pacific Company, in accordance with their agreement, files with the Interstate Commerce Commission a rate between possible selection points and destinations. This rate is equal to about 75% of the usual one-way coach fare.

At the same time as these steps are being taken, the Transportation Supervisor in Mexico City notifies the National Railways of Mexico and the Southern Pacific Company of Mexico of the proposed movements, and arrangements are made for the special trains required. The workers with whom contracts are signed, are scheduled for departure at a specified time and date. This information, printed on an envelope also bearing the worker's name and a number corresponding to the number on all documents issued to him, is given each worker as he leaves the selection office.

On the day designated, the workers are assembled at the station and each man is checked against his photograph by the U. S. Immigration and Mexican Immigration authorities and loaded on the train. A


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transportation crew composed of Farm Security Administration personnel is placed in charge of each train. The transportation crew includes an agent cashier who carries government funds to provide for emergencies that might arise on the trip, such as medical care, extra meals due to train delays, telegrams, phone calls, etc. The agent cashier also maintains a record of the movement, which includes data on the number of men fed at each meal, number transported to each destination point, reports of accidents, cost of subsistence and medical aid furnished en route.

As soon as the train is underway, the crew makes a check of each man on board against a passenger list. The corrected passenger list is then checked against the American Immigration cards to determine if anyone has boarded the train before being checked by the Immigration officials. If any worker is discovered who has not been so checked, he is taken off the train at the next station and sent back to the point of origin at the expense of the U. S. government.

The transportation crew, upon completing this check, appoints a leader for each car of men and holds a meeting in each car, explaining in detail what the feeding schedule and routine will be while en route to the United States, as well as the cooperation required from each worker. The men are instructed to form groups of about ten each and every group selects a leader. Several hours before reaching the border, each worker is checked against his photograph and is given the original of his Mexican Agreement Immigration Card and the


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original copy of the contract he has signed. Upon reaching the border, the workers are transferred to cars of the Southern Pacific Company of the United States at a point on the Mexican side of the border. At the border, the train is checked by U. S. Immigration officials who give each worker an American Immigration Card bearing his photograph and the date of entry. Immediately upon crossing the border, the workers are forbidden to get off the train until they reach their destination or are required to transfer to other transportation equipment. This is in contrast to the trip in Mexico, where workers are allowed to get off at all stations and roam at will. It should be noted in passing that, while in Mexico, a detachment of ten or fifteen soldiers from the Mexican Army accompanies each train.

The transportation crews are on duty on each train 24 hours each day and they settle innumerable small problems that arise among the men. The life of a member of the transportation crew is extremely difficult and wearing.

Continuous cooperation is maintained at all times between U. S. Government personnel, Mexican Government officials and railroad officials, so that the maximum physical comfort possible is provided for the workers. Failure of sanitary facilities, water supply, etc. is quickly reported, and extra stops are made, if necessary, to effect repairs. Each train is met at the U. S. border by a transportation crew from San Francisco. This crew takes charge of the train


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and the other agents return to Mexico City. The new crew has a list of growers and the number of workers required at each destination, and he proceeds to group the workers in accordance with this list. Since the workers are already in groups of tens, this process consists of combining the small groups into larger groups, besides a small amount of regrouping to provide the correct number for each grower.

The men are fed in a dining car in Mexico when transported by the National Railways of Mexico, and they are fed hot meals at their seats when travelling on the Southern Pacific of Mexico. With minor exceptions, all meals provided in the U. S. have been box lunches furnished on a contract with the Southern Pacific Company. Rail equipment is very limited in Mexico—the National Railways of Mexico have 13 coaches in their entire system not assigned to regular trains and the Southern Pacific of Mexico has nine coaches, three of which are second class cars and have only wooden seats. The National Railways have not been willing to accept the Southern Pacific's suggestion that this equipment be pooled, and so the next best arrangement has been affected. A special train is sent through Juarez on the National Railways and the empty cars are immediately returned to Mexico City—usually within six days. They are then loaded again and sent to Guadalajara, a trip of about 15 hours. At Guadalajara, the men are transferred to equipment of the Southern Pacific and the National Railways equipment is immediately returned to Mexico City, where it is serviced and ready for another trip to


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Juarez—within three days of the previous trip to Guadalajara. When shipments can be spaced seven or more days apart, it is preferable to send all movements through Juarez, as this trip is 24 hours shorter than by way of Guadalajara and Nogales and the feeding facilities are much better. The National Railways has provided a business car with sleeping accommodations for the transportation crew at no additional cost to the U. S. government.

At the point of destination, the group is checked off the train. The list of workers and the workers' cards are turned over to the Associate Employment Supervisor. (See Exhibit B for Schedule of Mexican Workers Transported). The workers' cards are set up in the Employment office as follows: The yellow workers' cards, after having the Growers' camp number inserted, are filed in numerical order. The triplicate identification card is filed alphabetically. The lists of the workers by Grower are filed in the Growers' folders which are filed alphabetically. A list of growers is then made assigning a number to each in a continuous series. This number will be the workers group number.

A train of 500 workers requires a minimum of four government employees in order that it may be handled with maximum efficiency. A crew of this size makes it possible to organize the workers carefully and to have all persons and documents checked before the train reaches the border, so that no delay is caused in crossing into the U. S.


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HOUSING

Upon receipt of information from the U. S. Employment Service that it appeared likely that a certification would be cleared through proper channels for 3000 Mexican workers to be used in sugar beets, the Farm Security Administration immediately took the necessary steps to inspect and approve housing for these workers.

Prior to field inspection, which was to be the basis for certification of the housing for transported beet workers, a feasible minimum housing standard was agreed upon and this outline met all requirements of the State Labor Code and the California State Division of Immigration and Housing.

In field inspection an attempt was made to locate sufficient existing housing that would meet the minimum standard or better. Where existing housing was found to be below standard and no other was available, field inspectors listed in detail those improvements, repairs and items necessary to meet the minimum standard. This list was in the form of an agreement which the inspector and the grower or other responsible party was required to sign. All work was to be done prior to the arrival of the workers and was to be subject to reinspection.

Reinspection was made where major repairs or new construction was to be done, or where some doubt existed in the mind of the field inspector as to the willingness or ability of the grower to


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make the repairs.

Inspection was done with the intention and objective of using the best of the available housing. Critical points of inspection were clean surroundings, safe disposal of human and food wastes, safe water supply, provision for washing of persons and laundry, and a structurally safe and reasonably weather-tight house.

The inspectors, with their engineering and architectural background, advised the growers as to how the minimum standard could be met, and left illustrative material if construction of toilets or shower baths was needed. In many cases, housing would meet standards if minor repairs such as clearing away of weeds and junk and a general all-around cleaning and disinfecting were done.

The available housing found by the field inspectors ranged from very poor to very good. The better housing was found on properties of the larger growers and in camps constructed by the sugar companies. This was due to the fact that these growers required larger quotas and could afford to hire the necessary cooks, supervisors and caretakers to properly operate the camp. The camp and housing was originally designed for this purpose and would include all necessary facilities.

The poorer housing was found principally among the smaller growers. This was due to the fact that in previous years smaller growers depended on workers living in town or on transients carrying their own housing and equipment. Those workers who wished and asked for housing were directed to any shed or structure the small grower


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had available, and it was up to the workers to put it in clean and livable condition, if they wished.

In cases where the camps were of such low standard that the required improvements would be a considerable undertaking, the growers, in collaboration with the sugar company officials, frequently arranged for housing needed by workers at a nearby camp of higher standard. A number of substitutions of this nature were made, so that the end effect has been to keep the workers out of the lowest class of housing.

In nearly all cases, growers were found willing to do whatever was suggested and believe the standards set up were reasonable. Their only complaint was that certain facilities, such as showers, flytight privies, clean houses and so on were misused and in many cases, such as shower houses, previous experience indicated that they would not be used at all. All growers seemed to agree that housing of a better standard should be furnished; that the workers deserved a decent place to live. Some growers expressed little sympathy with the workers because of their misuse and destruction of these facilities, if and when they were furnished in the past.

The following exhibits on Housing will be found in the APPENDIX:

Exhibit C — Housing inspection for Trains #1, #2, #3, #4 and #5.

Exhibit D — "Check Sheet for Inspection of Housing and Sanitary Facilities" (Form FSA 505)

Exhibit E — List of Repairs to be made as set forth by Form FSA 505 to bring housing up to said standard


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Exhibit F — A list of repairs to be made for a camp requiring major improvements

Exhibit G — A mimeographed illustration of FSA-designed-and-suggested house and privy toilet

Exhibit H — Housing Standards for FSA-transported workers in California


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MEDICAL CARE

The Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association became a part of the Mexican Labor Program subsequent to an agreement with the Farm Security Administration that the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association would assume responsibility for extending medical care to all Mexican Nationals transported into California and Arizona by the Farm Security Administration.

Two nurses from the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association were dispatched to Mexico City to assist in the enrollment of the Mexican labor. Physical examinations were given by both the United States and Mexican Public Health Services to all of the Mexican nationals before they were finally accepted for transportation. In this physical examination, attempts were made to eliminate any applicants suffering from tuberculosis, cardiac conditions, venereal diseases, and any other chronic condition or disability injury.

Nurses of the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association were assigned to the various localities where the Mexican laborers were distributed on the ranches operated by the sugar beet growers. The nurse, with the assistance of a stenographer, immediately made up individual membership certificates and corresponding account records for each Mexican national. As soon as these medical cards were made up, they were placed in the hands of the Farm Security Administration's agent for distribution to the Mexican nationals.

Instructions for use of the membership certificate in the


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Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association were given to the ranch owners, the group leaders, and wherever possible to the individual Mexican national. These instructions were very simple, namely:

"When the Mexican national becomes ill, send him to a doctor listed on the panel of physicians that has been supplied."

This panel included the majority of local physicians and was supplied to the rancher or group leader.

In the majority of areas, to date, the workers were so scattered that clinic operation was not desirable nor feasible. Where such concentration develops to warrant clinic operation, the only variation in the instructions will be for the Mexican national to be sent to the clinic when ill, except during nights or week-ends. At that time, he should again go directly to the physician.

Medical service, necessary surgery, dental service, hospitalization, laboratory service, and X-ray are being supplied the Mexican nationals through the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association.

As of November 20, 1942, a total of 430 Mexican nationals were treated for 458 illnesses, representing an encumbrance of $3926.64 to date. (See following Table).


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Mexican Labor — Encumbrances through November 20, 1942         
Physicians  Dentists  Hospitals  Drugs  Misc. 
October  $ 694.50  $19.00  $ 376.60  $23.89  $14.50  $1128.49 
November (to date)  1739.65  34.50  1006.00  18.00  2798.15 
Totals (to date)  $2434.15  $53.50  $1382.60  $23.89  $32.50  $3926.64 

Diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems were most prevalent. However, a large number of minor accidents were reported, which included, mainly, lacerations, bruises and sprains. Tables I and II, which appear in the APPENDIX as Exhibits I and J respectively, give the members served and a diagnostic breakdown of illnesses into types of services rendered. The incidence of illness has averaged 10% per month to date, which appears to be higher than the rate of other similar programs. However, in view of the type of illnesses reported, this in all probability is due to the change in climate and diet.


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COMPENSATION

Under the supplemental agreement made between the Farm Security Administration and California Field Crops, Inc. the latter corporation agreed to insure Mexicans transported in its behalf against injuries occurring during employment. Accordingly, California Field Crops, Inc. insured with the Pacific Indemnity Company.

As patron to the transported Mexican workers, the Farm Security Administration has a responsibility to them to see that their rights in this connection are properly recognized. In view of the fact that the Farm Security Administration is also obligated to see that all necessary medical assistance is secured by these workers, it has a further responsibility both to the workers and to the Federal Government for seeing that bona fide compensation cases are promptly and satisfactorily handled.

For the purpose of this report, the Pacific Indemnity Company was asked to furnish this Administration with a review of cases handled by it to date, and the Solicitor's Office was asked for an opinion as to the possible prejudice to employees' compensation rights in the event of failure to report them promptly and accurately.

The Pacific Indemnity Company is furnishing us with a list of the names of workers now in their possession as "file cases", but this will not be available in time for current analysis. It will be used primarily as a basis for direction of the field staff


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in providing follow-up on compensable cases.

The important information furnished us by the Pacific Indemnity Company is that they have started approximately 240 injury case files; but, of these, at least 100 are incomplete in that there have been no "employer's report of injury" filed for them. It is to be noted that the insurance company does not consider any case a claim case until it has been furnished with the employer's report.

The report from the Solicitor's Office indicates that the appropriate procedure is for the worker to give formal notice to the employer within 30 days of the occurrence of the injury. However, where the injury actually has become a matter of the employer's knowledge, regardless of method, the rights of the worker to compensation are not prejudiced, even in the absence of formal notice.

No comprehensive analysis of the cause and character of injuries has yet been received, but it is understood that hand and finger cuts from mishandling of the sugar beet knife greatly predominate. In some cases, the knife injuries have resulted in permanent loss of digits. Other more serious injuries such as a broken pelvis from a fall and even death due to crushing by a sugar beet truck have occurred.


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WAGES

Three major facts should be noted in connection with wages in the sugar beet industry as applied to transported Mexican workers:

(1) The prevailing wages as recommended by the California Farm Wage Board failed to accurately reflect the extremely complicated practices actually in operation and necessary to the employment of workers under the Farm Labor Transportation Program.

(2) The transportation of workers has a depressive effect on wages.

(3) In the absence of free bargaining between workers and employers (even on an individual basis) under the restrictive conditions of the Farm Security Administration contracts, no acceptable formula has been developed that will produce a wage, fair and equitable to worker and grower alike.

The question of wages has been the chief "thorn in the flesh" during the employment phase of the program. The method of determining wages and paying workers in sugar beets is a complicated system long established by custom. Difficulties in applying this customary method have arisen largely because an attempt was made to retain the tonnage rate of payment while at the same time eliminating the key individual who made the tonnage rate possible—the labor contractor.

In previous years it has been the general practice of sugar beet growers to have their beets harvested for them on a contract basis by a labor contractor who obtained the contract on a bid basis. The contractor looks a field over, estimates the number of tons of beets it will yield and the amount of labor involved


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in the topping and loading process. He then offers to harvest the beets for a rate per ton which he estimates will cover costs and make him a profit. The contractor thus assumes all responsibility for getting the beets out, provides the labor, supervises and pays same, provides food and in some cases housing for the workers.

Under such an arrangement, the grower pays the contractor on a tonnage basis but the contractor normally pays his labor on an hourly basis according to the ability of the individual worker. Furthermore, he groups his men according to abilities so that men of approximately equal skill work together in a crew. Such grouping is highly important, since the topping and loading process is by its very nature a group enterprise and the presence of slow workers in a crew holds the whole crew back. Under these conditions it is quite common for several crews to be working in adjacent fields at widely varying hourly rates.

Into this pattern of employment, the Farm Security Administration has attempted to fit 3000 transported Mexican nationals who never before had any opportunity to see a sugar beet and who represented only about one third of the total labor employed in the sugar beet harvest. The transportation program automatically eliminated the labor contractor, since it was the association of growers who contracted with the Farm Security Administration directly for the labor.

The original rates for the program as established by the Secretary of Agriculture called for an increase of 20% over the Sugar


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Division scale established earlier in the year for beets harvested on a tonnage basis. On a time basis, the prevailing rate for Northern California was set at 65¢ per hour. In Southern California, that is to say the Salinas and Santa Maria areas, tonnage rates only were established and they were set at the scale recommended by the Sugar Division, plus a bonus of 10¢ per ton. It was presumptive that the established prevailing scale would remain in force unless and until supplanted by a new finding made by the California Wage Board although, of course, it was permissive on the part of the growers to pay in excess of these established rates, if they so desired. Although some growers still adhere to this established scale, a very substantial number are now paying in excess of it, whether on a tonnage or hourly basis.

Since neither the Farm Security Administration nor the growers involved had had any previous experience with the workers transported, it was impossible to group the workers in advance according to ability. Since the workers had had no experience in beets it was difficult for them to make a good production showing on a tonnage basis during the first weeks of work and impossible for them to make any estimate of what their earning would be. They could not estimate what the yield of the fields would be nor how much they could produce, and, although technically they had the right of collective bargaining with the growers on a satisfactory tonnage rate just as a contractor would, actually such a right did not exist,


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since they did not have the knowledge on which to bargain. They had no contractor to bargain for them and the Farm Security Administration had no authority to assume such a role. The 3000 transported workers, therefore, found themselves working for an indefinite amount of wages, while in adjoining fields, experienced domestic workers employed by contractors were known to be getting fixed hourly rates ranging from 50¢ to 80¢ an hour. Dissatisfaction, misunderstandings, work stoppages were the inevitable result. Furthermore, it soon became apparent that, while a contractor with experienced domestic crews could be paid by the grower the tonnage rate established by the Secretary and still pay his laborers 75¢ an hour, inexperienced transported workers could not be paid the tonnage scale directly and still earn anywhere near 75¢ an hour.

The development of a satisfactory basis of payment for transported workers in the face of these difficulties has been a tremendous task involving the mediation of countless individual disagreements. Two general practices have developed out of these individual settlements. The majority of the transported workers, except those working in the Salinas-Santa Maria areas, are now being paid by growers on a straight hourly rate according to the ability of the crew (many crews had been regrouped to bring together men of more nearly equal ability). Hourly rates vary from 65¢ to 90¢. A large percentage of the workers are still working on a tonnage basis. Earnings in these cases are averaging about 50¢ to 55¢ an, although


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they range from less than 30¢ to in excess of 90¢. In many instances, however, crows continuing on a tonnage basis are now bargaining themselves with growers on the tonnage rate to be paid. This is now possible on the basis of several weeks' experience in the beets. The attached Exhibit K in the APPENDIX gives some idea of earnings, though figures are as yet quite incomplete.

It is evident from the experience to date that the only really satisfactory basis of payment for workers transported from Mexico is the hourly rate. The exact amount involved is not nearly so important as the worker's ability to understand the basis of payment and to know before he starts to work just what he will make. (See Exhibit L for Reporting Form used to show Weekly Work and Earnings (Form IX-543)).


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MEDIATION

The over-all activity of the employment staff in the field has been basically concerned with work adjustment. Through the continuous farm visits made and reported, the entire working and living conditions of the men are continuously under surveillance. By making periodic appraisals of working conditions, housing, sanitation, and general living conditions, sources of difficulties are anticipated in advance, and the necessary steps taken to alleviate these difficulties before they develop into disputes or complaints.

In making a farm visit and preparing the Farm Visit Report, the Assistant Employment Supervisor talks to the workers on the farm, the grower and/or the foreman. As a general practice, the Assistant Employment Supervisor attempts to see all parties concerned at the same time, so that the discussion held will represent each point of view, and provide an opportunity for clear understanding on the part of both the employer and the employees.

The entire emphasis at the time of the field visit is to: (1) determine the sources and reasons of friction and (2) settle informally, but concretely and conclusively, whatever issues are presented as problems.

As a problem is presented or develops in the field relative to the working or living conditions, the Assistant Employment Supervisor attempts to gather informally all the facts relative to the problem. He attempts to interpret both the problem and the


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facts to the workers and to the employer, and on the basis of these facts to suggest and recommend a reasonable and equitable solution, if one is readily apparent.

The Assistant Employment Supervisor makes a written report on the Farm Visit Report (Form IX-533) of each and every dispute or problem presented to him or discovered by him. He also reports what he was able to effect in the mediation of the problem. Should his solution not be satisfactory nor acceptable at the time of the farm visit, the problem is referred to Labor Relations, either for mediation by Labor Relations or the conducting of a formal hearing. (Exhibits M and N in the APPENDIX are samples of completed Farm Visit Reports (Form IX-533)).

Properly speaking, there have been no mediation activities as such in connection with the transportation program. This derives from the fact that the respective contracts drawn between the Farm Security Administration and the growers on the one hand and between the Farm Security Administration and the workers on the other may be regarded as the final authority in the handling of virtually every question of working or other conditions that has arisen and from the fact that the workers have never organized in such a manner that they could be regarded as a bona fide collective bargaining unit. Adjustments made in the application of the original contracts have taken three different forms.

  • (1) The field staff has been faced with a tremendous job of conciliation and adjustment based in part on misunderstanding
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    of the original contracts and in part on the practicability of applying some of the terms and conditions of the original contracts.
  • (2) Considerable attention has been directed toward the adjustment of individual workers to conditions prevailing in sugar beet work or other alternative employment under the transportation program.
  • (3) There have been some major adjustments in the total terms of the contract. After a decision has been made with respect to an adjustment in any of these three categories, the decision of the Farm Security Administration has been conclusive and neither party has had substantial recourse from the decision. The presumptive penalties have been forfeiture of bond by the growers on the one hand and return to Mexico by the workers on the other hand.

With respect to the first type of adjustments, that is conciliation of specific grievances between workers and growers on the farm, a partial analysis has been made covering workers sent to the Northern California area including Chico, Sacramento and Stockton. In the month of October there were 1978 transported workers in this area divided among 80 different groups. It was necessary for the field personnel to conciliate or render final decisions in connection with 91 wage grievances, 37 grievances over board, 70 grievances with respect to housing condition, and 46 other grievances of a


32
miscellaneous character.

Wage disputes revolved about payment of tonnage scale rather than an hourly scale; the inadequacy of tonnage rates on the lower yield acreages; the rates of pay received by transported workers in relation to those received by domestic workers; and the adequacy of wages (advances) actually received. Adjustments with respect to board involved the cost to worker, the adequacy of diet, and the quality of food preparation. Housing adjustments involved cleanliness and adequacy of the housing and furnishings, and the sanitary and bathing facilities. Miscellaneous adjustments involved a variety of things such as the accessibility of stores, the attitude of the management in field supervision, and the availability of recreational, educational, medical and other facilities.

A qualitative summary of this type of adjustment indicates that a high degree of reasonableness was exhibited both by employers and by workers and that, in spite of the substantial number of grievances arising, they were adjusted with relatively little lost working time and solved for the most part without recourse to arbitrary action.

The second general type of adjustment, that relating to maladjusted individuals, involved the handling of workers who deserted the growers to which they were assigned. This type of adjustment does not lend itself to generalization.

Major adjustments in the actual operating terms of the program were made in four instances. In effect, three of these adjustments


33
represented a concession on the part of the growers with respect to the literal terms of the contract. However, their advantage derived from the fact that they received an assurance of continuity of work performance on the part of the transported workers that unquestionably compensated for any nominal monetary loss. Actually these agreements were between the Farm Security Administration and California Field Crops, Inc., although they bound the workers and the direct employers.

The first of these was the Sacramento agreement covering Chico, Sacramento and Stockton areas which provided for a flat hourly rate of 65¢ over a two week period. This was agreed to in order that the workers would not be subjected to low tonnage rate earnings during the period of acclimatization. At the end of the two-week period, it was agreed that the grower should have the option of deciding the basis on which work would be continued. In effecting this agreement in the Chico area, the latter intention was inadvertently transposed and the workers were given the option of deciding the basis of payment.

The second agreement was made in Salinas when, after a period of some difficulty, it was agreed that the tonnage rate on each field would be determined on the basis of a field bargain made by the grower and the worker prior to the entry of the workers into the field. This removed from the grower the arbitrary right to determine the advance payment or to rely exclusively upon the wage board scale as the authoritative basis for payment.


34

The third agreement was made at Santa Maria and provided for an over-all increase of 20% in the tonnage rates paid to transported workers. This agreement affected only 44 workers.

Finally a general agreement was reached with California Field Crops, Inc. as to the disposition of workers who at the end of the second month of employment were still regarded by employers as unable to perform satisfactorily. The feeling was expressed by the Corporation that, if from 10% to 15% of workers who were substandard performers could be removed from the beet fields, a substantial improvement in labor relations would result. Farm Security acceded to this request, largely because alternative employments were developing and such separation from sugar beets would not automatically result in the return of the workers to Mexico.


35

FORMAL COMPLAINTS

The formal complaint proceeding has been established for the unique type of situation in which it appears that the solution may involve the return of the affected worker or workers to Mexico and in the termination of the employment agreement with the Farm Security Administration. Such a solution is of drastic character and may involve an arbitrary decision contrary to the wishes of the worker. It is imperative, therefore, that a concise and accurate statement of the related factors be recorded in a formal manner in order that there may exist a permanent record, should any further question arise as to the propriety of the action. This record is maintained on a Formal Complaint Report (Form IX-542), a copy of which appears as Exhibit P in the APPENDIX. The procedure requires that the Formal Complaint Reports be prepared by a representative of the Labor Division. Such representative may be a member of the Labor Division staff or a member of the Management staff who has received specific delegation of authority.

On the basis of reports cleared through the Labor Division office, there have been to date 250 actions involving the formal complaint proceeding. Of these, 241 were initiated by workers claiming unwillingness or inability to continue work in sugar beets and 9 were initiated by growers who charged that the workers involved were not able to perform satisfactorily. In disposing of these cases, 203 were repatriated and 47 assigned to the Forest Service


36
Guayule Project at Salinas.

Unwillingness of workers to perform satisfactorily stemmed from a dislike of sugar beet employment in 78 cases; from personal reasons such as illness or death in the family of the worker in Mexico, or homesickness, in 49 cases; from objection to the tonnage basis of payment in 9 cases; from dislike of the treatment afforded them by growers in 9 cases; from inability to get along with their fellow workers in 7 cases; from dislike of climatic conditions in 5 cases; and from a general dislike of any farm work in 16 cases. Inability to perform sugar beet work as a basis of repatriation or assignment to employment in guayule was due in 11 cases, because the workers were handicapped by injuries of one kind or another suffered prior to their entry into the United States. In one case, the Mexican Government required repatriation. The actual cause of inability to work in the remaining 65 cases in this class is not clear from the record, but, in general, it is believed to involve the absence of sufficient vigor, strength and ruggedness to meet the exacting requirements of the rigorous task of topping and loading sugar beets.


37

REPATRIATION

Repatriation occurs immediately following the termination of of the worker's contract with the Farm Security Administration.

The Employment Termination Agreement (Form IX-546) is executed in every instance when a decision is made to repatriate a worker to Mexico. Regardless of the reason for repatriation, prior to the execution of the Employment Termination Agreement, a Formal Complaint Report (Form IX-542) is completed, showing thereon the facts that lead to the decision to repatriate. Copies of sample cases in which Form IX-546 and IX-542 were used appear as Exhibits O and P in the APPENDIX.

At the time the Mexican national contracts to work in United States agriculture, it is assumed that he will continue to work during the period of his contract agreement. However, many and varied circumstances arise which make it necessary to terminate the contract and repatriate the worker prior to the normal termination date. As is shown in the accompanying Table, Exhibit Q, the reason for repatriation of the 165 nationals returned prior to November 21, 1942 are varied. Three broad categories may be summarized as:

  • (1) Physical inability to perform work in sugar beets
  • (2) Unwillingness to perform work in sugar beets
  • (3) Illness and/or family difficulties

The worker may be considered for repatriation at the request of either (1) the worker himself, (2) the employer, or (3) the Farm


38
Security Administration. If the worker requests repatriation, the reasons for the request and the findings thereof are incorporated on the Formal Complaint Report form, and the recommendation of the Labor Relations Specialist or his designated agent is made. If the decision is a recommendation of repatriation, the Assistant Employment Supervisor executes and the worker signs the Employment Termination Agreement. If either the employer or the Farm Security Administration has a complaint indicating that the worker's contract has been broken, the Labor Relations Specialist conducts a hearing based on the Formal Complaint Report. The findings are recorded, and if the recommendation is "Repatriation", a Termination Agreement is executed.

As soon as the Termination Agreement is signed, the Agent Cashier arranges transportation for the worker and/or group of workers to return to Mexico. Prior to the actual entrainment, the Assistant Employment Supervisor advises the Regional Office by wire of the name and number of the worker, the reason for repatriation, and the train on which the worker is being returned. The Assistant Employment Supervisor also wires the Immigration Inspector at El Paso information concerning the name and number of the worker and what train he is traveling on.

Information as to the name and number of workers to be repatriated, the reasons for repatriation, and the train on which they are to be repatriated is sent by the Assistant Employment Supervisor to the


39
Assistant Regional Director, MA in San Francisco. A wire is then sent from the Regional Office to Mr. Frank Brown in Mexico City as to the names, contract numbers, reasons for repatriation, and probable time of arrival of each group of workers.

As previously indicated, by November 1, 1942 165 of the 3004 Mexican nationals were repatriated, and the process is a continuing one, with small groups of workers leaving each week.

Prior to repatriation, the Employment Staff verifies that all wages due the worker have been received by him and requests a Final Earnings Report from the employer. Upon receipt of this Final Earnings Report, the Regional Office notifies California Field Crops, Inc. to forward immediately the 10% of the worker's earnings which has been deducted. This 10% is then forwarded to the Denver Accounting Division for transmittal to Mexico, where it will be available to the repatriated worker.

Copies of the formal Complaint Report and Employment Termination Agreement are retained in the worker's file in the Regional Office; copies of the Formal Complaint Report are also forwarded to the Mexico City Farm Security Administration Office, so that the complete information relative to repatriated men may be available to the Mexican Government.


40

MISSING WORKERS

Up to and including November 14, 1942, 103 Mexican nationals have disappeared and have not been relocated.

For a short time at the beginning of the program, the Immigration Service assigned three inspectors to the Farm Security Administration. The primary work of these inspectors was to attempt to locate immediately any and all Mexican nationals reported as missing. However, during the first week in November, the Immigration Service withdrew the inspectors from the local offices, thus necessitating a change in the procedure relative to missing men. Currently, the procedure for handling men reported as missing is as follows:

  • (1) The Field Office keeps a calendar record of all men reported as missing. This record indicates the date the office was notified of the disappearance, and the name of the person or organization reporting the disappearance.
  • (2) As soon as a man is reported missing, the Employment Staff makes a reasonable attempt locally to locate the man.
  • (3) If the man is not found, he is given a waiting period of six days to return voluntarily. If he is still missing at the end of this six-day period, the Assistant Employment Supervisor notifies in writing the nearest office of the Immigration Service. This notification includes whatever pertinent facts are available, as well as identifying data
    41
    about the missing man. At the same time, a copy of the letter to the Immigration Service is forwarded to the Regional Office, and an additional copy is placed in the worker's file in the Field Office. At this point, the missing worker becomes the responsibility of the U. S. Immigration Service.

There have been many more men reported as missing than indicated in the above figure of 103. However, the majority of workers reported as missing have to date been located by the Employment Staff, and the men either returned to their assigned employer, transferred to other employers, or were repatriated. Most of the missing men, later located, have been found working elsewhere than with their assigned employer. This was particularly true during the first several weeks of the program when there was rather general misunderstanding on the part of those men reported as missing. This condition may essentially be attributed to the policy of "pirating" as practiced by some agricultural employers. It is believed that the workers now understand the terms under which their contracts have been assigned to California Field Crops, Inc., and are not transferring into other work to the extent previously reported. It is of interest to note that the great majority of missing men were reported from those areas where the wage structure was under continuous dispute. In those areas where the wage structure was clearly defined and satisfactory to all parties, only a negligible number of men were reported as missing. (See Exhibit R for estimates of missing workers)


42

TRANSFER TO GUAYULE PRIOR TO EXPIRATION OF ORIGINAL CONTRACT

Shortly after October 15, 1942 it was apparent that a certain small percentage of the Mexican workers in sugar beets would not be able to perform the work. This meant that these workers would have to be repatriated, so formal conversations were held with officials of the Forestry Service to explore the possibilities of using Mexican nationals in the expanding guayule projects in California. The Forestry Service indicated that they were faced with a definite labor shortage in guayule and expressed a willingness and desire to utilize a relatively small number of Mexican nationals at either their Salinas or Patterson projects. A decision was reached, and confirmed by memorandum, to experiment with a limited number of Mexican nationals at the Salinas guayule project. It was determined to assign certain selected workers to guayule who were unable to perform the work in sugar beets primarily for physical reasons. The assignment of these workers was first made only from the Salinas area, and these assignments were made on an individual basis, after a determination that the worker could not perform sugar beet work. Beginning on the 10th of November, arrangements were made for the Stockton and Sacramento areas to offer guayule work to workers who were unable to perform in the sugar beets and would otherwise have to be repatriated immediately. Up to and including November 21, approximately 100 of the Mexican nationals had been transferred to


43
the Salinas guayule project. To date, the Forestry Service has been thoroughly satisfied with the work performed by most of these men.

The working conditions at the Salinas project call for payment of wages on the basis of 50¢ an hour, plus board and lodging. These wages are subject to periodic adjustment by the Forestry Service depending on the prevailing wage.

The use of this arrangement prior to the expiration of the original contract has essentially served a two-fold purpose:

  • (1) Permitted a retention of the Mexican men here for a necessary war crop, and the experimental use of workers in this now crop.
  • (2) Permitted a reasonable middle alternative between the two extremes of unsatisfactory sugar beet work and immediate repatriation.

44

PLANS FOR TRANSFER TO OTHER CROPS (including guayule) ON OR ABOUT DECEMBER 15, 1942

The plans for employment of that portion of the first group of 3000 Mexican workers who will remain in the United States after December 15, 1942 (approximately 2500) are in a state of flux, and it is extremely difficult to state exactly what crops these men will work in at the expiration of their present contracts.

First of all, it is possible that a number of the workers now in the United States will elect to return to Mexico on or about December 15. Furthermore, in connection with the renewal of individual work agreements, the Farm Security Administration will use this opportunity to terminate the contracts of any workers who have not proved to be satisfactory during their first employment period. At the present time, it appears that the Farm Security Administration will renew contracts with between 2000 and 2300 workers, if that number of workers should desire to remain in the United States. Before these contracts can be renewed, it is necessary that the U. S. Employment Service in Washington, D. C. notify the U. S. Immigration Service that these workers are needed for agricultural work in the United States. When the Immigration Service indicates that it will extend the expiration dates of the workers' permits of entry, the Farm Security Administration will be free to renew individual work agreements.

In all probability, the workers remaining in the United States


45
after December 15, 1942 will work in vegetables, citrus, general soil preparation, and, perhaps, guayule. It is not possible, at the present time, to give any accurate forecast on how many workers will be used in each of the above crops, as this entire matter is now in the process of negotiation.


46

RELATIONSHIPS WITH CALIFORNIA FIELD CROPS, INC.

There are four major sugar producers in California: Spreckels Sugar Company, Holley Sugar Company, American Crystal Sugar Company, and Union Sugar Company. Together these companies absorb the sugar beet production of California. In order to keep their refineries going, the sugar companies are vitally interested in the provision of labor for various activities in connection with the harvesting of the sugar beet itself. The growers of sugar beets in California contract their production with one of these sugar companies. The operations of the grower are closely watched by the sugar companies because the acreage planted, the crop practices, cultivation, and other factors have a definite bearing on the yield, and the yield in turn has a definite bearing on the amount of stock which will actually be produced by any one sugar company.

The functions performed in connection with the harvesting absorbs a considerable amount of labor. There are two mail seasons, the first, which takes place immediately subsequent to planting operations, consists in blocking and thinning; and the second, which takes place at the time sugar beets are harvested are colloquially known as loading and topping operations. Both operations absorb considerable amounts of field labor.

It became apparent to the sugar growers early in the Spring, and we must suppose that the basis for the supposition was the difficulty in obtaining labor for the blocking and thinning operations,


47
that they were going to experience considerable difficulty in obtaining sufficient labor for the harvest (loading and topping). The sugar companies therefore pooled their interests in regard to labor and established a corporation for the purpose of meeting the grower's labor problems. This corporation, known as California Field Crops, Inc., began operations early in 1942 and proceeded to bring its problems to the attention of the different authorities in Washington. Primarily, the objective of this corporation was to secure for the harvest operation of sugar beets in California, services of Mexican Nationals. Consequently, the discussions of the relationships of the employer group become a discussion of the Nationals and the California Field Crops, Inc.

Our first contact with California Field Crops, Inc., was in Washington subsequent to the time of the formulation of the international arrangement between Mexico and the United States on August 4, 1942. Mr. Roland C. Foerster of the firm of Morrison Hohfeld Foerster Sherman and Clark was in Washington at the time closely following the steps which were being taken toward solving the problem of putting into effect the international arrangement with Mexico.

It appeared early that two things would be necessary. First, some form of contractual relationship between Mexican Nationals and the United States Government, and secondly, some form of contractual relationship between the Government and the user of the labor of Mexican Nationals. Consequently, Mr. Foerster was exceedingly interested in the work which was being done in Washington by several


48
agencies, notably the Farm Security Administration, War Manpower Commission, and the Labor Management Committee of the War Production Board in deciding as to the form of contract between the Government and the employers would take. This contract known as a cooperative employment agreement was finally agreed upon between interested Government agencies. A copy of this agreement is attached.

The Chief representative of California Field Crops, Inc., was Mr. Earl Coke, General Manager of the California Field Crops, Inc. Upon Mr. Hewes' return to San Francisco on August 27, Mr. Coke and various officials of the sugar companies of standard beet growers, including Mr. Gordon Lyon, Executive Secretary of the sugar beet growers of Central California, visited the FSA office, and we discussed in general terms the provisions of the contract and the problems which would confront California Field Crops, Inc., in meeting the obligations set by the Government. Several other meetings were held subsequent to this first meeting. In general, the topics discussed were (1) housing of the workers, (2) feeding, (3) bond requirements to be met by California Field Crops, Inc., in connection with guarantee of performance, (4) workman's compensation insurance, (5) wages, (6) labor relations.

California Field Crops, Inc., indicated that they proposed to operate in the field by establishing field employees known as field representatives. These individuals were already performing similar functions inasmuch as they were field representatives of the various sugar companies. California Field Crops, Inc., through these field


49
representatives and to some extent, by reason of the contractual obligation existing between the sugar companies and the growers made their own individual arrangements between the growers for whom the Mexican Nationals were actually to work and California Field Crops, Inc.

It should be pointed out here that whatever success may have resulted from the transportation of the initial group of Mexican Nationals to do agricultural work in California was largely due to the careful planning by California Field Crops, Inc. It should also be borne in mind that the production of sugar beets is a highly integrated industry and that the growers and processors are more tightly connected than is generally true in other agricultural operations. Therefore, the California Field Crops, Inc., represented a much higher degree of responsibility than can be generally encountered in other lines of agricultural products.

California Field Crops, Inc., was in a position to negotiate with Farm Security Administration, to make decisions, to execute contracts, and to do all those things which are necessarily presupposed in the assuming of responsibility of contractual relations. In spite of the highly integrated and highly responsible position in which we found California Field Crops, Inc., a great many problems, some of them very serious, have developed in the actual working out of the program. It has been extremely difficult for the California Field Crops, Inc., to control its growers and one wonders just what the situation would be in more loosely organized industries.


50

California Field Crops, Inc., executed the cooperative employment agreement covering the first 1500 workers required by the Farm Security Administration under date of September 16, 1942, furnishing at the same time evidence of having procured surety bond in the amount of $100,000 and also employer's workmens' compensation liability surety. Under date of September 29, 1942, cooperative employment agreement covering an additional 1500 workers was executed and an additional bond in the amount of $100,000. These latter workers were included under Compensation policy.

Shortly after the first trainload of workers arrived on October 5, 1942, it became apparent that the workers were greatly dissatisfied with a number of conditions and they justly or unjustly took action in the form of filing complaints and work stoppage. It became necessary therefore to negotiate certain aspects of the contract with California Field Crops, Inc., the main difficulty arising out of the fact that the traditional piece work method as paid by sugar beet growers was not satisfactory to the Mexican workers. California Field Crops, Inc., through Mr. Earl Coke was willing to make certain concessions with regard to payment of the Mexican workers and the changes decided upon were put into effect in the first half of August in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valley Areas.

It should be said on behalf of California Field Crops, Inc., that they have shown every desire to carry out their contractual obligation and have worked assiduously towards the successful operation of the Mexican Farm Labor Transportation Program insofar as they


51
were affected by it. Although many problems have presented themselves, it must be said in justice that although several growers have been unwilling to meet standards required by the Government, that this is not due to any failure on the California Field Crops, Inc., officials to adjust such discrepancies. California Field Crops, Inc., has been uniformly cooperative, intelligent, and farsighted in the handling of various problems that have arisen. They have met their financial obligations to the Government promptly and in conformity with the procedure established. On the other hand, it has been extremely difficult for California Field Crops, Inc., to secure from the growers an accurate accounting of the wages earned by the Mexicans and although we have knowledge of the fact that the California Field Crops, Inc., has made every effort to prevail on the grower to make an accounting as required by the Farm Security Administration, very wide gaps are now evidenced which can only be attributed to the grower's carelessness in carrying out the small amount of simple record keeping required by this program. One unfortunate aspect of this failure is the requirement of the Mexican Government for 10% of the worker's wages be deducted and forwarded to the Mexican Government to be there held for the worker's account. The responsibility of making this deduction falls on the Farm Security Administration. The Farm Security Administration must maintain records based on actual earnings. The failure of the growers to maintain actual and accurate time and earnings statements, and the failure or the consequent inability of the sugar companies to provide these records in turn makes maintenance
52
by the Farm Security of its records extremely difficult. Inasmuch as an accounting has to be made by this Government to the Mexican Government, the only recourse which the Farm Security Administration will have if it is unable to make a reconciliation will be against California Field Crops, Inc., under the terms of the contract.


53

RELATIONS WITH MEXICAN OFFICIALS IN CALIFORNIA

Consular Offices of the Mexican Government in California in the area in which Mexican Nationals were transported to work in sugar beets are located at Sacramento, San Francisco, Fresno, and Los Angeles. The Mexican Nationals imported in sugar beets in the Sacramento-Stockton area were under the jurisdiction of the Consular Office at Sacramento. The Nationals in the lower Sacramento Delta, Stockton-San Jose area were under the jurisdiction of the Consular Office at San Francisco. Those in the Salinas Valley and King City were under the jurisdiction of the Consular Office at Fresno, and those in the Santa Barbara County were under the jurisdiction of the Consular Office at Los Angeles.

In addition, the Mexican Government sent along with the special trains carrying the Mexican Nationals, two inspectors of the Mexican Labor Department, Senor Martinez Morales Flores and Senor Arredondo Padilla. These two gentlemen and the Consular Officials of the staff of the above designated offices constituted the representatives of the Mexican Government with whom Farm Security Administration officials have dealt since the first trainload of Mexican workers arrived in the Sacramento-Stockton area, September 29, 1942.

Farm Security Administration officials and the Mexican officials have worked together harmoniously. The object of both sets of the officials was, namely, the protection of the interests of the Mexican Nationals and mediation of such problems as arose between them and


54
the grower-employer. The Consular Officials and the representatives of the Mexican Department of Labor have shown a great deal of intelligence in quickly and clearly apprehending the problems of labor relations and the problems of labor management arising in the harvesting of sugar beets. The distribution of consular territory has proven somewhat of a handicap due to the fact that the Fresno Consular Office does not find it easy to work in the Salinas, King City Area. Likewise, the San Francisco Regional Office of the Farm Security Administration has encountered difficulty in arranging quick and easy communications with the Mexican Consular Office at Los Angeles. However, these are merely matters of geographical and territorial adjustment and not personality.

For the first several weeks after the workers arrived, numerous delegates and workers came into San Francisco or into the other Consular Offices from considerable distances to bring to the attention of these officials grievances and complaints in connection with their work. The policies generally followed by the Consular officials was to get the men to return to work with the promise that their problems would be adjudicated by Farm Security if they would make proper representations to the Farm Security Administration in the neighborhood in which they worked.

The Consular officials experienced a very heavy over-burden of work during the first trying weeks after the workers had arrived. In general, the problem presented to these officials was to bring to our attention the grievances of their Nationals and to attempt to


55
get a settlement through our mediation with the growers. The problem presenting itself to Farm Security Administration as a result of these referrals was that of obtaining adjustment by again referring these problems through California Field Crops, Inc. In a good many instances these problems were adjusted, although some of them took an unduly long period of time to work out.

The general nature of the complaints was that the Mexican Nationals felt that they were being discriminated against because they were receiving wages on piece work rates and the beet fields in which they were expected to work were of poor quality, that is the beets were small, the fields weedy and not properly cultivated, and consequently on a piece work basis the prevailing wage set by the Secretary's Wage Board did not permit them to make adequate earnings.

A good many of these cases were settled by removing the workers to farms where the beets were better or where the growers were willing to use an hourly rate. However, on the other hand, in reviewing some of the complaints it became apparent that the workers were unfitted or unwilling to work in sugar beet harvesting. In some of these cases it was necessary to repatriate the individual. In a great many of these cases the Mexican Consular Offices were advised of the repatriation proceedings and in many cases took part in them. It can be said that the Mexican Consular officials were in agreement with every case of voluntary or involuntary repatriation. It should be noted, however, that almost all cases of repatriation were voluntary.


56

ATTITUDE OF THE MEXICAN OFFICIALS IN CALIFORNIA TOWARD FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

Our encounters with Mexican officials have been extremely pleasant. We have found them to be courteous, reasonable and assiduous in the protection of their Nationals. On the other hand, they have been realistic and intelligent in recognizing the conditions attendant upon agricultural wage labor in California are not too good, and that the present war conditions hamper any large-scale efforts to improve them. The Farm Security Administration was frank in its admission of the fact that the housing and living conditions in the growers' camps occupied by Mexican Nationals were a bare minimum but were the best that could be had under existing conditions. The Mexican officials and the Farm Security Administration alike, believe that unless vigorous action on behalf of the Mexican Nationals had not been taken, a good many of the Nationals would have returned home dissatisfied both with their work experience and their visit in the United States. This might have been a focal point for the dissemination of anti-United States sentiment. In their attempt to explain all these problems to the workers, the consul and labor department officials have done a great deal to make good relationships between the two countries. It is our belief that the officials of these agencies are aware of the integrity and the efforts of the Farm Security Administration and of the difficulties and problems faced by the Farm Security Administration during this difficult


57
and trying period. These Mexican officials have been very prompt and accurate in reporting conditions as they found them to their Central Office in Mexico City, and it can be assumed that the Mexican Government is in full possession of all the facts which these officials have observed.

SPECIAL CASES

It must be borne in mind that in transporting 3000 human beings from their homes, that a number of cases requiring individual care would occur. There have been up to the present time one accidental death, one death from natural causes, a large number of accidental injuries, and a considerable number of illnesses of more or less severe nature, and two cases of injuries involving five Mexican Nationals, caused by automobile accidents. There have also been a few cases of arrest for petty offenses and several cases where workers have left agriculture and gone into industry. One particular case involving the Mexican Consul at Los Angeles occurred in which some twelve Mexican Nationals left their King City and Stockton sugar beet employment and went to work in a warehouse in Los Angeles. In a number of these cases all that was necessary to do was to advise the proper Mexican Consular authority of the occurrences and to advise them of the limited extent of the Farm Security Administration authority so that there could be a clear delimitation of responsibility. In those cases where the question of personal damages arose, the Mexican Consul provided legal representation for the


58
Mexican Nationals with the view to protecting the rights of the injured person.

A final conclusion on this particular phase of the operations is that the Mexican Consular offices and the Mexican Government was not adequately staffed to undertake the solution of the myriad of problems that arose and consequently individual members of the Consular's staff carried a tremendous overburden of work. It is our feeling that since a large percentage of the work performed by these officials redounds to our benefit that some means should be found whereby the expense incident to providing adequate personnel to supplement those persons representing the Mexican Department of Labor and Mexican Consular's staff should be borne by the United States. It would have been impossible for the Farm Security Administration to have met its commitments and obligations to the Mexican Government or even to have secured performance on the part of the workers if it had not been for the very great assistance received from the Mexican Government here in the United States. It should be borne in mind that Mexican officials coming to the United States for official work were under the added handicap of the adverse exchange rates so that they have had to get along on an insufficient amount of funds as well as insufficient personnel. This resulted in handicaps, and personal hardship, all of which tended to create a far from comfortable position for the Mexican officials. It is recommended therefore that in any future transportation of the Mexican Nationals,


59
that some means be found in advance so that the United States can stand its full share of the costs of these services which directly redound to our advantage.


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EDUCATIONAL AND RECREATIONAL PROGRAM

The educational and recreational program was designed to provide the Mexican Nationals with recreational outlets and to assist them in developing, within reasonable bounds, their agricultural skills. The establishment of this agendum was done with the following considerations in mind: instruction in English so that the Mexican Nationals could orient themselves to their new surroundings and maintain cultural, recreational, and economic contacts with the people about them, and to teach them simple agricultural terms so that they could more readily assimilate courses in agricultural skills and techniques. In this latter phase of the program we are receiving the whole-hearted cooperation of the California State Department of Education through the Rural War Production Training Program. This program was established by Congress for providing vocational training to help achieve farm production goals designated by the Secretary of Agriculture. These courses were designed for out of school youths and adults, but through the cooperation of the Farm Security Administration and the United States Office of Education they were extended for the benefit of the Mexican Nationals.

The courses in English are being given through the cooperation of the California State Department of Education and local school boards. On the whole we have found most school boards to be very receptive to the idea of making their facilities available to the Mexican Nationals.


61

There are now 22 classes in progress at the following places:

  • Salinas
  •     4 classes
  • Sacramento
  •     3 classes
  • Chico
  •     2 classes
  • Hollister
  •     2 classes
  • Santa Maria
  •     2 classes
  • Thornton
  •     1 class
  • Tracy
  •     1 class
  • San Jose
  •     1 class
  • Colusa
  •     1 class
  • Gonzales
  •     1 class
  • Gilroy
  •     1 class
  • King City
  •     1 class
  • Davis
  •     1 class
  • Pleasanton
  •     1 class

Also preliminary arrangements have been completed for additional classes at:

  • Woodland
  •     Gilroy
  • Clarksburg
  •     Colusa
  • San Luis Obispo
  •     Imperial Valley (4 classes)
  • Salinas (at least 4 classes for the workers in guayule)
  •     

Approximately 900 Mexican Nationals are now attending these classes.

The main factor in preventing greater attendance is the lack of transportation. Many of the camps are located at great distances from schoolhouses, and because of the tire situation, many growers are adverse to using their trucks except during the working day. Several school boards have set an excellent precedent by extending the services of their school buses for transporting the Mexican Nationals to and from classes. Another factor that limits attendance is the physical condition of the men at the end of the day. After a long and hard day at work, which is still new to them, many men are not greatly interested in an educational program.


62

As an example of how these classes function, we mention the case of the Salinas night school. The first 40 minutes of the two-hour session is devoted to English instruction. The students are divided into small groups so that each one receives the benefit of some individual attention. The second 40 minute period is used for visual education in California crop activities. This is accompanied by an interpreter's lecture on the films and slides. The final 40 minutes is again devoted to English instruction. Those classes meet twice a week. This pattern is being followed in a number of schools.

The reaction of the Mexican Nationals is highly satisfactory. That their interest is genuine is eloquently attested to by the fact that class attendance is increasing steadily, and that requests for more classes come in continuously. This attitude of the Mexican Nationals has produced excellent results. At Hollister, California, which is in the heart of an area that has always been opposed to any programs for agricultural workers, the daily paper, the "Evening Free Lance" wrote: "Talking with the worker-students, this writer was impressed by the intelligence and interest shown by these men.....These men had put in a long day at field work, to which most of them had previously been unaccustomed; it was a cold, rainy evening, the classroom was none too warm, and they were all obviously tired; but their interest and eagerness to learn were inspiring."


63

A good example of how the Mexican Nationals are being received by cooperating school authorities is seen in the case of the North Sacramento Night School. Here the principal personally conducted the men through the building, explaining to them how the school functioned. He completed this introductory tour with a program of organ music.

The principal indicated that he would offer the men, film and musical programs and such sports as he could arrange. In order to make them feel at home, he is having them meet groups of other students.

The recreational activities have proven to be just as important in maintaining the morale of the Mexican Nationals on a high level. These activities take the form of group games such as soccer football, volley ball, baseball, and entertainments to which large numbers of the men are invited. A sample analysis of farm visit reports covering slightly more than half of the camp groups shows that the men have satisfactory recreational opportunities in 70 per cent of the total number.

The program of informal sports activities is somewhat hampered by the lack of equipment. In some instances, the men have brought some items for their own use. Contacts have been made with the Recreation Division of the Federal Security Agency. Through the sincere interest and wholehearted cooperation of Mr. Harry Stoops, and Mr. Cecil George of that agency, we may be able to obtain funds


64
for a recreation program under the Lanham Act. Through the efforts of these men it is almost assured that the California State Department of education will act as the needed sponsor. In this way we shall be able to obtain not only equipment, but trained recreation leaders. Once this program is under way in California, the same plan will be set up for the Mexican Nationals in Arizona. This recreation will also be available for any domestic workers under the jurisdiction of the Farm Labor Transportation Program.

Successful contacts were also made with the Motion Picture Society for the Americas, which is affiliated with the Office of Inter-American Affairs. This agency has made available for our use its extensive library of 16 mm sound films in Spanish. Plans are under consideration for the early exhibition of these films.

In order to round out the informal recreation program, efforts have been made to interest the growers in providing radio receivers in their camps. A number of them have already done this, and we hope eventually to have all our groups thus provided. We are also attempting to promote more local broadcasts of Spanish programs. At Chico, preliminary plans have been completed for a broadcast on which Mexican Nationals will appear.

A plan has been worked out with Señor Frausto of the Mexican Consulate in San Francisco whereby Mexican newspapers and periodicals will be distributed, shortly, to the camps by our field offices. Señor Frausto is completing arrangements to have this reading matter


65
sent here from Mexico City.

The entertainment program seems to have taken hold of communities, and the efforts put forth have been generously rewarded. With but slight encouragement, a number of communities have organized "fiestas" which as many as 600 Mexican Nationals have attended at one time. We have had outstanding successes at Chico, Sacramento, Thornton, Woodland, and other cities. In these programs, community groups such as councils of social agencies, chambers of commerce, women's clubs, service clubs, churches, etc., have acted as sponsors. One of the greatest successes was at Chico on November 7, when the community entertained a large group of Mexican Nationals. Here, civic leaders and the average citizens vied with each other in making the guests welcome. Addresses were delivered by the mayor, a representative of the Mexican Consulate in San Francisco, the secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and others. A response was offered by one of the Mexican Nationals, thanking the community for its splendid manifestation of good will. The Chico Enterprise, which devoted slightly more than two full columns to the affair, reported in part: "Saturday night's reception was outstanding proof of a people's spontaneous good will, courtesy, and kindliness expressed by both nationalities, one to the other, with an life and informality that breeds solidarity.....The men are from all walks of life in their native country and the feeling they expressed.....individually to those who talked with them, was that.....they would leave with friendship and would carry that same


66
feeling home.....Equally happy about the success of the reception were the Chicans present, who threw formality to the winds and exerted every effort to extend hospitality to the Mexicans, who were receptive, interested guests and a spirit of good-fellowship carried throughout the evening".

At the Thornton Farm Security Administration Camp for farm workers, the Mexican Nationals have been invited to all the weekly dances and entertainments. Here they have made themselves well liked by the way they joined in the festivities. Their success at the camp's "amateur hour" is attested to by the fact that they have been winning a large share of the prizes, which are War Savings Stamps. A warm regard for each other has resulted from the close contact between the Mexican Nationals and the domestic farm workers.

The same sort of good-fellowship has been evident at all the "fiestas". Not a little of it is due to the way the Mexican Nationals entered into the spirit of things. They were not content to sit back and be entertained, but in all places have cheerfully participated in the entertainment. Mexican songs and music have become popular features of all these gatherings.

Besides the foregoing activities, communities also have become interested in the spiritual well-being of the Mexican Nationals. In many of them, arrangements have been made for special church services. Growers seem to have responded well to the desires of


67
the men for church attendance by providing transportation from outlying camps. The National Travelers Aid Society has generously offered its case-work services whenever required, and will be glad to aid us in finding emergency housing and meeting trains. Contacts have been had with the National Catholic Community Service with the result that staff members of the Catholic Charities, in the various communities in which we have placed Mexican Nationals, have been requested to land their assistance to us whenever possible.

The net result of our educational and recreational programs has been not only a bolstering of the morale of the Mexican Nationals, but also a definite factor in the creation of good-will between them and the communities in which they are working. The whole-hearted response of the workers to any friendliness shown them has been so stimulating to the communities that the latter have continued an increasing activity to do all they can for the Mexican Nationals. The way the men have joined in the programs, their eagerness to learn English, and their ability to do a good job, is winning them more friends daily. The general deportment of the Mexican Nationals, their courtesy, their consideration, and their good spirits came as a surprise to many who were inclined to belittle their status. These characteristics of the Mexican Nationals have gone a long way in bringing out the traditional friendliness of the local citizenry with the net result that the creation of good-will between the meeting groups has become a


68
reality rather than a vague ideal to be worked for.

The continuation of the present educational and recreational program on its present course cannot help but prove in the long run a vital factor in the firm cementing of the spirit of good-will, continued friendship, and greater understanding between the people of the United States and Mexico.


69

THE PRESS

On August 7, 1942, the War Manpower Commission announced publicly the organization of a Farm Labor Transportation program, to be administered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and "managed by the Farm Security Administration in cooperation with State and county USDA War Boards and the U. S. Employment Service."

On August 20 the Department of Agriculture issued a national press release further outlining the Farm Labor Transportation program and mentioning that FSA was "working out operating details to bring in agricultural workers from Mexico."

In line with directives received by L. I. Hewes, Jr., FSA regional director at San Francisco, the Region IX Information Division on August 22 issued a press release announcing "the appointment of Henry A. McCarrie....to negotiate directly with growers' associations and other farm groups regarding transportation, distribution and importation of workers." This first news story was distributed region-wide.

On August 26, a radio script entitled "News About Transportation of Farm Labor" was broadcast on the USDA program "Western Agriculture." This 10-minute dialogue outlined working principles of the FLT program, mentioned the appointment of a Wage Board and the time of hearings, offered practical information to prospective employers of transported farm labor.

Two days later the Department of Agriculture published news


70
of the designation of L. I. Hewes, Jr., to direct the FSA's part in the Mexican phase of the FLT program. A regional release of this news was unnecessary, but the following day, August 29, the Region IX information Division followed up with a region-wide press release titled "FSA Will Set Up Labor Recruiting Offices in Mexico." This story announced the appointment by Mr. Hewes of Mr. H. P. Brown, to act for him in establishing headquarters at Mexico City, staffing field offices, etc. It anticipated the next steps to be taken in the FLT program, anticipated the time of arrival of the first Mexican workers, and explained the respective rules played in this program by Farm Security, U. S. Employment Service and War Manpower Commission.

On August 31 the Division released news of the California Wage Board hearing to be held that day in Sacramento, and with this lead again explained domestic and Mexican phases of farm labor transportation.

Mr. F. R. Soule, the regional information specialist, attended the wage hearings a few days later in Los Angeles. During his stay there he made public relations contacts with leaders of the Spanish-Speaking Congress, with the Mexican press, and with other agencies and friends of FSA in southern California.

By the middle of September arrangements were completed for transportation of 1500 Mexican Nationals to California for the sugar beet harvest. On September 21 the Information Division released a statement to all papers and wire services announcing the relevant facts, including train schedules, giving due credit to all agencies


71
and organizations concerned with the transaction.

The Division then made arrangements for coverage of the first arrivals at Stockton and Sacramento by the press, and in particular by all newsreel companies. Mr. Soule and his associate Mr. E. S. Albee went to Sacramento and Stockton respectively. At both cities they assisted the newsreel cameramen, LIFE and TIME photographers and newspapermen in their work, and provided them with printed and verbal information. The desired coverage was thoroughgoing.

On September 25 another script on up-to-date facts about the FLT program was broadcast on "Western Agriculture."

On September 29 a press story with the self-explanatory title "FSA Chief Lauds Mexico For Farm Labor Cooperation" was issued.

On October 3 a general news story recounted the arrival of the first 500 Mexicans, announced the time of further arrivals, and emphasized the international significance and similar aspects of this program.

About October 1 a press conference was called for the regional director, at which San Francisco newspapers, wire services and the McClatchy newspaper chain were represented. Mr. Hewes detailed the process by which Mexican workers were selected at Mexico City, and discussed the FLT program generally with emphasis on the cooperation of the Mexican government. The Information Division followed this conference up immediately with a supplemental news release to the regional press.

It may be noted here that all major stories and articles about


72
the FLT program, including the story last mentioned, have been sent to all field offices of the Farm Security Administration in Region IX, in order that personnel might be kept informed and able to answer questions. With this help, field FSA officers have been able to issue local press releases and take part in radio interviews.

In addition to routine mailings from time to time, on November 9 each administrative employee was sent a complete kit of major releases and pamphlets.

On October 10, and again on October 15, press releases were issued to announce further arrivals of Mexican workers to complete a California quota of 3000 men, and as usual, various significant phases of the transportation program were included in the stories.

A special public relations job was performed as a sequel to the Farm Bureau meeting at Casa Grande, Arizona, on October 13. This meeting attacked the Farm Security Administration on several counts, mostly on the basis of misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the FLT program. Upon the request of the editor of the Casa Grande Dispatch for a counter statement, a lengthy reply was prepared for Mr. Hewes. It was printed verbatim in the next issue of the Dispatch. A condensed version of the statement was also printed in The Arizona Farmer on November 21.

On October 30, a round-table broadcast prepared in cooperation with the Office of War Information was presented on "Western Agriculture." This 14-minute discussion featured Mr. Hewes, John Cooter of the U. S. Employment Service, Earl Coke, General Manager


73
of California Field Crops, Inc., and Gordon Lyons, Secretary-manager of the Central California Beet Growers Association.

The following day another 15-minute round-table broadcast was presented over the NBC Pacific Coast Network. The script was prepared partly on the basis of the previous day's material, and brought into discussion Mr. Hewes, Mr. Coke, Mr. Lyons and the Mexican Consul at San Francisco, Senor Antonio L. Schmidt.

Charges made by certain individuals to the effect that the Mexican workers brought to California beet fields were unskilled "city slum boys" were answered in a general press release on November 3. The story recounted the true details of the selection process as complete rebuttal of this accusation.

On November 5 a press release with the self-explanatory title, "Long Staple Growers Can Get FSA Loans to Pay Labor Costs" was issued to Arizona papers.

On November 17 the completion of arrangements to bring Mexican workers into the Imperial Valley of California was announced to the press. At this time the Regional Information Specialist spent a week in the Imperial district and at Los Angeles, carrying on public relations work with interested organizations and individuals.

Prepared at this writing is a "Western Agriculture" script, for broadcast on November 27. The talk describes the educational and entertainment program for Mexican workers in California now being carried on very successfully through cooperation of FSA and local citizens and organizations, emphasizing the improved international


74
friendship promoted by these activities. Concrete data on the sugar production achieved thanks to the Mexican Nationals is included.

The Information Division made contacts with editors in several parts of central California where Mexican beet labor was to be employed explaining the fundamental conditions and purposes of the program. As a result some ten or twelve editorials were printed by representative newspapers emphasizing the aspects of international relations and neighborly good will and recommending that public policy support the changed attitude toward the employment of Mexican workers on the farms in this country.

It can be stated that the reaction of the press and radio to the Mexican Farm Labor Program in California has been generally favorable. With the exception of one or two instances in which the press reported local difficulties in and around Santa Maria, California, there have been no unfavorable reports. Local newspapers in the areas where the workers are employed have carried excellent stories about the workers and the Program. Public reaction to the Program is favorable in those areas where the Program is operating, and it is anticipated that if the Program is spread to additional areas much of the misunderstanding and antagonism which certain misinformed groups have manifested will tend to disappear.


75

AN OVERALL EVALUATION

An overall evaluation of the program for the transportation of Mexican farm workers is difficult while we are still in the midst of operating the initial employment period of the program. On the basis of the various phases of the program which have been covered in the preceding sections of the report, certain generalizations, however, may be hazarded [sic].

The procedure for selecting workers in Mexico City has been proven to be practical and efficient. Once the staff is assembled and the signal given to commence selection, it has been demonstrated that between 200 and 300 workers can be "processed" per day. The quality of workers depends on, and is protected by the Mexican government, the selection crew and the representative of the grower-employer group. Particular stress should be laid on the importance of having the grower-employer representative present during the selection process.

Transportation of workers from Mexico to the point of destination in the United States was handled efficiently by the Farm Security Administration, and with a remarkable absence of mishap. In almost every instance, the transportation crews did an excellent job of grouping the workers on the train so that upon arrival the workers were handled skillfully. The scarcity of cars on the Mexican side of the border has proven to be a definite limiting factor affecting the rate at which workers can be transported to the United States.


76

Housing has been a source of considerable discussion. On the one hand the Farm Security Administration has been accused of demanding luxurious quarters for Mexican workers, while on the other hand the charge has been made that Mexican workers have been housed in bunkhouses unfit for use. Farm Security Administration standards have been practical and realistic. No one believes that the housing certified by the Farm Security Administration is for the most part "good" housing. We do know that this housing meets the standards set by the State of California, and that it is not inferior to housing available to domestic workers. We also know that as a result of our inspections, the quality of growers' housing has been improved, particularly in regard to matters of sanitation. One serious problem encountered was that housing certified in September as satisfactory was not entirely satisfactory when the rainy season set in at the end of November; the importance of careful consideration of changes in weather will be noted in connection with housing certification in the future.

The program of medical care furnished to Mexican Nationals by the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association proved satisfactory, with the only serious problem being that encountered in getting ill workers from their ranch to a physician's office. This problem is however inherent in any rural medical program.

The wisdom of requiring that the grower-employer cover all workers with Workmen's Compensation is evidenced by the number of compensable injuries occurring during the first 6 weeks. One problem


77
needing further consideration is that of financial support for the injured worker during the period between the occurrence of the injury and the receipt of compensation.

The problem of wages is of course central to any contract for employment. In the case of Mexican Nationals working in sugar beets, the crux of our difficulties lay in the existence of a tonnage basis of pay, which the worker could not understand, and which seemed to many workers discriminatory in view of the fact that many domestic workers were paid on an hourly basis by contractors who were themselves paid on a tonnage scale. We do not believe that piece work or a tonnage basis will ever prove satisfactory to Mexican Nationals because of the difficulty of determining in advance, or at least immediately at the conclusion of each day's work, exactly what a man has earned. In regard to this first group of Mexican workers in sugar beets, rightly or wrongly the figure of 65 cents became firmly imbedded in their heads at the beginning of the employment period, and no amount of discussion could dislodge this. It was virtually impossible to explain that the Wage Board had established a tonnage basis of pay as the prevailing basis; but that the Wage Board has also said that if hourly rates are paid, it would be mandatory to pay 65 cents per hour; and then to explain further that the Wage Board believed that only the worker of unusually ability (and not the worker of average ability) could earn the equivalent of 65 cents an hour working on the tonnage basis. Another serious problem in relation to wages was the appearance of wide departures


78
from the "prevailing" wage scale, thus invalidating discussions about an actual prevailing wage.

Mediation on an informal basis has been a continuous process. Members of the Management Division field staff have been engaged in a non-stop program of adjustment of difficulties ever since the first group of workers arrived. Well planned and regular farm visits are essential in developing a program of mediation which can do much to avoid crises before they arise. However, once these difficulties have arisen, informal adjustment is necessary. The record of informal mediation carried on by Farm Security Administration field men is one of which the Agency may well be proud.

Formal complaints and hearings, as distinguished from Mediation have provided a method for formal action leading either to repatriation or to transfer of workers to another employer. The established machinery, operated by the Labor Relations Division, has functioned successfully in settling complaints, transferring workers to other employers, and providing the factual basis for repatriation where requested either by the worker, the employer association, or the Farm Security Administration.

Repatriation has proven to be a necessary procedure to be used when all attempts at adjustment have failed. The record of 165 repatriations during the first seven weeks out of a total of 3004 workers transported to the United States is eloquent testimony of the excellence of the original selection process and the Farm Security's mediation machinery.


79

The problem of Missing Workers is an inevitable part of a farm labor transportation program. As long as there is a general shortage of labor both in agriculture and industry, with the accompanying discrepancies in wages between agriculture and industry, and higher wages in some types of agriculture than in others, just so long will workers transported either by the domestic program or from Mexico be missing and disappear. It is a wonder that more workers are not missing; and as the employment period draws to a close it is possible that the number of workers missing will increase because of opportunities for other employment in the United States.

In an overall evaluation, reference should be made to the existence of an alternate employment possibility, such as guayule. The fact that we were able to offer employment in guayule to a small number of workers provided the means by which workers could be put to work who found, after trying, that they could not do the work in sugar beets. The opportunity of transfer to guayule was only given to those workers who, after making a genuine effort to work in sugar beets, were found to be unable to do the latter type of work. Initial experience with guayule indicates that Mexican Nationals are good workers in this type of work, and that both the workers and the Forest Service are pleased with the arrangement.

Relations with California Field Crops, Inc., have been cordial and business-like. Officials of California Field Crops, Inc., have set a high standard of performance and dependability in their dealings with the Farm Security Administration. One problem which may


80
become serious at the close of the employment period is that arising from the failure of certain growers and sugar companies to use the Work Tickets designed to keep accurate records of hours worked, and wages paid. In a program such as this it is essential that the grower-employer association employ a staff to assist growers in maintaining records.

Relations with Mexican officials in California have been exceedingly cordial. It can truthfully be said that the excellent cooperation and extraordinary labors of the Mexican Consular officials and the representatives of the Mexican Department of Labor have been an essential part of the success of the Mexican Farm Labor Transportation Program.

The place of an Education and Recreation program in this entire venture may be, unthinkingly at first, questioned. However, anyone familiar with Mexican workers and with the individual and group problems involved in bringing a group of 3000 single workers to a strange country cannot help but realize the extent to which an education and recreation program forms an integral part of any pattern of success. Education and recreation are connected with this program not for the purpose of providing frills, but rather to meet a real, and deeply felt need of the workers. Education and Recreation prove to the workers, in case proof is necessary, that we regard them as human beings capable of expressing themselves joyfully and desirous of taking advantage of educational opportunities. The fact that the workers know that they are so regarded by the government of


81
the United States is an important ingredient in their attitude toward the government, their "patron." It is also an important item in the relationships between the governments of the United States and the Republic of Mexico.

In conclusion, we refer to our statement at the beginning of this section to the effect that an overall evaluation cannot be made in the midst of actual operations. It can be said, and we believe it should be said, that to date, in spite of varied, continued, and novel problems, the Mexican Labor Program has proven to be successful not only in saving the sugar beet crop, but also in laying the foundations for a workable pattern of agricultural labor relations.

APPENDIX


1

Exhibit A: Individual Work Agreement

INDIVIDUAL WORK AGREEMENT

Nombre—Name_________________________

entered into between the Government of the United States of America acting by and through the Farm Security Administration of the Department of Agriculture, hereinafter referred to as the "Patron", and_________________________ a Mexican laborer hereinafter referred to as the "Worker".

DECLARATIONS

1. The Government of the United States and the Worker mutually desire that the Worker be beneficially employed in the United States of America with a view to alleviate the present shortage of agricultural workers in that country and to cooperate in the successful prosecution of the war.

2. The Worker declares that he is a Mexican national by birth, domiciled at _________________________, ____ years of age, _________________________ (married or single).

3. The Farm Security Administration of the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America is represented in the execution of this contract, by Mr. _________________________, _________________________ who has established his authority to the satisfaction of the Mexican authorities.

4. The Worker satisfies the physical requirements for fulfilling this agreement, as evidenced by the attached certificate issued by the duly authorized officers of the Department of Health of Mexico and the United States Public Health Service. The Patron admits that such requirements have been met to its satisfaction, in view of which it agrees that this agreement may not be terminated due to the physical condition of the Worker or to any change in such condition that may occur during the period of employment; but the Patron may terminate the agreement immediately upon finding that the Worker is suffering from a heart, mental or venereal disease or has a chronic condition not contracted during or as a result of his employment in the United States, or if he has a contagious disease discovered while traveling from the point of origin to his destination in the United States.

5. The Patron agrees to enter into agreements with the proprietor or administrator (hereinafter referred to as the Employer) of the farm or farms in the United States of America, upon which the Worker will work, under terms guaranteeing him proper compliance with the terms of this agreement, it being understood that the Patron will be responsible to the Worker and to the Mexican Government for such compliance.

THIS WORK AGREEMENT IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING PROVISIONS:

1. The Worker will be employed exclusively in agricultural work.

2. The Worker will receive the same wages as those paid to other workers in the area of employment for similar work. Said wages will in no event be less than $ 0.30 (American currency) per hour. The computation of wages, according to the custom in the United States, covers any payment which may be due for the seventh day, as required by the Federal Labor Law of Mexico. Rates for piece work will be so determined that a worker of average ability will earn the prevailing wage established in the area of employment.

3. The Patron agrees that its representatives or agents will inform the Worker at the beginning of his work and as frequently thereafter as may be necessary, using the Spanish language in an adequate manner, concerning the wage rates to which he is entitled, and the housing conditions, medical attention and other facilities to which he is entitled by virtue of the provisions of this agreement.

4. No deductions will be made from the wages of the Worker for commissions, fees or any other purpose (except as required by law) which will have the effect of reducing his wages below that provided for by Paragraph 2.

5. The Worker agrees that ten per cent (10%) of his wages may be deducted and authorizes the Patron to receive such amount from the Employer and to place it on deposit, to be refunded to him on his return to his place of origin, or as soon as practicable, in the form of credits to his account in the Agricultural Credit Bank of Mexico.

6. The Worker accepts transportation, food, lodging, subsistence and work under the terms of this agreement and will execute all documents, receipts or instruments which the Patron may require in connection with this agreement.

7. The Patron will furnish to the worker and to the members of his family named on the reverse side of this agreement, sanitary facilities and medical care identical to those enjoyed by other agricultural workers in the same area of employment.

8. The Patron, at its expense, will transport or arrange for the transportation of the Worker and the members of his family named on the reverse side of this agreement and not in excess of 35 kilos (77 pounds) of personal effects for each member of the family which shall not include household goods) from _________________________, Mexico, to the point or points of destination within the United States where the Patron has determined the work will be performed, and return to point of origin.

9. The Patron will furnish to the Worker and to the members of his family accompanying him all necessary food, medical care and subsistence needs during periods of travel.

10. The Patron will make all arrangements necessary under the laws for the entry and exit of the Worker and members of his family accompanying him, to and from the United States.

11. The Worker shall work from the day following his arrival at the point of destination in the United States until _________________________

12. The Worker will perform all work required of him with proper application, care and diligence during the term of this agreement under the direction and supervision of the employers but he will not be required to work on Sundays.

13. This agreement may be renewed upon its termination upon the express consent of the Worker and with the knowledge of the Mexican Government.

14. In the event the Patron should desire to utilize the services of a member of the family of the Worker, he may do so only with the full consent of the Worker and of the person whose services are desired, by the execution of a similar agreement in the presence of the Regional Director of the Farm Security Administration or his representative and with the previous consent of the appropriate Mexican Consul.

15. Any member of the family under 14 years of age shall have the right to the same schooling as that received by children of other agricultural laborers in the area of employment in which the Worker may be working at any given time.

16. The Worker shall not be required to purchase articles or services for consumption or use by him or his family in any establishment not of his own choice.

17. The Worker will not be subject to discrimination in employment because of race, creed, color or nationality, in accordance with the provisions of Executive Order No. 8802 of the President of the United States, dated June 25, 1941.

18. Food, lodging, medical and sanitary services and other indispensable articles furnished to the Worker and to members of his family by the Patron or any Employer shall meet the reasonable minimum standards approved by the Patron.

19. The Worker shall enjoy, as regards occupational diseases and accidents, the same guarantees enjoyed by other agricultural workers under the laws of the United States of America.

20. The Worker designates the following persons as his economic dependents _________________________ (names and addresses), whom he designates as the beneficiaries of the sums and indemnities to which he would be entitled under the Law and this agreement.

21. In the event the Worker should not be employed during the term of this agreement, as specified in Paragraph 11, such unemployment not being caused by his refusal to work or illness, 75% of the time for which he was contracted, the Patron will pay him $ 3.00 (American currency) per day for each day that he is not employed up to 75% of the work-days, which amount will be paid to him upon the termination of this agreement. If during his unemployment the Worker and members of his family are unable, upon the determination of the Patron, to supply their subsistence needs, he will receive necessary food, lodging, medical care and other subsistence needs. For the purpose of this paragraph, a day upon which the Worker works less than eight hours will not be considered a workday, and the hours worked on such days may be totalled, to determine the period of unemployment, in accordance with the procedure followed for other agricultural workers.

22. In the event there should be an increase in the cost of living in the United States, the terms of the preceding paragraph will be subject to reconsideration, in accordance with the understanding between the Governments of Mexico and the United States.

23. The Worker shall have the right to join with other Mexican laborers admitted under the understanding between the Governments of Mexico and the United States in the election of representatives to negotiate with the Patron or employers, such representatives to be members of the group electing them.

24. All disputes between the Worker and his employer or employers shall be resolved through mediation, according to procedures established by the Government of the United States for agricultural workers.

25. The Worker represents and warrants that he knows of no reason which would prevent him or his family from leaving or returning to Mexico, or entering or leaving the United States, as contemplated by this agreement. If the Worker or a member of his family shall not be permitted to leave Mexico or enter the United States, the Patron shall, at its expense, return the Worker and his family to their place of origin in Mexico. If after entrance into the United States the Worker or any member of his family becomes subject to deportation or removal therefrom under the Immigration or other laws of that country, or if the Farm Security Administration decides, after hearing the defense of the Worker, that the latter is unable or unwilling to work in accordance with the provisions of this agreement, or if the Worker or any member of his family violates any law of the United States, this agreement may forthwith and without notice be terminated by the Patron. Upon the termination of this agreement or upon the expiration of the period of employment provided for in paragraph 11, the Worker and his family shall immediately return to their place of origin in Mexico, at the expense of the Patron. If the Worker or any member of his family refuses so to return, the Patron may cause the Worker and his family to be removed to their place of origin.

26. All rights, privileges and powers conferred by this agreement upon the Government of the United States shall be exercised by the Administrator of the Farm Security Administration of the Department of Agriculture of the United States or by its duly authorized representative.

Executed at Mexico, D. F., this _________________________ day of _________________________ 194__

                             
El Trabajador—Worker.  Los Estados Unidos de América—United States of America. 
_________________________ Por—By _________________________ 
_________________________ 
Título Oficial—Official Title. 
FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Aprobado—Approved. 
Por—By _________________________ 
FAMILIARES: 
Nombres—Names.  Domicilio—Residence. 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 

CONTRATO INDIVIDUAL DE TRABAJO

Número—Number_________________________

que celebran el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de América por conducto de la "Farm Security Administration" del Departamento de Agricultura, y que en el cuerpo del mismo se denominará "El Patrón", y el trabajador mexicano._________________________ a quien en el cuerpo del mismo se denominará "El Trabajador".

DECLARACIONES

1a El Gobierno de los Estados Unidos y el Trabajador mutuamente desean que el trabajador se emplee ventajosamente en los Estados Unidos de América con el objeto de resolver la presente escasez de trabajadores agrícolas en ese país y para coadyuvar en el éxito de la guerra.

2a El trabajador declara ser de nacionalidad mexicana por nacimiento, con domicilio en _________________________ de ____ años de edad _________________________ (casado o soltero)

3a La Farm Security Administration del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de América está representada, en la celebración de este contrato, por el señor _________________________ quien acredita su personalidad a satisfacción de las autoridades mexicanas.

4a El Trabajador reune las condiciones físicas necesarias para el cumplimiento del presente contrato, según la constancia expedida por los funcionarios debidamente autorizados de los Departamentos de Salubridad de México y de los Estados Unidos, que se anexa. El patrón reconoce a su satisfacción que se ha cumplido con tal requisito por lo cual acepta que el contrato no puede terminarse en atención a las condiciones físicas del trabajador o debido a cualesquiera cambios que pudieran presentarse en ellas durante el período de empleo; pero el Patrón puede dar por terminado el contrato en el momento en que se descubra que el Trabajador está enfermo del corazón, enajenación mental, padecimientos venéreos o crónicos que no fueron adquiridos durante, o como resultado de su trabajo en los Estados Unidos, o que padece alguna enfermedad contagiosa que se descubra en el trayecto entre el lugar de origen y el punto de destino en los Estados Unidos.

5a El Patrón se obliga a celebrar contratos con el propietario o administrador (a quien se denominará el Sub-Empleador) de la finca o fincas de los Estados Unidos de América, en las que prestará sus servicios el Trabajador, en los términos que garanticen para éste, la debida observancia de las cláusulas del presente contrato; entendiéndose que el Patrón será responsable, ante el trabajador y ante el Gobierno Mexicano, de tal cumplimiento.

EL PRESENTE CONTRATO DE TRABAJO SE
SUJETARÁ A LAS SIGUIENTES CLÁUSULAS:

1a El trabajador prestará sus servicios exclusivamente en labores agrícolas.


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2a El Trabajador devengará salario igual al que se paga a los demás trabajadores, en la región respectiva por trabajos similares. En ningún caso dicho salario será inferior a 0.30 de dólar por hora. El señalamiento de salarios segáa la costambre de los Estados aaidos iaclaye el pago del séptimo día, establecido por la Ley Federal del Trabajo de México. Los salarios por trabajos a destajo se arreglaráa ea forma tal qae el Trabajador de habilidad comáa disfrate del salario establecido ea la regióa.

3a El patróa se obliga a qae sas represeataates o ageates haráa del coaocimieato del Trabajador, al iaiciar éste la prestacióa de sas servicios y caaatas veces sea aecesario, empleaado el idioma castellaao y ea forma eficaz, caál es el salario qae le correspoade y caáles soa las coadicioaes de habitacióa, asisteacia médica y demás facilidades a qae tieae derecho por virtad de los térmiaos del preseate coatrato.

4a ao se haráa descaeatos al salario del Trabajador por comisioaes, caotas o por caalqaiera otra razóa, (excepto los reqaeridos por la ley) qae tieadaa a redacir los iagresos del mismo a caatidad iaferior a la meacioaada ea la cláasala segaada.

5a El Trabajador maaifiesta sa coaformidad para qae le sea descoatado de sa salario el DIEZ POR CIEaTO, y aatoriza al Patróa para recibirlo del Sab-Empleador y coaservarlo ea calidad de depósito para serle reiategrado a sa regreso al paato de origea, o taa proato como sea practicable, ea forma de créditos a sa caeata ea el Baaco de Crédito Agrícola de México.

6a El Trabajador acepta el traasporte, alimeatos, alojamieato, medios de sabsisteacia y trabajo ea los térmiaos del preseate coatrato y formalizará todos los arreglos, recibos e iastrameatos qae para el camplimieato de este coatrato padiera aecesitar el Patróa.

7a El Patróa proporcioaará al Trabajador y a los familiares de éste qae se seãalea ea el reverso del preseate coatrato, servicios saaitarios y ateacióa médica, todo ello ea idéaticas coadicioaes a las qae disfratea los demás trabajadores agrícolas ea la regióa de trabajo respectiva.

8a El Patróa, a sa costa, traasportará o gestioaará el traasporte del Trabajador y de los miembros de sa familia meacioaados ea el reverso de este coatrato y hasta 35 ailos (77 libras) de objetos de aso persoaal para cada aao de ellos, (los qae ao iaclairáa meaaje de casa) desde _________________________ México, hasta el lagar o lagares de los Estados aaidos ea qae, segáa determiaacióa del Patróa, se desempeãará el trabajo, y regreso al paato de origea.

9a El Patróa proporcioaará al Trabajador y sas familiares qae lo acompaãaa el alimeato, ateacióa médica y todos los medios de sabsisteacia aecesarios daraate el trayecto.

10a El Patróa hará todos los arreglos aecesarios coaforme a las leyes para la eatrada y salida del Trabajador y de sas familiares qae lo acompaãaa, al territorio de los Estados aaidos.

11a El Trabajador iaiciará la prestacióa de sas servicios desde el día sigaieate de sa llegada al paato de destiao ea los Estados aaidos hasta _________________________

12a El Trabajador desempeãará el trabajo qae se le reqaiera coa la iateasidad, caidado y esmero apropiados, daraate el período del coatrato bajo la direccióa y sapervisióa del Sab-Empleador y ao se le obligará a trabajar los domiagos.


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13a El preseate coatrato paede ser reaovado a sa veacimieato, mediaate la volaatad expresa del trabajador y coa coaocimieato del Gobierao Mexicaao.

14a Ea el caso de qae el Patróa preteadiera atilizar los servicios de algaaos de los familiares del Trabajador, sólo podrá hacerlo mediaate el coaseatimieato expreso de éste y de la persoaa cayos servicios seaa solicitados, celebraado el coatrato respectivo aate el Director Regioaal de la Farm Secarity Admiaistratioa o sa represeataate y previa aatorizacióa del Cóasal de México qae correspoada.

15a Caalqaier miembro de la familia meaor de 14 aãos de edad teadrá derecho a recibir la misma iastraccióa escolar qae se imparte a los aiãos de otros trabajadores agrícolas ea la regióa ea qae el trabajador esté trabajaado, ea caalqaier tiempo dado.

16a El Trabajador ao estará obligado a comprar artícalos o servicios para sa coasamo o aso, o el de sa familia ea aiagáa establecimieato qae ao sea de sa agrado.

17a El Trabajador ao será objeto de discrimiaacióa ea el trabajo a caasa de raza, credo, color o aacioaalidad, de acaerdo coa las estipalacioaes de la Ordea Ejecativa aa 8802 del Presideate de los Estados aaidos, fechada el 25 de jaaio de 1941.

18a El alimeato, alojamieato, servicios médicos y saaitarios y otros artícalos iadispeasables proporcioaados al Trabajador y sa familia, por el Patróa o algáa Sab-Empleador, cabriráa los staadards míaimos razoaables aprobados por el Patróa.

19a El Trabajador gozará, por lo qae hace a eafermedades profesioaales y accideates de trabajo, de las mismas garaatías qae disfrataa los demás trabajadores agrícolas, de acaerdo coa la legislacióa de los Estados aaidos de América.

20a El Trabajador seãala como sas depeadieates ecoaómicos a las sigaieates persoaas _________________________ (aombres y domicilios) a qaieaes desigaa como beaeficiarios de las iademaizacioaes qae a aqaél le correspoadieraa por caalesqaier coaceptos emaaados de la Ley y de este coatrato.

21a Para el caso de qae el Trabajador permaaezca desocapado daraate el período de la coatratacióa, segáa lo seãalado ea la cláasala 11a y siempre qae la desocapacióa ao sea motivada por sa aegativa a trabajar o por eafermedad, daraate el 75% del térmiao para el qae haya sido coatratado, el patróa le cabrirá 3.00 dólares diarios, qae le seráa pagados al fiaalizar el térmiao del coatrato. Si daraate la desocapacióa el trabajador y sas familiares ao paedea satisfacer sas aecesidades de vida, recibirá, previa comprobacióa del Patróa, los alimeatos aecesarios, alojamieato, ateacióa médica y demás medios de sabsisteacia. Para los efectos de esta cláasala, se coasiderará como día ao trabajado aqael ea qae el Trabajador labore meaos de ocho horas, y las horas trabajadas se compataráa, para calcalar el período de desempleo, de acaerdo coa el procedimieato segaido para los demás trabajadores agrícolas.

22a Ea caso de qae haya aameato del costo de la vida ea los Estados aaidos, lo pactado ea la cláasala aaterior será motivo de recoasideracióa, de acaerdo coa el coaveaio celebrado eatre los Gobieraos de México y los Estados aaidos.

23a El Trabajador teadrá derecho a asociarse coa otros trabajadores mexicaaos admitidos de coaformidad


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coa el acaerdo celebrado eatre los Gobieraos de México y los Estados aaidos, para elegir a sas represeataates qae tratea coa el Patróa o los sab-empleadores, debieado ser dichos represeatates miembros del grapo qae los desigaa.

24a Todas las dispatas eatre el Trabajador y sabempleador o sabempleadores seráa resaeltas por mediacióa, segáa el procedimieato establecido por el Gobierao de los Estados aaidos para los demás trabajadores agrícolas.

25a El Trabajador maaifiesta y asegara ao teaer coaocimieatos de motivo algaao qae paeda impedirle a él o a sa familia salir de o regresar a México, o iateraarse ea o salir de los Estados aaidos coa arreglo al preseate coaveaio. Si al Trabajador o algáa miembro de sa familia se le aiega la salida de México o la eatrada ea los Estados aaidos, el Patróa procarará qae el trabajador y sa familia retoraea a sa lagar de procedeacia ea México, a expeasas de aqaél. Si despaés de iateraarse ea los Estados aaidos el Trabajador o caalqaier miembro de sa familia se expoae a la deportacióa o remocióa de aqael país, coa arreglo a la Ley de Iamigracióa, o demás leyes, o si la Farm Secarity Admiaistratioa resaelve despaés de haber oído la defeasa del Trabajador, qae éste está iacapacitado para o se aiega a trabajar coaforme a los reqaisitos del preseate coaveaio, o si el Trabajador o caalqaier miembro de sa familia iafriage caalqaiera ley de los Estados aaidos, el preseate coaveaio paede iamediatameate y sia previo aviso darse por termiaado por parte del Patróa. Al termiaar el coaveaio o al expirar el período de empleo especificado ea la cláasala 11a, el Trabajador y sa familia retoraaráa ea el acto a sa lagar de procedeacia ea México, a costa del Patróa. Caaado el Trabajador o caalqaier miembro de sa familia se aiegae a retoraar ea estas coadicioaes, el Gobierao de los Estados aaidos paede remover al Trabajador y a sa familia al referido lagar de procedeacia.

26a Todos los derechos, privilegios y facaltades coaferidos por el preseate coaveaio al Gobierao de los Estados aaidos seráa ejercitados por el Admiaistrador de la Farm Secarity Admiaistratioa, por el Departmeato de Agricaltara de los Estados aaidos, o por sa represeataate debidameate aatorizado.

México, D. F., a ____ de _________________________ de 194___

                             
El Trabajador—Woraer.  Los Estados aaidos de América—aaited States of America. 
_________________________ Por—By _________________________ 
_________________________ 
Título Oficial—Official Title. 
FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Aprobado—Approved. 
Por—By _________________________ 
FAMILIARES: 
Nombres—Names.  Domicilio—Residence. 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 
_________________________  _________________________ 


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Exhibit B: Mexican Nationals Transported from Mexico City to California by Farm Security Administration

                                     
Section Area  Train Number  Number Moved  Departure Date  Destination [*]  Crops Harvested  Housing 
Mexico City  290  Sept. 25  Stockton, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  211  Sept. 25  Sacramento, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  58  Sept. 30  Guadalupe, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  182  Sept. 30  King City, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  378  Sept. 30  Salinas, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  242  Oct. 2  Stockton, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  507  Oct. 2  Sacramento, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  107  Oct. 8  Guadalupe, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  65  Oct. 8  King City, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  141  Oct. 8  Salinas, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  62  Oct. 8  Stockton, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  201  Oct. 8  Sacramento, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  167  Oct. 13  Stockton, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  346  Oct. 13  Sacramento, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Mexico City  47  Oct. 21  Stockton, Calif.  Sugar Beets  Growers 
Total  3004 
November 11, 1942 


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Exhibit C: [Workers Transported by Farm Security Administration]

District: STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA

Sugar Company: HOLLY SUGAR CORPORATION

J.S.

TRAIN No. 1

                 
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
25  30  G. S. Rosenberger Camp #15  Venice Island, 2½ mi. N from Venice ferry  O.K. with general cleaning and minor repairs. 
signed agreement 5 from Shankel 
40  Empire Farms Inc. Camps #15, #17  Bouldin Island  These 40 workers are to be housed in Weyl—Zuckerman Camp #25. See below. 
20  20  A. W. Hutchins Richmond-Chase Hdqtrs. Camp  2 mi. E. of Terminous  O.K. If repairs agreed to are made. 2 occupants in camp at present to be removed. 
10  15  McDonald Island Farms, Ltd. Camp #8  McDonald Island, 6 mi. N. of ferry  O.K. when cleaned and repairs are made. Will take 5 from Shankel. 
signed agreement 
25  25  John C. Kelley Camp #5  Empire Tract, 2 mi. N. of Empire Ferry.  O.K. when major cleaning and repairs are made. Will not need man until Oct. 6 shipment. Should be reinspected Oct. 2nd. Signed agreement to be ready by Oct. 2nd. Must have water analysed. Will take 50 men. 


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Sugar Company: HOLLY

                 
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
25  25  John C. Kelley Camp #12  Lower Jones Tract, 4 mi. N. of Middle River  O.K. when repairs and cleaning agreed to are finished. Will not need men until Oct. 6 shipment. Should be reinspecte Oct. 2nd. Signed agreement to be completed by Oct. 2nd will take 50 men. 
30  30  Clifford Totman Camp #1  Rindge Tract, 1½ mi. E. of ferry  O.K. when minor repairs agreed to are ma de and cleanup. 
Signed Agreement 
15  W. C. Shankel Headquarters  Venice Island, 3 mi. N of ferry  These 15 workers are to be housed as follows. 5 in Rosenberger Camp #15. see above; 5 in McDonald Island Farms Camp #8, see above; and 5 in Thornto Farms, see below. 
15  20  Thornton Farms Kile Ranch  1½ mi. S. E. Thornton on Stockton-Thornton highway  O.K. when minor repairs agreed to are made. This camp will take 5 of the original 15 workers allotted to Shankel. 
20  20  (C. L. McEwen (Camp_#8 _ _ _ (C. L. McEwen (Camp #6  W. side Empire Island 1 mi. N Venice Ferry Road  O. K. when major repairs and cleaning are completed. Operator prefers to use Camp #6 in place this. Needs reinspection 
O.K. when major repairs and seri cleaning are completed 20 men were living here but moving out 9/23 


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NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
The Operator prefers to use this Camp in place of Camp #8 Needs serious reinspection 
Signed agreement 
25  25  Langley Brookes F. E. Booth Hdgtrs. Camp  West Side Ryer Island  O.K. when repairs agreed to are made. Needs reinspection workers expected Oct. 2. 
40  Weyl-Zuckerman Camp #25  Rindge Tract  This camp is to house the 40 workers originally allotted to Empire Farms, Inc. Needs repair which were agreed to Needs rein spection. 
30  20  H. H. Patterson  4 mi. South of Alvarado  O.K. if recommendations are executed. Reinspect Oct. 1 
25  54  Holly Sugar Co.  1/2 mi. N.E. of Pleasanton  O. K. 
20  34  Concord Homes Acres  1/4 mi. N.E. of Concord  O. K. 
A. K. Logan  1½ mi. S. Alvarado  O. K. if recommendations are executed Reinspect Oct. 1 


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Sugar Company: SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

             
NO. WRKS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
30  30  M. F. West, et. al. Crittenden  2 mi. S. 7 mi. E. from Tracy  O.K. when repairs agreed to are made. Repairs are of a major nature, therefore Camp needs reinspection 
30  30  John Kelley Shima Camp  Shima Tract, 6 mi. N. E. from Stockton  O.K. when repairs agreed to are made. Needs reinspection 
15  15  Rudolph Ripken Art Ripken Ritchie Camp  Terminous Camp 6 mi. S.E. from Terminous  O.K. when repairs agreed to are made 
15  M. Parenti Laucci Camp  Fabian Tract, 5 mi. north from Tracy  Owner did not want workers. No alternate Camp in area. 
415  440 


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District: SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA

Company: American Crystal Sugar Company

                     
WO. WORKS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
40  40  Heringer Bros.  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Fredrick Heringer and inspection. 
20  20  Huntley, W. C.  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by W. C. Huntley and inspection. 
20  20  Merwin & Yelland  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Adolph Merwin and inspection. 
25  25  Olson, Gus  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Gus Olson and inspection. 
Bunnell Bros.  Merritt Island  Subject to inspection. 
16  Am. Crystal Sugar  Mandeville Island  See D. H. & P. for these workers. 
20  20  Nevis Bros.  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Nevis Bros. and inspection. 
28  58  Parella  South Sacramento  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Parolla and inspection. 
16  16  Scribner, A. N.  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Scribner and inspection. 


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NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
10  10  Reamer, H. J. (has agreement with other growers for 10 more me)  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by H. J. Reamer and inspection. 
24  D. H. & P. (can have 6 more) (Dorsie, Hutchinson and Pettgre)  Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by B. E. Duepelman and inspection. 
25  25  Golden State Asparagus Co.  Andrus Island  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by F. P. Tatum and inspection. 
12  12  Brunk, M. J.  Tyler Island  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by M. J. Brunk and inspection. 
12  12  Bettencourt, E.  Staten Island  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by E. Bettencourt and inspection. 
20  20  Ferreira, Tony  Pierson Dist.  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by Tony Ferreira and inspection. 
15  Giovannoni, L  One-half Mile West of Ryde  Could not get agreement for repairs and clean-up. 
Dambacher, F.  One Mile South Walnut Grove  Could not get agreement for repairs and clean-up. 


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NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
30  Parella & Lawler  Lisbon District  See Parella's Camp at South Sacraments. 
District: SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 
Company: SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY 
10  10  R. C. Barr Lucy Wood Camp  One Mile from Laugenour Station  O.K. when agreed to minor repairs are made. 
12  Glenn Lawler  Three Miles East from Knights Landing  Workers can be placed at Bettencourt Ranch located at Natomus after inspection. 6 men can be placed at Barr Ranch after additional repairs are made. 
20  20  H. T. Carlson Ziegler Camp  Two Miles East Nights Landing  O.K. when cleaning and minor repairs are completed. 
20 (Orig. Req.)  20  Lloyd M. Eveland  Five Miles South, Two Miles East from Woodland  O.K. when agreed to repairs are made. 14 units presently used may be vacated soon. 
10 (Ad. Req.) 
20  20  C. F. Wampler & Stanley Good, Jr. Merrit Camp  Four Miles South from Woodland  O.K. when minor repairs are made. 
20  20  Isham, G. B. & G. L.  Four Miles South One Mile West from Woodland  O.K. when agreed to minor repairs are made. Mexican cook desired can accommodate four more. 


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NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
24  24  Avilla, Joa & Manuel  Two Miles North from Woodland  O.K. when agreed to minor repairs are made. 36 more units available if additional repairs are made. 
24  24  Paul Reiff Patton Camp  Three and one-half Miles North from Yolo  O.K. when repairs are made. 2 families of 3 each can be accommodated in which case subtract from total of 24. 
12  12  Floyd Warner  One-half Mile North of Yolo  Camp mentioned in original request rejected. Camp listed here O.K. when minor repairs are made. Can accommodate 6 more. 
10  10  R. Hulbert  One Mile West from Madison  O.K. after minor repairs are made and after agreed to removal of present tomato pickers. 
16  16  J. S. Pogue  One-half Mile East from Elkhorn Ferry Yolo Side  O.K. after minor repairs are agreed to and completed. Should be reinspected. 
20  14  P. N. Ashley  Five Miles Northeast from Woodland (N. of Cache Creek)  O.K. when minor repairs are made. Additional space for 0 available if additional repairs are made and reinspected. 
20  20  L. Lauppe  Four Miles Southwest from Woodland  12 Units available for immediate occupancy after agreed to minor repairs are made. Additional space will be available when present workmen leave. 


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NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
14  20  R. T. Stuhlmuller  Two Miles West of Yola  O.K. after agreed to minor repairs are made. Additional space for 4 available after additional repairs. Space for 3 families (subtract from total) available. Mexican cook desired. 
30  24  Henry Amen  Four Miles Northeast from Woodland  O.K. after repairs are agreed to and completed. Reinspect. 
607  556 


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District: HAMILTON CITY CALIFORNIA

Sugar Company: HOLLY SUGAR CORPORATION

9-24-42

W.P.

                     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
18  75  Haines, Charles F.  Holly Sugar Corp. Ranch Hamilton City  O.K. as is 
15  Walter, Elmer E.  1½ mi. East of Hamilton City on Chico-Hamilton Highway  O.K. as is 
20  M. & T. Company  3½ mi. SW of Chico on River Rd.  O.K. as is 
Linville, E. E.  1 mi. W. Butle City on Highway  Camp not certified. Place 4 men in Haines, 2 men in Walter and 2 men in M. & T. Co. 
12  12  Livingston, O. W.  Bridge & Fremont Sts. Colusa  O.K. assuming agreed eating facilities made available. 
20  Stutz, J. A.  6 mi. N. of Colusa on Maxwell Rd.  O.K. Eating arrangement should be made. 
30  Polander, Newton  4 mi. S. Princeton on Compton Ranch  O.K. Assuming agreed minor repairs and cleaning is done. 
Torres, F. & E.  2 mi. S. of Princeton on Highway  O.K. Assuming agreed minor repairs and eating arrangements are made. 
75  179 


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District: SANTA MARIA, CALIFORNIA

Sugar Company: UNION SUGAR COMPANY

     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
42  200  Union Sugar Company  Bettaravia, Seven Miles West of Santa Maria  Sixty-six Room, 2 Story Hotel - O.K. as is 


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9-24-42

W.A.K.

District: SALINAS (Gilroy-Hollister, San Juan Area) CALIFORNIA

Sugar Company: SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

                     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
30  30  Henry Allemand Rush Ranch  One mile East of Gilroy  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection 
24  24  S. Ochoa Lemos Camp  Marcella Avenue, Three miles Northeast Gilroy  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection 
16  Capitanich  San Juan Vicinity  Indefinite-No housing provided. Considering using old hotel in San Juan if available. 
10  Botelho Bros.  San Juan Vicinity  Same condition as for Capitanich. 
10  10  Henry Duran Wehmueller Ranch  Bolsa Road, Two Miles North of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection. 
10  10  Henry Duran Luther Ranch #2  Wright Road, Two and one-half miles North east of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection. 
Peter Friis Santa Anna Valley  Santa Ana Valley, Eight miles East of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection. 
Peter Friis Shore Road  Shore Road, Eight Miles Northwest of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection. 
16  16  Harlan and Gambetta Gambetta  San Fillipe Road, One Mile North of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection. 


13

                       
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
16  16  Joe Scagliotti Hewlett Place  Pacheco and Auymas Roads Seven Miles North of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection 
20  24  Frank Padron (Garcia & Teno) Old Ferry Morse  Fallon Road, Four Miles North of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection 
10  Martin Delfin Martin  Five Miles North of Hollister  No housing avilable. (May work out with Padron above) 
10  Alcantara & Garcia  Hollister Vicinity  Indefinite-No housing available. 
14  14  D. H. Lundy Lundy Ranch  Five and one-half Miles Northwest of Hollister  Approved subject to renovations and reinspection 
16  16  J. N. Segobia Mefford  Hudnor Lane, Six Miles Northwest of Hollister  Bunk House to be built. Approved subject to completion of bldg. & fulfillment of requirements as directed. 
District: SALINAS (Monterey County) CALIFORNIA 
Sugar Company: SPRECKELS AND UNION SUGAR COMPANY 
10  10  W. E. Johnson #2  Two Miles South East of Espanosa Road  O.K. as is 
20  20  R. E. Meyers  One Mile South Spence RR Station West of Highway One-half mile  O.K. as is 


14

                         
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
16  16  Manuel Gularte  One Mile North of Soledad West of Highway  O.K. if recommendations are executed. Reinspect October 1. 
16  (16  Barsini  Greenfield, East of Highway on Cherry Avenue  O.K. if recommendations are executed. 
(10  Barsini  Greenfield, One-half Mile North of above  O.K. if recommendations are executed. 
16  16  Spreckels Ranch #1 & 11  Greenfield, East of Highway  O.K. if recommendations are executed. 
12  10  Spreckels Ranch #1 & 11  Greenfield, East of Highway  O.K. as is 
20  20  Spreckels (Midway)  One and one-half Miles North of King City  O.K. as is 
25  25  Spreckels (Office)  One and one-half Miles North of King City  O.K. as is 
30  30  Union Sugar Company  King City  O.K. with recommendations. 
25  25  A. Caletisan  One-fourth Mile North Camphoria  O.K. if recommendations are executed. Reinspect October 1 
70  70  Spreckels Sugar Company  Four mile South of Salinas  O.K. if recommendations are executed. Reinspect October 1 
478  444 


1

TRAIN No. 2

DISTRICT SALINAS

                               
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
King City Area - Union Sugar and Spreckels Sugar Companies 
30  48  Ralph Meyer Union Sugar  Soledad-Turn W. 1 M. S. of Spence Station  Inspected. O.K. 
15  15  Speigl, E.H.  Chular-2 M. S. on Hwgy. 101  Inspected. O.K. when completed. 
15  15  Ralph Meyer  Chular-  Inspected. O.K. 
Gilroy-Hollister, San Juan Area - Spreckels Company 
15  12  Rex Mefferd  Hudner Lane-6 M. NW. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. 
12  14  D.H. Lundy  Belsa Rd.-5½ M. NW Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. 
10  12  Henry Duran  Wehmueller Ranch Belsa Rd.-2 M. N. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. Tent Camp 
10  10  6a  Henry Duran  Luther Ranch #2 2½ M. NW. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. 
Peter Friis  Santa Ana Valley 8 M. E. Hollister  Reinspected. OK 
Peter Friis  Frazier Lake Road 8 M. NW. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when equipment is placed. 
14  16  Harlan & Gambetta  Pacheco Rd. 6 M. N. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed & equipment placed. 
14  16  10  Joe Scagliotti  Pacheco Rd. 6 M. N. Hollister  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. 
22  24  11  Frank Padron  Old Ferry-Morse Ranch Fallon Rd.  Reinspected. O.K. when equipment is placed. 


2

                                   
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
10  12  12  Delfin Martin  Lanini Ranch 6½ M. N. Hollister  Repairs & Equipment incomplete 9/30. Tent Camp being installed 9/30. No. previous inspection. Owner not available 9/30. Should be O.K. by 10/3. 
King City Area - Union Sugar and Spreckels Sugar Companies 
66  66  13  Spreckels  Ranch #1 at Spreckels  Reinspected. O.K. 
Gilroy-Hollister, San Juan Area - Spreckels Company 
30  30  14  Henry Allemand  Rush Ranch, 1 M. E. Gilroy  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. Under way 9/30. 
24  24  15  M.R. Lemos  Marcella Ave. 3 M. NE. Gilroy  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. Under way 9/30. 
12  16  F. O'Connell  O'Connell Ranch Sargent, 5 M. N. San Juan  Reinspected. O.K. when minor agreed to repairs are completed. 
12  17  J. Capitanich  San Juan  No facilities available. 
10  10  18  Bothelo Bros.  San Juan  Hotel used for housing. O.K. 
King City Area - Union Sugar and Spreckels Sugar Companies 
10  16  19  Johnson, W.F.  Castroville  Inspected. O.K. 
12  32  20  Silacci Bros.  Salinas 3 M. N. on MacFadden Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed clean-up is completed. 
13  18  21  Granger Ranch Borja, A.P.  Salinas 4 M. NW. on Blanco Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed clean-up is completed. 
12  14  22  Dolan, James P.  Salinas 2½ M. W. on Davis Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs are completed. 
35  40  23  Union Sugar  King City Camp  Reinspected. O.K. 
31  25  24  Spreckels #3  King City Office Camp  Reinspected. O.K. 


3

                                     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR ORDERED  LOCATION  REMARKS 
20  20  25  Ranch #3  King City Midway Camp  Reinspected. O.K. 
16  16  26  Spreckels #11  Greenfield 1½ M. S. Turn E. @ SP Milling Co.  Reinspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
(16  27  Spreckels  Greenfield NE. Corner  Reinspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
(10 (Dairy)  27a  Borzini  3rd & Cherry Ave.  Reinspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
10  10  28  Gomes & Reed  Greenfield Next to Spreckels Ranch #11  Reinspected. O.K. 
22  29  Goday, A.  Soledad Dixon Ave. at Palm Street  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
16  27  30  Gularte, M.  Soledad, 1 M. S., 1st Lane W. across Tracks  Reinspected. O.K. when agreed cleanup completed. 
16  50  31  Caletisen, A.  Camphora ¼ M. N. E. side of Hwgy. 101  Reinspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
20  20  (32  Franco M.  King City San Lorenzo St.  Inspected. O.K. 
10  (32a  Forden  King City Canal St.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
Santa Maria Area - Union Sugar Company 
60  50  33  Union Sugar  Betteravia-Hall  Reinspected. O.K. for 60 Housing & feeding - 1st Nite. 
10  16  34  A. Bignardi  Santa Maria Sec. 17, TlON. Rg. 33 E. Santa Maria.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
12  35  A. Corda  Cambria 2½ M. E. on Santa Rosa Creek Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
12  48  36  Garcia Pereira  San Luis Obispo 2 M. S. on Hwgy. 101  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
12  12  37  Union Sugar Camp Field R-3  Betteravia Adjacent  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
163  836 


4

                             
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
Union Sugar Camp N-3A  Betteravia 3 M. NW.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed cleanup completed. 
18  Union Sugar Camp L-3  Lompoc 5 M. W.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
12  Houk, R.P.  Lompoc 10 M. SE. on Santa Rosa Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
15  Union Sugar Camp G.7A  Betteravia  Inspected. O.K. when agreed cleanup completed. 
Union Sugar Camp F-5  Guadalupe 5 M. N.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
20  Union Sugar Camp F-3C  Guadalupe 5 M. N.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
Union Sugar  Guadalupe 4½ M. N. Camp F-6  Inspected. O.K. when agreed cleanup completed 
15  Silva, M.  Arroyo Grande S. 3 M. on Sienaga Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
15  Oliver, M.  Arroyo Grande 4 M. S. on Sienaga Rd.  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
14  Nagano, Wm. Dalidio  San Luis Obispe 2 M. S. on Hwgy. 101  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 
Bianchi Bros.  Cambria 3 M. E. on Santa Rosa Creek Rd.  Rejected (House unsafe) 
Gilroy-Hollister, San Juan Area - Spreckels Company 
15  Petersen Bros.  2 M. NW. of San Juan  Not previously inspected. Owner agrees to repair & renovate by 10/3. Should be reinspected before final approval. Probably O.K. by 10/4. 


5

     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
15  Betts, O.E.  2 M. NE. San Juan on Luce Brown Lane  Inspected. O.K. when agreed repairs completed. 


1

TRAIN No. 3

DISTRICT STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY HOLLY SUGAR COMPANY

(10-3-42)

                       
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
20  20  Hutchins, A. W, Rich. Chase Hdq. Camp  2 M. E. of Terminous  OK. (Signed agreement from previous inspection 9/24/42). 
50  50  Kelly, J. C, Camp #12  Lower Jones Tract 4 M. N. Middle Rv.  OK. When repairs are completed. Did not have work completed as per agreement. Operator says he can finish before workers arrive. (Signed agreement from previous inspection trip. 9-24-42) 
30  30  Totman, Clifford Camp #1  Rindge Tract 1½ M. E. of Forry  OK with minor repairs & cleanup. (Signed agreement from previous inspection trip. 9-24-42) 
25  25  Brooks, Langley, F. E. Booth Hdq. Camp  West Side Ryer Island  O.K. 
Briseo, H. A. Thornton Farms Camp  1 M. E. of Thornton  O.K. when major repairs & cleaning are completed. Signed agreement. 
19  66  Brown, J. S. Jr. Libby-McNeil  C.P.C. Hdgtrs. Hastings Ranch, 19 mi. S. E. of Dixon.  O. K. as is. 
20  20  Sturgas, E. C.  Canal Ranch N. of Stockton  O.K. when major repairs agreed to are made. Signed agreement 
10  23  Frost, Clyde R.  Sterling Rd. Mt. View ¼ M. N. of Bayshore  O.K. when repairs are made. Operator not contacted. Holly Sugar Co. notified. 
10  30  Goscilia, Leo  West Side Monterey Highway 9 M. S. of San Jose  O.K. when repairs are made. Operator not contacted. Holly Sugar Co. notified. 
20  20  10  Aguiar, F. S.  2 M. NE. San Pablo  O.K. when repairs agreed to are made. Signed agreement. 


2

COMPANY SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

                               
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
12  15  11  Boulton, J. W.  Roberts Island at McDonald Ferry ½ M. E.  OK. when agreed repairs are made. Signed agreement 
20  21  12  Parenti, M.  Roberts Island Hdq. Camp  This camp was substituted for originally assigned Laucci Camp, on Fabian Tract. Camp OK when repairs are made. Acceptance of required repairs confirmed by phone to regional office 10-5-42. 
AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY - SACRAMENTO DISTRICT 
20  25  13  Huntley, W. C.  Clarksburg  O.K. 
30  54  14  Fernandex & D.H.&P.  Clarksburg  O.K. 
20  20  15  Nevis Bros., Mitchell & Coulter  Clarksburg  O.K. 
10  20  16  Reamer & Marshall  Clarksburg  O.K. 
68  68  17  Parolla, C.  West Sacramento  O.K. 
10  25  18  Colby, Anna  1 M. W. Clarksburg N. End Merritt Isle.  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by A. Colby & inspection. 
16  36  19  Bunnel Bros. & R. J. Harringer  4 M. S., 1 M. W. Clarksburg  Subject to improvements as per agreement signed by M. E. Bunnel 
16  34  20  Slater Bros.  3 M. S. Courtland Rd. Clarksburg  O.K. 
HOLLY SUGAR COMPANY - HAMILTON CITY DISTRICT 
18  75  21  Haines, C. F. Hamilton City Labor Camp  Holly Ranch  O.K. 
15  22  Walter, Elmer E.  1½ M. E. of Hamilton C. on Chico Hwy.  O.K. 


3

HOLLY SUGAR COMPANY

                                   
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
20  23  M & T, Inc.  3½ M. SW. of Chico on River Rd.  O.K. 
10  12  24  Livingston, O. W.  Bridge & Fremont Sts., Colusa  O.K. 
30  25  Polander, Newton  4 M. S. of Princeton on Compton Ranch  O.K. 
25  26  Erdman, F. & Wm. Chas. Richards Camp  Across river from Princeton  O.K. assuming agreed repairs are made. 
10  27  Stutz, George  3 M. N. of Chico on Main Hwy.  O. K. assuming agreed repairs are made. 
10  10  28  Tennant Co.  5½ M. N. of Colusa  O. K. assuming agreed repairs are made. 
29  Wright, W. H.  5½ M. N. of Colusa  Men to be housed at M & T, Inc. 
12  30  Baxter & Woell  4 M. S. of Chico  O. K. when agreed to repairs are made. 
SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY 
12  12  31  Brunk, M. J.  Tyler Isle. 4 M. S. of Walnut Grove  O.K. 
10  10  32  Giometti Bros. Libby-McNeil Camp  Tyler Isle. 3 M. E. of Isleton  O.K. 
10  10  33  Barr, R. C.  1 M. E. from Laugenour Camp  O.K. previously inspected. 
30  30  34  Eveland Bros.  5 M. S., 2 M. E. Woodland  O.K. previously inspected. 
10  10  35  Hulbert, R.  1 M. W. of Madison  O.K. previously inspected. 
24  24  36  Avilla, M.  2 M. N. of Woodland  O.K. previously inspected. 
15  15  37  Stuhlmuller, R.  3 M. N. of Yolo  O.K. previously inspected. but needs cook. 


4

DISTRICT SACRAMENTO DISTRICT, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

                     
No. WKRS. ORDERED  APPROVED FOR  IDENT.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
10  10  38  Fong Yen, Ashley Camp  2 M. N., 4 M. E. of Spreckels Sugar Co., Factory at Woodland  New. Requires numberous minor repairs to privies & showerhouses but bunkhouse & messhalls are in very good condition. 12 workers in bunkhouse in 1 tent & 10 in another which needs canvas. 
39  Comontofski, E.F. Isham Camp  1 M.S., 1 M. W. of Woodland  O.K. previously inspected but needs cook. 
30  30  40  Parella & Lawler  West Sacramento  O.K. 
16  16  41  Pogue, J. S. O'Connor Camp  ½ M. above Elkhorn Ferry 2nd House  Reinspected, all repairs made except for 1 which is to be done as soon as possible. 
25  25  42  Kunze Bros. Pierce Camp  3½ M. W. of Davis Hwy. 40, Putah Bridge  O.K. previous inspection. 
18  18  43  Greer, A. J. Hunt Camp  2 M. E., 1 M. S. Davis  O.K. previous inspection. 
12  12  44  Carl Becker Williamson Camp  1 M. E. Davis  New Inspection. An old camp needs numerous minor repairs & oxtensive cleaning to reuse. 
20  20  45  Patterson, W. H. Williams Camp  3½ M. S, 2 M. W. Woodland  New Inspection. Bunkhouse in excellent condition. Workers to eat at nearby camp. Owners will provide transportation for meals and bathing. 
10  10  46  Darsie & Beck  Staton Island  Subject to improvement as per signed agreement "Beck" & inspection. 


5

DISTRICT SACRAMENTO COUNTY, C/L IFORN IA

COMPANY SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

       
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
10  10  47  Bento, A. M. Parella Camp  W. Sacramento Alasak Packers Camp  O.K. 
60  Lowe, W. K. Gomez Camp  2 M. N., 5 M. E. of Spreckels Sugar Co. Factory, Woodland.  New inspection. Owner not listed but desires workers. Camp in good condition but needs minor repairs. 


1

TRAIN No. 4

(10-9-42): H.Z.

DISTRICT STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY HOLLY SUGAR COMPANY

                               
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
20  54  Fernandez, H.P.- (Holly Sugar Camp)  "Z" Line at Clarksburg  Previously inspected. 
22  22  Flint Bros (Camp #17)  Staten Island 
31  31  Robinson, I.N. (Robinson Farm Ranch #1)  About 14 M. SW of Stockton 
Sacramento District - Holly Sugar Company 
18  75  Haines, Chas. F. (AHamilton City Labor Camp)  Holly Ranch 
20  M. & T., Inc.  3½ M. SE. Chico on River Rd.  Previously inspected. 
25  Erdman, F & Wm. (Chas. Richards Camp)  6 M. N. of Colusa  Previously iX(nspected. 
12  Livingston, G. W.  1 M. S. of Colusa  Previously inspected. 
30  Pollander, Newton  4 M. S. of Princeton on Compton Ranch  Previously inspected. 
20  Stuts, Joe, Jr.  6 M. N. of Colusa on Maxwell Rd.  Previously inspected. 
35  10  Flint, John W.  6 M. N. of Colusa on Maxwell Rd.  Previously inspected. 
11  Landrus, Paul  2 M. E. of Williams  Previously inspected. 
Sacramento District - Spreckels Sugar Company 
25  30  12  Noteware, H.D. (Texas Camp)  Brannon Island  Previously inspected. Initial Survey 


2

                                       
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
26  13  Amen, H. (Hackett Camp)  1 M. E. from Factory #3  Rejected order. Due to reports of extravagant demands of imported wkrs. 
20  20  (14  Carlson, N.T. (Zieglar Camp)  2 M. E. Knights Landing  )Ivan Shuey transports his 10 men from this camp. 
10  10  (15  Shuey, Ivan (Zieglar Camp)  2 M. E. Knights Landing  )Housing & Boarding facilities in same camp. O.K. 
16  16  (16  Meek, W.H. (Lowe Camp)  Woodland, 2 M. N., 4 M. E. from Factory #3  )Housing & Boarding facilities in same camp. O.K. 
16  16  (17  Lowe, W.K. (Lowe Camp) 
13  13  (18  Lawler, John  Sacramento 1 M. E. of Elkhorn Ferry  )Housing & Boarding facilities in same camp. O.K. 
12  (19  Lauppe, L. 
16  20  Pollack, R. (Barr Camp)  Woodland, 2 M. N., 3 M. E. of Factory #3  This camp is full to its capacity. Rejected. 
King City District - Union Sugar Company 
16  16  21  Union Sugar Co. Camp  King City  O.K. 
King City District - Spreckels Sugar Company 
10  10  22  S.S. Co. Ranch 3  King City (Midway Camp)  O.K. 
12  12  23  S.S. Co. Ranch 3  King City (Ortego Camp)  O.K. 
10  10  24  Franco, Mike  King City  O.K. 
25  Borzini, M.  Greenfield  O.K. 
26  Godoy, M.  Soledad  O.K. 
Salinas District - Union Sugar Company 
16  16  27  Meyers, Ralph  Chular  O.K. 


3

DISTRICT SALINAS, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

                                       
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
10  10  28  S.S. Co. Ranch 1  Spreckels  O.K. Agreement signed. 
10  10  29  Speigl, E.  Chular  O.K. 
10  10  30  Meyers, Ralph Co.  Chular  O.K. 
31  Lemos, M.E.  Gilroy 
30  30  32  I.D.E.S. Hall  Gilroy  Will require mess hall or tent for 30 men. 
12  33  Lindeleaf Bros.  Gilroy  O.K. when signed agreement is completed. 
30  28  34  Saveria, F.J.  Watsonville Chittenden Rd.  O.K. as is. 
10  10  35  Betts, Hazel M.  San Juan  O.K. 
10  14  36  Peterson Bros. Rch. (Jacques operator)  San Juan  O.K. when signed agreement is completed. 
Guadalupe District - Union Sugar Company 
37  Roberts, Frank  Guadalupe (U.S.Co.) Camp Field N-3-A  O.K. 
12  12  38  Cuggia, Joe  Guadalupe (U.S.Co.) Camp Field R-3  O.K. 
39  Fillipponi & Barca Bros. (Betteravia Hall)  Guadalupo  O.K. 
40  Adam Bros. (Betteravia Hall)  O.K. 
Guadaulupe District - American Crystal Company 
70  60  41  Calif. Lettuce Growrs.  Guadalupe  O.K - 2 separato bldgs. 26 men in 618 
34 men in 510 
588  750 


4

ADDITIONAL SITES INSPECTED

                                     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
Sacramento District - Spreekels Sugar Company 
Roiff, Paul (City Camp)  Woodland 212 Main St.  Reinspection necessary. There is doubt whether required measures can be fulfilled. 
16  Pollock, R. (Hoffman Ranch)  Wooland 1 M. N. & 1 M. E. from Factory 3  O.K. 
16  Wray & Winters (Hecke Ranch)  Woodland 1 M. W. & 2½ M. S. of Woodland  O.K. for 16. They will put up tents for an addnl. 4 men. 
15  Johnston Bros. (Dairy Camp)  Verona 4 M. N. of Verona on Garden Hwy.  O.K. 
Santa Maria District - American Crystal Sugar Company 
Harry Harris  Harris Sta. S. of Santa Maria  O.K. 
10  Hansen & Sharer  Harris Sta. S. of Santa Maria  Cleaning & repairs to be made. 
10  Dune Lakes, Ltd.  near coast from Arroyo Grande  Cleaning & repairs to be made. 
Salinas District - Spreekels Sugar Company 
20  Church Rch.  Salinas  O.K. 
40  Growers Shippers Assoc.  Watsonville  To install mess hall partitions 
10  Nunes, K.L.  Harris Lane near Spreckels  O.K. if signed agreement is completed 
Alvarado District - Holly Sugar Company 
10  Mrs. Kennedy  Santa Clara  Minor repairs to be made. 
14  Mancini Rch.  Alvarado 2 M. S. on Hwy.  O.K. 
10  Leo Gascilla  San Jose 5 M. S.  O.K. 


1

TRAIN No. 5

DISTRICT STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY HOLLY SUGAR COMPANY

(10-17-42)

                           
NO WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
14  15  Shankel, W.C. (Hdqtrs. Camp)  Venice Island (4 M. SW. Venice Ferry)  Previously inspected Train #1 
10  31  Robinson, I.N., Jr. (Robinson Farms Ranch #1)  14 M. SW. of Stockton  Previously inspected Train #4 
40  60  Westgate, E.W. (Terminus Farms Camp)  3/4 M. NE. of Terminus  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. 
16  20  Garin, H.P. Co. (Maybeck Rch.)  5 M. W. of Stockton  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. 
14  Smith, Geo. H. (Hdqtrs. Camp)  Jersey Island (38 M. W. of Stockton in Contra Costa Co.  Order for men cancelled. 
20  Hutchins, A.W. (Richmond Chase Hdqtrs. Camp)  2 M. E. of Terminus  Previously inspected Train #1 
14  14  Lund, Victor (Holly Sugar Commun. Labor Camp)  1 M. N. Pleasanton  Originally inspected & certified for 54 Mexican workers 
12  16  Rasmussen, Harry (Rasmussen Ranch)  1 M. S. of RyerGrand Isle. Ferry 
16  24  McCormick, Thomas  Sherman Island (2½ M. E. of Antioch Bridge)  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. Antioch Bridge) 
15  26  10  Rosellini, G.  W. Side Grand Isle.  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. 
16  16  11  Bumn, Lum (2 camps available H.P. McGillivray Rch. Watanabe Hotel)  2 M. E. of Thornton or Walnut Grove  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. 
10  12  12  Barber, G.L.  2½ M. N. of Thornton  O.K. assuming agreed minor repairs & cleaning is done. 


2

DISTRICT STOCKTON, CALIFORNIA

COMPANY SPRECKELS SUGAR COMPANY

                                     
NO. WKRS ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION OF CAMP  REMARKS 
15  15  13  Ripkin, R. (Torminus Camp)  6 M. SE. of Torminus  Previously inspected Train #1. 
15  14  Boulton, J.W.  Roberts Isle & McDonald Ferry, ½ M.E.  Previously inspected Train #3 
10  30  15  West, N. (Crittenden Camp)  5 M. E. Tracy  Previously inspected Train #1 
Sacramento District - American Crystal Sugar Company 
32  32  16  Pilz, Hanrahan & Perry (Hanrahan Camp)  Clarksburg  O.K. with repairs. 
16  54  17  Fernandox, D.H.&P.  Clarksburg  O.K. previously inspected 
(Darcie, Hutchins & Pottigrow Camp)  Train #3. 
18  Pylman, Harvey  Morritt Island  Now camp in Clarksburg O.K. if cleaned. 
10  10  19  Souza, Joo & L., & Valino (Colby Camp)  Clarksburg  O.K reinspection was O.K. except toilet, still needs now one. 
15  16  20  Soribner A.N.  Clarksburg  O.K. reinspection was O.K. 10/15/42 M.J. Orig. Ins. Train 1 
Sacramento District - Spreckels Sugar Company 
12  12  21  Bettencourt, E. (Toepelman Camp)  ¼ M. S. Isleton Bridge  O.K. with min. cleaning & repair. 
16  16  22  Giovannoni, R. (Std. Oil Camp)  Andrus Isle. 5 M. S. of Isleton  O.K. 
20  20  23  Campi, PM. & J. (Std. Oil Camp)  2 M. S. of Isleton  O.K. previously inspected Train #0. 
16  16  24  Lewallen, J. (Spreckels Camp)  6 M. S. of Isleton  New layout (hotetin Isleton - feed at old camp) O.K. 
10  10  25  Golden State Asparagus Co.  4 M. S. of Isleton  O.K. previously inspected Train#0. 
12  28  26  Heidrick Bros.  Woodland ½ M. S. of Brown's Corner  O.K. for 12 Addtl. (Cap. 28 in camp = 16, New 12) 


3

                                   
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
24  24  27  Wray & Winters (Hecke Camp)  3 M. S. 1 M. W. Woodland  O.K. 
10  50  28  Eveland Bros.  5 M. S. 2 M. E. Woodland  O.K. (1st reinspection) 38 men now in camp. 
15  35  29  Best, Dan (Patton Camp)  Woodland 3 M. N. of Yolo  O.K. (1st reinspection). 
10  39  30  Amen, Henry (Hackett Camp)  Woodland (1 M. E. of Spreckels Factor)  O.K. (1st reinspection) 19 men now in camp. 
12  18  31  Williams, M. (Shell Oil Camp)  Davis ½ M. E. Davis Subway  O.K. 
12  12  32  Becker, Carl Williamson, C.  1 M. SW. of Davis  O.K. previously inspected Train #3. 
15  15  33  Johnston Bros.  4 M. N. of Verona  O.K. previously inspected Train #4. 
28  57  (34  Tuttle, Chas. (Balsdon Camp)  4 M. W. of Grimes  (See explanations on certification sheet. OK. for 28 new workers only) 
(35  Kaelin, L. (Balsdon Camp)  4 M. W. of Grimes 
26  36  Greer, F.J. & Sons (Harby Roh.)  2½ M. SE. of Davis  O.K. 
Holly Sugar Company  ADDITIONAL CERTIFICATIONS 
26  Holly Sugar Plant  Alvarado  O.K. If signed agreement is completed. 
Spreckels Sugar Company 
Dunham, R.L. (Vadalas Camp)  In the town of Yola  O.K. (An alternate). 
20  Cauzza, Henry  7 M. SE. of Grimes  This is an alternative for housing 20 men. 
15  Andriotti, H.  3½ M. SE. of Grimes on River Roa d  This is an alternative for eating only. (15 men). 


4

Holly Sugar Company

                     
NO. WKRS. ORDERED  CAMP APPROVED FOR  IDENT. NO.  OWNER OR OPERATOR  LOCATION  REMARKS 
18  Gebicke, R. A.  1 M. NE Butte City  (1st reinspection). 10 men in camp 
Stutz, Geo.  3 M. N. of Chico on Main Hwy.  (1st reinspection). 8 men in camp 
10  Baxtor & Woell  4 M. S. of Chico on Main Hwy.  (1st reinspection). 6 men in camp 
16  Ullrich & Pollander  4 M. S. of Princeton  (1st reinspection). 16 men in camp 
16  Livingston (City Camp)  Main St. Colusa  (1st reinspection). 16 men in camp 
20  Erdman, F. & Wm.  8 M. S Butte City  (1st reinspection). 12 men in camp 
Spreckels Sugar Company 
45  Meek & Lowe (Lowe Camp)  7 M. NE. Woodland  (1st reinspection). 45 men in camp 
15  Reiff, Paul (City Camp)  212 Main St. Woodland  (1st reinspection). 15 men in camp 


1

Exhibit D: Check Sheet for Inspection of Housing and Sanitary Facilities

figure


1

Exhibit E: [Housing Inspection Form]

The following housing site operated by Westgate, E. W.

Located at ½ M. E. & ½ M. N. of Terminus

Will be submitted to Farm Security Administration for certification for Farm Labor workers providing the following measures are fulfilled:

  1. General Cleaning of Kitchen and Mess Hall
  2. Install doors and repair broken screen in privies
  3. Provide drainage away from underneath shower house.
  4. General cleaning of bunk house and replace missing or damaged screens.
  5. Provide ticks for beds.

This work shall be done by Saturday evening Oct. 16

Total permitted occupants: 60

Agreed to by:

E. W. Westgate by W. Shelby
Owner, Operator or Processor
William Pirrone
Farm Security Administration Inspector
Date: October 14, 1942


1

Exhibit F: [Housing Inspection Form]

The following housing site operated by D. H. Lundy

Located at

Will be submitted to Farm Security Administration for certification for Farm Labor workers providing the following measures are fulfilled:

Extend partition to roof to separate kitchen from bunkhouse

Stop openings under eaves (above plate) or screen.

Screen all openings - batten cracks

Provide one flyproof privy

Flyproof present privy

provide beds and pads

Provide kitchen equipment.

Installation of shower head in bathhouse is recommended.

Facilities will accommodate 14 men when above requirements are met.

To be ready for occupance 9/28/42

Agreed to by:

D. H. Lundy
Owner, Operator or Processor
W. A. Keene
Farm Security Administration Inspector
Date: 9-22-42

Exhibit G: Minimum Type Pit Privy For Farm Labor Camps

figure

Exhibit G: Minimum Type Pit Privy For Farm Labor Camps

figure

Exhibit G (cont.): Minimum Type Shower Bath House

figure

Exhibit G (cont.): Drainage For Minimum Type Shower Bath House


1

Exhibit H: [Housing Standards]

HOUSING STANDARDS FOR FSA TRANSPORTED WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA

  • 1. Housing Structure - Cabins, bunkhouses, former residences or tents in good condition shall be located on ground not subject to flood, shall be reasonably proofed against weather and in safe structural condition. Floors, walls and ceilings shall be clean. Floors shall be wood or concrete. Floor space shall be approximately 60 square feet per person. If used for family housing, each family shall have a segregated area at least 12' by 14' in area. If housing is used for food preparation or mess hall purposes, doors and windows shall be screened flytight. Provisions shall exist for scouring and soalding cooking and eating utensils.
  • 2. Furniture and Fixtures - Beds, cots or wooden bunks shall be provided together with mattresses or straw ticks. Minimum clearance between beds or bunks shall be 20". Chairs, stools or benches shall be provided. Provisions shall exist for feeding the workers or facilities shall be furnished for the workers to prepare their own food, if they so desire. If the workers elect to prepare their own food, places for purchase of food and other necessities at standard market prices shall be readily accessible, or made accessible with the assistance of the employer.
  • 3. Bathing and Laundry Facilities - Some facilities shall exist for bathing, either shower bath or tub. If showers are provided, there shall be one head for not more than each 15 men. If tubs are furnished, there shall be one tub for every 15 men. Hot water is not required. Provisions shall be made for washing clothes. One laundry tray or tub shall be provided for each 15 workers. Provisions shall be made for heating hot water for clothes washing. If tubs are provided for bathing, they need not be duplicated for washing clothes.
  • 4. Sanitation - Toilets shall be flush type or pit privy. There shall be at least one toilet seat for each 15 persons. If pit privies are used, they shall be located out of swales and out of the path of rain water run-off. Privies shall not be located over irrigation canals or streams. Privies shall be located at least 100' from well used for domestic water supply. Privies shall be flytight and seats covered. Privies shall be at least 75' from sleeping quarters. Drainage from showers, sinks or flush toilets shall be run through a covered drain to a covered cesspool or septic tank. Flytight and covered receptacles shall be provided for garbage or refuse. Such garbage shall be disposed of by burying, burning or hauling away. Grounds around the camp shall be kept clean.
  • 5. Water Supply - Pure water for drinking and bathing shall be readily available. One hose bibb or spigot shall be provided for every 30 men. Supply shall be capable of providing at least 15 gallons per person per day.
  • 6. Conveniences - First aid kit shall be available at every camp. In case of necessity, transportation shall be provided to doctor or hospital.

This outline of housing standards includes all requirements of the State Labor Code and the California State Division of Immigration and Housing.


1

Exhibit I: Mexican Labor Group Receiving Medical and Dental Care

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS HEALTH AND MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

TABLE 1: Cumulative Through November 20, 1942

MEDICAL CARE       
Members Accepted for Medical Care  406 
Care Completed During Period  10 
Members Under Care at End of Period  396 

DENTAL CARE       
Members Extended Dental Care  24 
Care Completed During Period 
Members Under Care at End of Period  21 

CASES OF ILLNESS       
Cases of Illness Accepted for Treatment  458 
Cases Completed During Period  14 
Cases Under Treatment at End of Period  444 


1

Exhibit J: Medical Statistical Report — Mexican Labor Program

Table 2 — Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association

figure

Table 2 — Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association


2

figure

Medical Statistical Report — Mexican Labor Program [page 2]


1

Exhibit K: [Earnings Summary]

WORK & EARNINGS SUMMARY MEXICAN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS BY AREAS & PERIODS                                  
Workers on Hourly Rates 
Week ending November 7  Week ending November 14 
AREA  Av.No.Days Worked  Av.No.Hrs. Worked  Av.Hourly Earnings  Av.Weekly Earnings  Av.No.Days Worked  Av.No.Hrs. Worked  Av.Hourly Earnings  Av.Weekly Earnings 
Chico  5.1  47.4  $0.70  $33.02  5.1  47  $0.70  $32.87 
Sacramento  No  figures  available  6.0  50  0.70 [*]  35.00 [*] 
Stockton  No  figures  available  No  figures  available 
Salinas  No  figures  available  5.1  42  00.55  23.07 
Santa Maria  None 
Piece rates 
Week ending November 7  Week ending November 14 
AREA  Av.No.Days Worked  Av.No.Hrs. Worked  Av.Hourly Earnings  Av.Weekly Earnings  Av.No.Days Worked  Av.No.Hrs. Worked  Av.Hourly Earnings  Av.Weekly Earnings 
Chico  45  [**]  [**]  3.5  34  [**]  [**] 
Sacramento  No  figures  available  6.0  50  $0.65  $32.50 [*] 
Stockton  No  figures  available  No  figures  available 
Salinas  5.3  46.4  $0.34  $14.10  4.6  40  0.45  17.98 
Santa Maria  4.2  38.4  0.67  25.50  5.1  46.6  0.52  26.65 


1

Exhibit L: WEEKLY WORK & EARNINGS SUMMARY

figure


1

Exhibit M: FARM VISIT REPORT

figure


1

Exhibit N: FARM VISIT REPORT

figure


1

Exhibit O: [Form IX-546] EMPLOYMENT TERMINATION AGREEMENT

(11-16-42)

(FSA-504)

WORKER NO._____

EMPLOYMENT TERMINATION AGREEMENT

THIS AGREEMENT, made this 11 day of November, 1942 397 entered into between the Government of the United States of America, hereinafter called the "Patron" and
ANTONIO P. GARCIA 397
hereinafter called the "Worker,"

WITNESSETH:

WHEREAS, the Patron and the Worker on the
24 day of September, 1942
entered into an "Individual Work Agreement" hereinafter called the "Work Agreement," under which, upon completion of the period of employment specified therein, the Worker is to be returned by the Patron to the point of origin stated in the Work Agreement; and

WHEREAS, the Worker wishes to terminate said period of employment and return to the point of origin because,
Doesn't feel he can do work in sugar beets.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual undertakings hereinafter stated, the Patron and the Worker mutually agree as follows:

1. The period of employment specified in the Work Agreement is hereby terminated as of the
11 day of November, 1942

2. The transportation of the Worker to the point of origin specified in the Work Agreement shall begin on the
11 day of November, 1942

3. Except as expressly modified in this agreement, the terms of the Work Agreement shall continue in full force and effect:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Patron and the Worker have caused this instrument to be executed as of the date first above written.

El Trabajador - Worker

Antonio P. Garcia

Los Estados Unidos de America-United States of America

Por-By C. E. Mead

Ass't Employment Supervisor

Testigos — Witnesses

Adlai Goldschmidt

FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

F255169

_____

ACUERDO PARA TERMINAR EMPLEO

ESTE CONTRATO hecho el dia 11 day of November, 1942 397 se celebra entre los Estados de America, y que en el cuerpo de mismo se denominará "El Patrón," y ANTONIO P. GARCIA 397 a quién en el cuerpo del mismo se denominará "El Trabajador"

DAN FE QUE:

EN VISTA DE QUE, el Patrón y el Trabajador en el día
24 day of September, 1942
celebrarón un "Contrato Individual de Trabajo" que en el cuerpo del mismo se denominará "Contrato de Trabajo," bajo cual, al cumplir el plazo de empleo aqui especificado, el Trabajador debe ser mandado por el Patron al lugar de procedencia manifestado en el Contrato de Empleo; y

EN VISTA DE QUE, el Trabajador desea terminar su plazo de empleo y regresar al lugar de procedencia porque, _____

Y POR LO TANTO, en vista de las garantías mutuales mas abajo indicadas, el Patron y el Trabajador quedan en el acuerdo que sigue:

1a. El plazo de empleo especificado en el Contrato de Trabajo se termina con fecha de 11 day of November, 1942

2a. El viaje del Trabajador al lugar de procedencia especificado en el Contrato de Trabajo comenzara 11 day of November, 1942

3a. Con excepcion de los cambios hechos expresamente en este contrato, las condiciones del Contrato de Trabajo continuarán en su plena fuerza y efecto:

EN FE DE LO CUAL, el Patrón y el Trabajador convienen en que este documento tenga la fuerza legal correspondiente desde la primera fecha antes mencionada,

El Trabajador - Worker:

Antonio P. Garcia

Los Estados Unidos de America-United States of America

Por-By C. E. Mead

Ass't Employment Supervisor

Testigos — Witnesses

Adlai Goldschmidt

FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

F255169


1

Exhibit P: [Form IX-542] COMPLAINT REPORT

(11-5-42)

United States Department of Agriculture

Farm Security Administration

Farm Labor Transportation Program

Date of Hearing Nov. 9, 1942

Field Office Stockton

FORMAL COMPLAINT REPORT

Grower Wiensheimer Camp at ½ mi. NE of Thornton

Complaint Made by Jorge R. Reige and H. A. Briscoe Worker _____ Emp. Rep. _X_

         
WORKERS INVOLVED 
IN COMPLAINT:  413  426  327  395  202  337 
(List by Number  395  144  96  395  327  2860 
Only) 

NATURE OF COMPLAINT:

Grower asked Holly sugar Co. to transfer these 11 workers because they were not producing. Simultanciously group leader filed written complaint against growers to whom group had been assigned.

FINDINGS:

These workers were transferred from Wiensheimer to John Kelley. Upon arrival at the Kelley Ranch, they found that the basis of pay was the piece rate scale and they refused to go to work. Whereupon Kelley delivered then to Stockton and left them on the street.

The workers refused to continue in sugar beets and requested repatriation. They were offered employment in guayule, and ten of the group accepted it. No. 397 stated that climate did not agree with his health and that he would not accept employment in any crop.

ACTION TAKEN:

Repatriation 1 worker

Transfer to Guayule 10 workers

  • 1. Number of workers returned to pint of origin. (Termination Agreements attached)
  •     . . . . . . . 1
  • 2. Number transferred to another grower. _____ To _____ Field Office. _____
  •     
  • 3. Number transferred from Sugar Beets crop to Guayule crop
  •     . . . . . 10

ROUTING: Original to R.O. Copy to Grower File, Copy on back of Term. Agree. copies.

SIGNED: Mr. Hicks

(Check one) FSA LR Specialist X Area Emp. Supv. _____


1

Exhibit Q: [Repatriation Report]

REPORT OF REPATRIATION OF MEXICAN NATIONALS AS OF NOVEMBER 21, 1942                                    
Number 
Reason for Return  of men 
Physical inability to perform work in sugar beets  77 
Unwilling to perform work in sugar beets  26 
Illness  11 
Illness in family at home  26 
Family difficulties at home 
Home sick 
Deaths in families in Mexico 
Friends or relatives returning 
Business difficulties in Mexico 
Recalled by Mexican Government for educational reasons 
Fighting 
Drunkenness 
Larceny 
Men left work and returned across border without notifying
Farm Security Administration 
Total returned  165 


1

Exhibit R: [Workers Missing Report]

CUMULATIVE NO. MEXICAN WORKERS MISSING BY AREAS AND PERIODS                
Nov. 7  Nov. 14  Nov. 21 
Chico 
Sacramento 
Stookton  24  33 
Salinas  62  68  68 
Santa Maria  [*] 
Total  72  100  103 


1

Exhibit S: Weekly Field Report

figure


2

figure

Exhibit S (cont.): Weekly Field Report / Instruction [reverse]


1

Exhibit T: Renewal of Work Agreement

No._____

AGREEMENT OF RENEWAL OF INDIVIDUAL WORK AGREEMENT

Pursuant to the terms of Paragraph 13 of that certain agreement dated
_____________, 19___
entitled "Individual Work Agreement" and entered into by and between the Government of the United States, therein called and hereinafter referred to as "Patron", and
___________
a Mexican laborer, therein referred to and hereinafter called "The Worker".

WITNESSETH:

Patron and Worker mutually agree that said Individual Work Agreement shall be and hereby is renewed and extended until
_____________, 19___

It is mutually agreed and understood that said Individual Work Agreement has been renewed and extended, as herein provided, with the knowledge and consent of the Mexican Government.

The terms and conditions of said Individual Work Agreement as originally executed shall continue in effect during the period of such renewal and extension, unmodified and unaltered except as the parties thereto shall expressly agree in writing.

This extension is in accordance with an official communication from Secretaría Del Trabajo y Previsión Social Number 6233, dated November 24, 1942, signed by Lic. Luis Fernandez Del Campo, Director Prevision Social.

Dated this day of / Hecho a _____ de ___________, 19___

El Trabajador - Worker.

____________________

Los Estados Unidos de America - United States of America

Por- By ____________________

____________________

Titulo Oficial - Official Title.

FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

NOVACION DE CONTRATO INDIVIDUAL DE TRABAJO

Conforme los Términos del Cláusula 13 del Contrato del día
_____, 19_____
titulado "Contrato Individual de Trabajo", celebrado entre el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, al que se denominará en esta Contrato "Patrón" y.
_____
trabajador Mexicano, a quien se le denominará "El Trabajador".

SE HACE CONSTAR:

El Patrón y el Trabajador convienen que dicho Contrato Individual de Trabajo, ha quedado renovado y por lo mismo, se amplía su término hasta el día
_____, 19_____

Queda entendido que el mencionado Contrato Individual de Trabajo ha quedado renovado en su ampliación de término a que se refiere el cláusula anterior, con el conocimiento y consentimento del Gobierno de México.

Los términos y condiciones del Contrato original, Individual de Trabajo, tal y como se encuentran previstos, continuarán en efecto durante el período que fija la presente ampliación y de una manera immodificable e inalterable, excepto cuando las partes contratantes lo convengan y expresen por excrito.

Esá extension es de acuerdo con el tráto official del Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social numero 6233, féchado el 24 de Noviembre, 1942, y firmado por Lic. Luis Fernandez del Campo, Director Previsión Social.

Dated this day of - Hecho a _____ de ___________, 19___

El Trabajador - Worker.

____________________

Los Estados Unidos de America - United States of America

Por- By ____________________

____________________

Titulo Oficial - Official Title.

FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE