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Application for Revenue Sharing Funds from Alameda County

  1. Name of Program: Center for Independent Living, Inc.
  2. Address and Phone Number: 2725 Haste St., Suite 207, (415) 841-4776 Name and Phone Number of Program Contact: Larry Biscamp 841-4776/548-6917
  3. Organizational Status: Non-Profit, Tax-Exempt, Charity Organization / Section 501 (c) (3) / - /Section 509 (a) (1) /.

It is an indisputable fact that the blind and the disabled are among the most mistreated minority groups in the country. Many members of this minority group are often never informed of the benefits for which they are eligible, and sometimes they are deliberately misinformed. They are discriminated against in employment, in housing, and particularly in transportation. Even if they did receive the full benefits which they are statutoraly entitled to, they would yet be at a great disadvantage.

The Center for Independent Living, Inc. is a rehabilitation services organization, serving physically disabled and blind people living within the norther Alameda County area. Unlike other agencies, the CIL has a consumer approach to rehabilitation services. This means that it has been planned and is staffed by disabled and blind individuals who have first-hand experience and knowledge of disability. It also means that clients will contribute to the program's operation and direction to insure that the CIL remains flexible and responsive to the needs of the people it serves.


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The overall objective of the CIL is to substantially improve the conditions affecting the lives of physically disabled and blind people by maximizing their opportunities for personal choice in the events and processes which affect their daily lives.

In the past, the diabled and blind have dealt seperately with their problems. The CIL recognizes the common problems and goals of the disabled and blind and the potential strength and effectiveness of a coalition in a service and advocacy organization. The CIL coalition will help promote a sense of solidarity among disabled and blind people, and with the strength of this solidarity, public awareness of the rights and needs of this large, potentially productive minority group can be increased.

After the CIL has been in operation for a few years, its impact will spread beyond the disabled and blind population to the Northern Alameda County as a whole. As increasing numbers of blind and disabled attain functional independence, they will naturally begin to get out onto the streets and participate in community life in general. As a result, the public at large will become aware of the diabled and blind people living in its midst. This increased awareness can lead to acceptance of the blind and disabled; along with the recognition that they possess abilities as well as disabilities; it will also serve to dispel many of the myths and fears which are responsible for much of the alienation that exists between the able-bodied and the handicapped. In short, the CIL services program will facilitate the integration of the disabled and blind into the larger


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society not only by providing actual supportive services, but also by attacking indirectly the attitudinal barriers that also do much to impede this integration.

The objectives set forth here are admittedly ambitious. But if, as expected, the CIL succeeds in achieving those objectives, the impact will be felt far beyond the small area it serves directly. The desirability of establishing similar programs in other areas will soon become apparent. Groups undertaking such programs in the future will undoubtedly find the CIL's pioneering experience a most valuable resource.

b) Specific Objectives

    b) Specific Objectives
  1. Maintaining an office which serves as a location for both provision of services and as a common place where blind and disabled can meet-whether one to one, in informal social gatherings, or in loosely structured seminars- and share their experiences and common problems.
  2. Conducting continuing, aggressive outreach activity with special emphasis on finding and ascertaining the needs of aged, minority, and other frequently "overlooked" blind and disabled citizens in the area.
  3. Assisting clients in more effective use of existing agencies serving them through:
    • a. informed referral
    • b. careful follow-up both with clients and with agency staffs.
    • c. direct client assistance and advocacy as needed
  4. Services to increase individual capacities for personal maintenance:
    • a. training in self care
    • b. provision of reader and attendant pools
    • c. medical needs counseling
    • d. housing assistance

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  6. Services to increase personal mobility
    • a. mobility and orientation training for blind clients
    • b. repair of wheelchairs and orthopedic devices
    • c. specialized transportaion to compensate for the shortcomings
  7. Helping the disabled and blind community as a whole increase their participation in their physical and social environment through:
    • a. group activites which develop and reinforce desires for independence and community participation.
    • b. publication of The Independent, a newsletter carrying information about activities of the CIL and other programs of direct concern to the disabled and blind; information about federal, state, and local legislation; research and current medical progress; and self-care and independent living techniques.
    • c. the design, site-planning, and inspection of the wheelchair ramps being installed at street corners by the city in participation with the CIL.
    • d. the production of radio programs (two have been completed and aired nationally) on disability.
    • e. cooperative effort with the City of Berkeley to develop building code changes providing for wheelchair accessibility and on non-descriminatory legislation.
    • f. out-patient clinics for severely disabled people in co-operation with The Herrick Hospital.
  8. Research and evaluation efforts involving the determination of what techniques are likely to be most effective in meeting the current and future needs of the CIL and its clients; the collection and dissemination of hard data concerning the operation of CIL and its effectiveness for clients; the production of working organizational models to be used for the development of similar programs around the country; and to plan for and develop ways to make the services provided by the CIL pay for themselves.
  9. Preplanning
    • a. How the program became a priority.

There are two sets of criteria for defining the poverty of blind and disabled persons. The first is an economic indicator. There are at least 11,000 recipients of Aid to the Totally Disabled (ATD) and 950 recipients of Aid to the Blind (AB) presently residing in Alameda County.


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These people receive basic living grants ranging from $166 per month to about$200 per month. In addition, there is an indeterminate number of blind and disabled people receiving social security or other minimal sustenance levels of financial aid. The second set of criteria for defining poverty is the discrimination of poor architectural design, unfair housing practices, poor levels of self-care training, the lack of protective legislation, a public transportation system which many cannot use (people with wheelchairs or poor mobility training cannot use AC Transit), and the myriad of environmental factors that cause disabled and blind people to lead lives of isolation and despair.

Existing services for the disabled and blind are inadequate in that virtually no agency delivering them has enough resources to provide services and support at the level that is needed. But the inadequacy of services often goes deeper than an insufficiency of resources, important though it is; it also arises from fundamental approaches to the problems which are narrowly focused, shortsighted and/or fragmented.

In order to be a fully participating community member, a disabled or blind person must play an active role in providing those services necessary for the development of independent living skills. The following examples illustrate. A disabled person is unlikely to do well in his academic studies if he has to face recurring medical problems, but instruction in relatively simple preventative measures would allow him to sharply reduce or even eliminate many of these


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problems. It is impossible for a blind person to go to school, hold a job, maintain an apartment, or participate in social activities without thorough training in the use of a white cane or guide dog. Because of resource and faculty limitation, adequate mobility training is not available to all who need it.

Many disabled persons need daily personal attendants. Locating attendants is a task for which public assistance agencies have proven inadequate and which is a bewildering catch-as-catch-can process for families. Access to a pool of potential attendants maintained by an organization with the skills and mandate to do so will, we believe, substantially ease the burden on families and disabled persons alike. Home tasks which would otherwise keep a blind or disabled person from living independently and managing a home can be accomplished with the knowledge and use of simple techniques and mechanical arrangements and devices such as modified door knobs and stove controls, thermostats, and other electrical appliances as well as braille labels for canned and packaged foods; Balkan bed frames etc. Individual solutions to home and self-care arrangement problems can be found through informal communication with other disabled and blind people and through personalized help in making the necessary adaptations. Many blind and disabled people are ignorant of their capabilities and the opportunities which should be open to them because they are denied psychological support from active disabled and blind people and exposure to what living, training, and financial arrangements are available. Similarly, after recovering his health, a newly disabled or blind


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person is released from the hospital often without knowledge of any alternative to depending on his family for survival or living confined and isolated in an institution. It takes education, encouragement, help with transportation and appointments, and concerned follow-up before an individual learns what it is he needs and wants and develops the ability to get it for himself.

These are but a few examples of the deficiencies which pervade the rehabilitation service network. On the one hand, existing agencies serving the blind and disabled, receive requests for services that they cannot or will not handle; on the other, many if not most of those who are served by these agencies still do not receive some services which really meet their needs. In large part, this is because most agencies offer services only narrowly defind, concrete areas. moreover, agencies are rarely sufficiently familiar with the services provided by other agencies, so that when an agency receives a request for help that it is not equipped to handle, it is often not even able to refer the person making the request to a more appropriate agency—if in fact one exists. It is almost as is the burden is on the disabled and blind to fit themselves to the services available rather than on existing agencies to adapt their services to the needs of their clients.

9. Application and Results of Funding Requests Elsewhere

    9. Application and Results of Funding Requests Elsewhere
  • a. Our first funding request was submitted to the Rehabilitation Services Administration (an agency of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare). This request was in the nature of a Project Development Grant for the purpose of studying the need for our type of program in this geographic area, to plan the facility and services best suited to meeting that need, and to draft a Research and Demonstration grant for submittal to Social and Rehabilitation Services (another agency of the HEW).

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In June of 1972, we received $ 50,311 to implement the project. With these funds we have hired fifteen staff members and have accomplished the following:

I. Target Population Survey

We have conducted limited seperate surveys of both the disabled and blind populations in the target area of Berkeley, Albany, Kensington, Emeryville, and northern Oakland. The questionnaires surveyed the type and degree of disability, age, race, sex, living situation, amount and type of help required, and the desirability proposed by CIL. The surveys have provided much useful information, but have not provided a good estimate of the size of the target population or its geograpghic distribution. This information has been limited by the lack of a practical method of mass distribution and, we suspect, by the difficulty many blind people have in acquiring correspondence readers. We, therefore, have turned to more statistical techniques and have developed the necessary estimates by the use of three seperate methods. These include applying Social Security prevalence rates by disability type to the population figures. The data is extrapolated from the Bureau of the Census, 1970, figures on disability and the Susan Ridge formula [*] correlating age, sex, race, and income to prevelance of disability. We are confident that the results give a workable picture of the target population by census tract.

II. Community Service Agencies Survey

A graduate studies class at the University of California,


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Department of City and Regional Planning was conducted during the Winter quarter, 1973. It was directed under the supervision of the Research and Evaluation division of the CIL and in cooperation with the Alameda County Comprehensive Health Planning Agency. The class investigated existing rehabilitation service agencies and organizations serving the Berkeley area. The R.E.D. is also conducting a more subjective survey based upon the personal experiences of disabled and blind persons contacted through CIL activities. Reports are also written as the CIL conducts on-site visits with rehabilitation agencies or through the development of cooperative working relations.

Work is currently underway on a directory of existing agencies, their services, acceptance criteria, etc. We expect to complete the major portion of this directory within four months.

III. On-Site Visits

During the last year, members of the CIL staff and board have visited the following rehabilitation services organizations:

  • (a) Center for Independent Living for the Elderly Blind (NewYork)
  • (b) Disabled in Action (New York)
  • (c) East Bay Center for the Blind
  • (d) Committee for the Rights of the Disabled (Long Beach)
  • (e) California Association of the Physically Handicapped (Long Beach
  • (f) Handicapped Students' Service of the University of Calif. (L.B.)
  • (g) Mary Weinberger Center for Independent Living (New York)
  • (h) New York City Mayor's Office for the Handicapped
  • (i) National Federation of the Blind, Manhatten Borough Chapter
  • (j) California Orientation Center for the Blind
  • (k) Policy and Action Conference (New York)
  • (l) Paralyzed Veterans Association of America (Long Island)
  • (m) Long Island University Disabled Students' Program

In addition, the CIL has ongoing correspondence with at least fifty other consumer organizations around the country.


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IV. Physician's Survey

A survey of physicians with offices in the Berkeley area has been conducted. Questions included the willingness of the physicians to accept Medi-Cal clients, experience with disabled and/or blind clients, accessibility of office, etc.

Since October of 1972, the CIL has sought funds from over one hundred governmental agencies, foundations, and private sources. Seven requests were successful. Only one proposal is still under consideration (the SRS Research and Demonstation grant request), and there seems to be little probability of it being funded due to a change in federal guidelines and budget cutbacks. The following foundations and individuals have awarded us grants or have donated funds:

  • (a) William K. and Gertrude J. McEwen, $1,100, January 2, 1973
  • (b) Alameda County Community Foundation, $1,500, February 8, 1973
  • (c) Zellerbach Family Fund, $5,590, February 8, 1973
  • (d) Mrs. Ruth Steiner, $2,250, May 7, 1973
  • (e) Community Affairs, Committee of the University of California Berkeley Campus, $15,000, July 15, 1973
  • (f) van Loben Sels Charitable Foundation, $2,000, July 25, 1973
  • (g) City of Berkeley, $15,000, October 10, 1973

With these funds we have accomplished the following:

  • (a) Facility
    We have acquired a facility which, we hope, will serve as a long range center for CIL activities. It is a ground floor facility of about 1,500 square feet and located close to the geographic center of Berkeley.
  • (b) Assistance in more effectively utilizing existing agencies through:
    • (1) informed referral
    • (2) careful follow-up with clients and agency staffs
    • (3) direct assistance and advocacy as needed

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  • (c) Services to increase capacities for personal maintenance:
    • (1) training in self-care
    • (2) provision of reader and attendant pools
    • (3) housing assistance
  • (d) Services for increased personal mobility:
    • (1) mobility and orientation training for blind clients
    • (2) specialized transportation to compensate for the shortcomings of existing private and public transit facilities in the area.
  • (e) Newsletter
    The CIL has published two editions of The Independent. This newsletter has been distributed nationally and is currently in the seventh printing (approx. a total of 3,500 copies). The third edition is underway. The newsletter is also available on tape for blind persons.
  • (f) Transportation
    A 1972 Volkswagen was donated to the CIL. We have used this van to transport people to the Live Oak Acorns Recreation Center for the Disabled and East Bay Center for the Blind on a regular basis. The van has also seen much use on an irregular basis.
  • (g) Wheelchair Ramps
    The CIL has presented a resolution which was passed by the Berkeley City Council and provides for $30,000 annually to be allocated from the city's budget for the construction of wheelchair ramps at street corners. The first 200 ramps have been installed by the city and inspected by the CIL.
  • (h) Stigma I and II
    The CIL has produced two radio programs on disability which have been aired nationally. The programs have been nominated for the Armstrong Award. A new program on blindness is being produced.
  • (i) Housing
    We are working with the City of Berkeley on building code changes providing for wheelchair accessibility and on non-descrimination legislation.
  • (j) Health
    The CIL has developed an out-patient clinic for people with spinal chord injuries in conjunction with Herrick Hospital. A Board of Advisors has been established with 60% of its members being physically disabled.

10. Why program should be funded and what problems will be caused if program is defunded while in progress?


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The kinds of services that we provide and intend to provide, as well as the need for them have been outlined above. The Rehabilitation Services Agency has named us one of the two most important programs serving the disabled in this country.

The City of Berkeley has made it possible for us to acquire an adequate facility and to cover our phone, postage, consumable supplies, and duplication costs for a three year period. We have fifteen staff members now working at 20 and 50 % of $8,000 annual base salary. The base salary is half of what personnel, doing similar kinds of work, make working for such agencies as the California State Department of Rehabilitation or the Alameda County Department of Social Welfare. As of November 15, 1973, we will no longer have any funds to pay personnel, operate our transportation services, or publish our newletter.

The dedication of CIL staff members is such that many will continue to work for no pay. All will stay if they can continue to receive the $135-$335/a month salary they are currently receiving. These staff members are entitled to a fair and decent wage. Further, several new services (such as wheelchair repair and medical counseling) are dependent upon being able to hire additional staff members 11. Participation with existing community groups:

The CIL has established working relationships with the following agencies:

  • A. Berkeley City Engineer's Office
    • (1) Architectural barriers/Wheelchair ramps
  • B. Berkeley City Attorney's Office
    • (1) Fair Accessible Housing
  • c. Berkeley City Health Department
    • (1) Coordination of attendant service delivery

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  • D. Berkeley Community Communication Coordinating Council (all membership agencies there-of)
    • (1) Cross referral
  • E. Live Oak Acorns Recreation Center for the Disabled
    • (1) We provide transportation
  • F. McGee Street Senior Center
    • (1) Client Outreach
  • G. Herrick Hospital
    • (1) Administating outpatient clinic for severely disabled and counseling for newly disabled
  • H. Alta Bates Hospital
    • (1) Counseling newly disabled
  • I. Easter Seal Advisory Board
    • (1) Policy Planning
  • J. U.C.B. Department of City and Regional Planning
    • (1) Providing research data on disability
  • K. Bay Area Rapid Transit
    • (1) Determining how best to serve the disabled
  • L. U.C.B. Physically Disabled Student's Program
    • (1) Cross referral
  • M. Bay Area Disabled Action Committee
    • (1) Planning for the needs of disabled Bay ared community members
  • N. Disabled and Blind Action Committee
    • (1) Provision of legistative information
  • O. California State Department of Rehabilitation
    • (1) Cross referral
  • P. Alameda County Department of Social Welfare
    • (1) Cross referral
  • Q. National Federation of the Blind of Calfiornia
    • (1) Cross referral
    • (2) Program planning
  • R. East Bay Center for the Blind
    • (1) Provision of transportation

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  • S. California Orientation Center for the Blind
    • (1) City accessiblity
    • (2) Cross referral
  • T. Associated Blind of California
    • (1) Informational
  • U. National Association of Social Workers
    • (1) Informational
  • V. Senior Action Project
    • (1) Informational
    • (2) Cross referral
  • W. California Association of the Physically Handicapped
    • (1) Coordinated Planning
  • X. Committee for the Rights of the Disabled
    • (1) Provision of legislation information
  • Y. Alameda County Voulnteer Bureau
    • (1) Transportation Services for Disabled

12. Addresses:

  • (a) 2725 Haste Street, Suite 207, Berkeley, California 94704 Telephone (415) 841-4778 (Temporary)
  • (b) 2045 Alston Way, Berkeley, California

13. Future Program Plans

  • (a) Development of a wheelchair repair service
  • (b) Expansion to seven days a week transportation service with a minimum of three (3) vehicles. (Currently we have one VW bus operating twice a week.
  • (c) Medical needs counseling service
  • (d) Nationally distributed magazine
  • (e) Legal aid services program
  • (f) Training center for potential program developers for other communities.

14. Evaluation

The Research and Evaluation Division (RED) is a separate and already existing component of the Center for Independent Living, Inc. The RED is staffed by individuals who have completed graduate work


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at the University of California in the fiolds of city planning, social policy planning, and public policy analysis. The RED also has a direct liaison with the University's Institute of Urban and Regional Development. In addition to carrying out individual research projects, the RED designs and implements evaluation studies for the various programs funded under the CIL corporation. In evaluating each project, the Division selects several questions for research that are thought to be of critical interest both to the funding source and to the staff and clients of the project.

The subjects specific to the proposed CIL Services Project which are likely to be of greatest interest are: (a) the impact of CIL services on the observed behavior and attitudes of the project's clients, and (b) the potentiality of total or partial self-support of the various project services. Research into these two subjects involves structuring and implementing a methodology designed to address a series of questions including but not limited to the following:

  • A. Impact of services on client
    • 1. What is the status with respect to the following characteristics of a 20% sample of clients at their intake into the services system?
      • a. employment and income status
      • b. degree of mobility within the metropolitan area
      • c. extent of independence in living situation
      • d. frequency of participation in social and community activites
      • e. subjective measure of client's satisfaction with pressent situation
    • 2. What is the status with respect to the same characteristics of the 20% sample of clients after receipt of CIL services?
    • 3. What other factors in the environment might account for some or all of the observed change in client characteristics?

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  • B. Potential for project self-support
    • 1. What changes can be expected in client demand for each CIL service?
    • 2. Which services can be administered on a fee-for-service babsis?
    • 3. Which services have the potentiality for eventual sale on a contract basis to other public agencies such as the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation?
    • 4. To what extent can the operating surplus, if any, from self-supporting services help defray the cost of continued provision of the remaining services?
    • 5. What is the scale of external support likely to be required by the CIL Services Project in future years?

At the end of the first year of the project's operation, the Research and Evaluation Division will present a report to the CIL Services Project staff and to the funding source detailing the results of the study.

15. Staff Personnel:

  • a) Larry Biscamp, Executive Director
    The executive director manifests the authority of the board in defining general and specific expectations for the staff, volunteers, and associates. The executive director has responsibility for the day-to-day implementation of CIL board policy into programming.
    Salary range: $9,000-$15,000.
    Percentage range: 85%-100%
    Currently: 85% of $9,000
  • b) William McGregor, Administrative Assistant
    Responsible for bookkeeping, supplies, and property management functions of the CIL.
    Salary range: $7,000-$8,000
    Acceptible Percentage Range: 50%-100%
    Currently: 50% of $7,000
  • c) Ruth Grimes, Research and Evaluation Division Manager
    Responsible for research necessary for the development of CIL programs; and to develop and carry out evaluation procedures for CIL programs; and to determine how best to market CIL programs.
    Salary Range: $8,000-$12,000
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 50% of $8,000

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  • d) David Konkel, Research and Evaluation Associate
    Salary range: $8,000-$10,500
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 20% of $8,000
  • e) Hale Zukas, Community Environment Project Manager
    Responsible for developing programs to insure that the northern Alameda County area meets its responsibilities to disabled community members in the areas of architectural barriers, transportation, housing, consumer protection and fair employment practices.
    Salary range: $8,000-$12,000
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 20% of $8,000
  • f) Jane Friendland, Community Environment Project Assistant
    Salary range: $7,000-$10,500
    Percentage range: 50%-100%
    Currently: 50% of $7,000
  • g) Jan McEwen, Communications Project Manager
    Responsibility for publishing and editing of CIL Newsletter and production of media programs concerned with presenting information about the disabled to the general public.
    Salary range: $8,000-$12,000
    Percentage range: 50%-100%
    Currently: 50% of $8,000
  • h) Ken Okuno, Communications Assistant
    Salary range: $6,500-$10,500
    Percentage range: 50%-100%
    Currently: 80% of $6,500
  • i) Philip Draper, Client Services Project Manager
    Responsible for outreach/referral/advocacy, attendant/reader screening and placement, mobility instruction, transportation services delivery, etc.
    Salary range: $8,000-$12,500
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 20% of $8,000
  • j) Richard Santos, Assistant Manager for Client Services Project
    Salary range: $8,000-$11,500
    Percentage range: 50%-100%
    Currently: 50% of $8,000
  • k) Alice McKennan, Counselor
    Salary range: $8,000-$10,000
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 20% of $8,000
  • l) Dan Berry, Counselor
    Salary range: $8,000-$10,000
    Percentage range: 20%-100%
    Currently: 20% of $8,000

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  • m) Carol Wiebe, Mobility and Orientation Instructor
    Salary range: $8,000-$10,000
    Percentage range: 25%-100%
    Currently: 25% of $8,000
  • n) Randy Turley, Driver
    Salary range: $6,000-$7,500
    Percentage range: 25%-100%
    Currently: 25% of $8,000

(Note a): In addition to the above paid staff members, there are about ten or eleven volunteer staff members.

(Note b): Fringe benefits are set at a standard 15%.

Consistent with federal and state laws, the CIL will develop a program of supplementary benefits to diabled and blind employees which will enable them to meet the extra expenses peculiar to their needs which are occasioned by their employment. This benefit will be in addition to a group mutual policy which reflects the extraordinary medical costs disabled employees must typically expect to bear.

(Note c): Typing is now done by volunteers for the most part, though some staff do typing as their other duties permit.

BUDGET                                                                
I.  PERSONNEL  Base Annual Salary (BAS)  % of BAS requested  Actual Funds Requested 
A.  Executive Director  $15,000  60%  $9,000 
B.  Administrative Assistant  9,000  44%  4,000 
C.  Research and Evaluation Division Manager  12,000  41%  5,000 
D.  Research and Evaluation Asso.  10,000  20%  2,000 
E.  Community Environment Project Manager  12,000  17%  2,000 
F.  Community Environment Project Assistant  10,000  40%  4,000 
G.  Communications Project Manager  12,000  41%  5,000 
H.  Communications Project Assistant  10,000  40%  4,000 
I.  Client Services Project Manager  12,500  16%  2,000 
J.  Client Services Project Assistant Manager  11,500  35%  4,000 
K.  Client Services Counselor  10,000  20%  2,000 
L.  Client Services Counselor  10,000  20%  2,000 
M.  Mobility Instructor  10,000  40%  4,000 
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N.  Driver  $8,000  40%  3,200 
O.  Wheelchair Repairman  8,000  20%  1,600 
Sub Total (a)  53,800 
Fringe Benefits (15%)  8,070 
Sub Total (b)  61,870 
II.  Newsletter Publication/Distribution 
(Six Issues  3,600 
Sub Total (c)  65,470 
III.  Transportation Service Operation 
(Two days a week)  780 
Sub Total (d)  66,250 
IV.  Wheelchair Repair 
A. Repair Tools  372 
B. Battery Charger (2)  100 
C. Replacement Parts  2,800 
Sub Total (e)  3,272 
Grand Total  $69,522 

(Note: This budget is negotiable. The survival of this program depends upon financial aid from external sources at this time. There are no more than five such programs in the country. There should be a CIL in every county in every state of the country.)