Scope and Content of Collection
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Title: Romeyn de Hooghe etchings
Date (inclusive): 1667-ca.1700
Hooghe, Romeyn de, 1645-1708
The Getty Research Institute
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100
Los Angeles, California, 90049-1688
Collection contains 59 prints on 67 sheets. Some are signed by Romeyn de Hooghe, some are attributed to him, and several are
in his style or copied after him. Most relate to contemporary political, historical events and figures in Europe, and depict
elaborate scenes with many details of costume, settings and objects.
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Romeyn de Hooghe was born in Amsterdam in 1645 and worked there until c.1680-1682, when he moved to Haarlem, where he died
in 1708. For several Netherlandish provinces, he created interior architectural paintings and other works. In 1662 De Hooghe
was invited by Adam Frans van der Meulen (1632-1690) to Paris, where he etched the baptism of the Dauphin in 1668. There he
met King Jan III Sobieski of Poland and was knighted by him in 1675.
De Hooghe painted, engraved, sculpted, designed medals, enameled, taught drawing school, and bought and sold art as a dealer.
During the 1690s he made sculptures for the palace of Het Loo (1689-1692), designed and etched triumphal arches and medals
for William III's entry into the Hague (1691), and designed the Haarlem market festival decorations for the peace celebration
after the capture of Naumur (1695). His political, legal, and economic interests are evident in his writings:
Schouburgh der Nederlandsche Veranderingen (1674),
Æsopus in Europa (1701),
Spiegel van Staat des Vereenigde Nederlanden (1706), and
Hieroglyphica of Merkbeelden der oude Volkeren (1735), all of which he also illustrated. He was well-educated and may have attended law classes at a university in Harderwijk
De Hooghe's earliest print, after Nicolas Berchem, was made around 1662. He created about 3500 images, most after his own
designs, some after other artists, for himself and other authors, publishers, and printers. His plates were often retouched
and adapted for later events, sometimes by De Hooghe, sometimes by others. He etched allegories and mythological scenes, portraits,
caricatures, political satires, historical subjects, landscapes, topographical views (especially of Netherlandish cities),
battle scenes, genre scenes, title pages, and book illustrations. From 1667-1691 he illustrated various newspapers:
Orangien Wonderspiegel. The first political iconographer of the Netherlands and its first great caricaturist, De Hooghe was closely associated with
William of Orange. He repeatedly caricatured James II and Louis XIV, sometimes using pseudonyms on his most audacious images.
He was an expressive master of physiognomy; and his original, lively style displayed the baroque fashion for spectacular and
allegorical fantasy. Romeyn de Hooghe was the most significant and prolific Netherlandish engraver in the second half of the
Open for use by qualified researchers.
Romeyn de Hooghe etchings, 1667-ca.1700, Getty Research Institute, Research Library, Accession no. P850001.
This collection was reorganized and cataloged by Anne-Marie Schaaf in April, May, and July 1996. The finding aid was completed
in July 1996.
Scope and Content of Collection
This collection contains prints signed by Romeyn de Hooghe, prints attributed to him, and several in his style or copied after
him. There are a total of 59 pieces on 67 sheets (one piece was subdivided into 9 sheets). They represent the various genres
of De Hooghe's work, but they only constitute a small fraction of his oeuvre. Most relate to contemporary political events
and figures. They usually depict elaborate scenes, with many details of costume, settings, and objects.
The seven allegories were mostly created as title pages or frontispieces; they depict exploration, ship building, and mythology.
The two formal portraits depict John III of Poland and Servatius Galleus. Six Old Testament scenes depicting the tabernacle
in the desert and parts of the Temple in Jerusalem may have served as book illustrations.
The remaining forty-four scenes deal with contemporary history related to the Netherlands, England, and France, some allegorically,
some satirically, and some in a straightforward fashion. The eight general scenes include festival scenes--the funerals of
Queen Mary and Fieldmarshal Paulus Wirtz, peace negotiations, and an allegory of the marriage of William and Mary. Others
depict the political murder of Cornelis and Jan de Wit, the persecution of Protestants in France after the revocation of the
Edict of Nantes (1685), and William leaving for and arriving in England. Nine prints depict contemporary battle or war scenes:
Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma taking Valenciennes; the seige of Leiden in 1574; English fortresses and bases; the
war in Macassar (1666-1669); France terrorizing Dutch villages; Christian IV's conquest of Wismar; and the battle of Drogheda.
As with the general histories and satires, the battle scenes are often marked with letters or numbers corresponding to a key
provided alone or within a longer letterpress text.
The twenty-seven satirical scenes most often retain verses or other explanatory letterpress text beneath the image. Dom Johan
Van de Velde's funeral, the murder of the brothers de Wit, Dutch cities, Dutch dealings and wars with Louis XIV, and the Catholic
Church are all satirized in these prints. De Hooghe was well-known for his support of William of Orange, and most of these
prints consequently attack James II and Louis XIV. The greater number of them were created in 1689-1690 and relate to the
events of those years: the birth of the Prince of Wales ("the Old Pretender," son of James II and Mary of Modena), William's
invasion of England, James II's flight to a refuge with Louis XIV in France, and William and Mary's assumption of power in
England's Glorious Revolution.
The etchings are arranged in 6 series:
Series I: Allegories;
Series II: Portraits;
Series III: History: Old Testament Scenes;
Series IV: History: Contemporary scenes;
Series V: History: Battles and War;
Series VI: Satire.
Subjects - Names
James II, King of England, 1633-1701
Louis XIV, King of France, 1638-1715
William III, King of England, 1650-1702
Subjects - Topics
Political satire, Dutch--Pictorial works
Subjects - Places
Temple of Jerusalem (Jerusalem)--Pictorial works
Genres and Forms of Material
To request an item:
Title of print
Designer/Etcher. Place, date: Publisher.
State of print. Measurements.
Former number from arrangement in dealer's list.
Titles are listed exactly as they are rendered on the prints or in the letterpress beneath the image. Supplied titles are
in brackets. All entries are etchings unless otherwise specified.
Designer/etcher's names and publication information are taken from the prints. Information from other sources is in brackets.
Bibliographic references differ on some attributions. s.l. = sine loco (without place). s.d. = sine datum (without date).
s.n. = sine nomine (without name).
All measurements are in centimeters. Pl. = platemark; Sh. = sheet. Al. = album page.
H = F. W. H. Hollstein.
Dutch and Flemish etchings, engravings, and woodcuts, ca. 1450-1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, 1949-. Volume 9. Numbers refer to the listing under Romeyn de Hooghe, pp.118-132.
Koeman = Cornelis Koeman, ed.
Atlantes Neerlandici. Bibliography of terrestrial, maritime and celestial atlases and pilot books, published in the Netherlands
up to 1880
. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1967-1985. Vol. 4, pp. 227-228.
LBI = John Landwehr.
Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) as book illustrator: a bibliography. Amsterdam: VanGendt; New York: A. Schram, 1970. Numbers refer to the book numbers at the top right of the pages.
LE = John Landwehr.
Romeyn de Hooghe, the etcher: contemporary portrayal of Europe, 1662-1707. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff; Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1973. Numbers refer to pages.
M = Frederik Muller. De Nederlandsche geschiedenis in platen. Beredeneerde beschrijving van Nederlandsche historieplaten,
zinneprenten en historische kaarten. Amsterdam: Frederick Muller, 1863-82. 4 volumes. Numbers refer to entries in volume I.
VS = Abraham van Stolk Cz.
Atlas van Stolk: katalogus der historie-, spot-en zinnerprenten betrekkelijk de geschiedenis van Nederland gerangschikt en
beschreven door G. van Rijn
. Amsterdam: F. Muller & Co., 1895-1931. 10 volumes. Most numbers refer to entries in volume III.
Hollstein, F. W. H.
Dutch and Flemish etchings, engravings, and woodcuts, ca. 1450-1700. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger, [1949- . volume 9.
Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) as book illustrator: a bibliography. Amsterdam: VanGendt ; New York: A. Schram, 1970.
Romeyn de Hooghe, the etcher: contemporary portrayal of Europe, 1662-1707. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff; Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1973.
Maccubbin, Robert P., and Martha Hamilton-Phillips, eds.
The Age of William III & Mary II : power, politics, and patronage 1688-1702. Williamsburg, VA: College of William and Mary, 1989.
van Stolk, Abraham Cz.
Atlas van Stolk: katalogus der historie-, spot- en zinnerprenten betrekkelijk de geschiedenis van Nederland. Amsterdam: F. Muller & Co., 1895-1931.
Wilson, William Harry.
The Art of Romeyn de Hooghe: An atlas of European late baroque culture. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1974.