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Inventory of the Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (Fta) and Related Agricultural Unions Records. The Norman Leonard Collection, 1936 - 1950
1985/006  
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Collection Details
 
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Scope and Content
  • Timeline
  • Bibliography

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (Fta) and Related Agricultural Unions Records. The Norman Leonard Collection,
    Date (inclusive): 1936 - 1950
    Accession number: 1985/006
    Creator: Leonard, Norman
    Repository: San Francisco State University. Labor Archives & Research Center
    San Francisco, California 94132
    Shelf location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Center's online catalog.
    Language: English.

    Administrative Information

    Access

    Collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    Copyright has not been assigned to the Labor Archives & Research Center. All requests for permission to publish or quote from materials must be submitted in writing to the Director of the Archives. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Labor Archives & Research Center as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (Fta) and Related Agricultural Unions Records. The Norman Leonard Collection, 1985/006, Labor Archives & Research Center, San Francisco State University.

    Introduction

    The four boxes of records pertaining to the Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (FTA), the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA), and various cannery and packing shed workers' unions in northern California are part of a larger Norman Leonard Collection housed at the Labor Archives and Research Center (LARC) at San Francisco State University. These records reflect the activity of the law firm of Gladstein, Grossman and Margolis, in which Leonard later became a partner. It is very likely that the original contact between the law firm and the agricultural unions was made through the ILWU. This collection was processed in the spring of 1991 by Toby Higbie.

    History

    The United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA) and its successor union, the Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (FTA) although only in existence between 1937 and 1951, attracted much attention first as one of the most quickly growing of the new CIO unions, and latter as one of several unions expelled from the CIO during the 1950 anti-communist "trials." A focus of FTA's organizing drive was the canneries, packing sheds and in the fields of California.
    California agriculture in the 1930s was marked by a greater and greater concentration of land and food processing facilities in the hands of large corporate concerns. Growers, shippers, processors and canners were organized in various ways to protect and promote their mutual interests. Some of these organizations were simply grower cooperatives which allowed members to obtain everything from seed to tractor tires at a discount. Others, such as the Grower-Shipper Vegetable Association of Central California (GSA), and the California Packers and Growers (CP & G), were dominated by large growers, shipping companies, or canneries. Typically, such organizations had ties to other pro-business groups and large corporations (such as the Industrial Association of San Francisco, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG & E), Bank of America and others). One of the chief aims of these organizations would be to obstruct union organizing among their members' employees; they would, therefore, figure prominently in the history of all agricultural unions in California. The strikes at Salinas (1936) and Stockton (1937) exemplify the tactics of employer associations: the fostering of the Associated Farmers, the establishment of local "Citizen's Committees" in cooperation with anti-union Chambers of Commerce, the use of professional public relations consultants, the pooling of resources and profits during strikes, and a strong determination to crush all independent union activity. 1
    UCAPAWA/FTA also faced the difficult task of overcoming the competing forces of the hostile State Federation of Labor and even conservatives within the CIO. The State Federation of Labor would become an important ally of employers in its effort to head off any success by the industrial based CIO. Throughout its lifetime, FTA would find its strength sapped by rival AFL unions, some of which achieved closed shops with the help of employers. AS for the CIO, FTA would eventually prove too much of a political liability. In the "conform or get out" push, FTA and other unions came under intense pressure to shed left wing elements from their leadership. In 1950, the FTA was expelled from the CIO. 2
    The 1936 Salinas Strike, and FTA Local 78
    On the eve of the "Battle of Salinas," the Salinas-Watsonville area produced 90% of all lettuce eaten in the U.S. Organizing work among packing shed workers had been going on for several years. In 1932, the Vegetable Packers' Association, Local 18211 was formed, but made little progress. In 1935, the AFL chartered the Fruit and Vegetable Workers' Union (F & VWU), Local 18211 which, after a strike in which two workers were killed, won a one-year contract from the GSA. 3 Negotiations for a new contract were carried on over the summer of 1936, however, the GSA had little desire to reach an agreement. Plans had already been made to break the union, and as the September 1st deadline passed, and the union voted to continue work under the terms of the 1935 contract, the GSA posted in members' sheds a new contract with lower wages. The GSA claimed this contract would be in force for one year should employees work under it. This precipitated a walk-out by approximately 3,500 workers. 4
    Having laid the public relations ground work for an anti-union campaign through the Citizen's Association of the Salinas Valley (funded by the GSA, PG & E, Spreckels Sugar Co., local banks and businessmen), the GSA moved to crush the strike. Union leaders were denounced as communists, and a "citizen's army" of 1,000 was mobilized with the help of the Associated Farmers, deputized by the Sheriff and armed with clubs and tear-gas bombs. Meanwhile, all packing and shipping activities were consolidated at the Salinas Valley Ice Company, which was deemed to be easily defendable. Guards with machine guns kept watch over high fences, while inside scabs packed lettuce, and slept and ate in train cars provided by the Southern Pacific Railroad. All costs and all profits were pooled among the membership. Violence erupted, and the strike was put down with a degree of violence which the NLRB deemed, "in many instances bordering on sadism."
    In the midst of th4e strike, the union and workers were abandoned by the chairman of the State Federation of Labor, Edward Vandeleur. Vandeleur having been contacted before the strike by the GSVA's public relations consultant, and siding against Local 18211 (accusing them of being communists), pulled the union's legal representative out of the Salinas area at the height of the crisis. This is probably when the union retained Richard Gladstein's San Francisco law office, perhaps through the ILWU. Latter, with the help of the Growers, Vandeleur set up a rival local and revoked Local 18211's AFL charter. The issue of "company unions" would be an important aspect of the legal battles after Salinas and would become a pattern throughout northern California.
    After the strike, the GSA took steps to exclude union organizers from work. To this end, they continued the use of a centralized hiring hall and a blacklist. 5 As workers were hired back after the strike, preference was given to those who owed money in town, had dependents or could in some way be more easily coerced. The union, having been abandoned in the midst of the strike by the chairman of the State Federation of Lalbor, continued organizational work, and in 1937 changed its affiliation to the new United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA-CIO), as UCAPAWA Local 78. Its jurisdiction included the Salinas- Watsonville area, the Imperial Valley, and the Salt River Valley of Arizona. In 1944, this local became FTA Local 78. 6
    Charges of communist influence, and the rivalry between the AFL and the CIO would be dominant issues in the life of Local 78. In 1948, the local (with a membership of 10,000) successfully fought off a Teamsters raid lead by expelled Local 78 president, Holman Day. The Teamsters raids created much bitterness between the FTA and the CIO, as the CIO offered little aid to the FTA, and many accused CIO officials of openly helping Day in an attempt to get rid of the left-leaning FTA. 7 The future bore these accusations out, when, in 1950 the CIO expelled the FTA for "following the purpose and program of the communist party." 8 The FTA International, and Local 78, merged with two other unions to become the Distributive, Processing and Office Workers of America (DPOWA). In the fall of 1950, the CIO mounted a successful raid on Local 78 and won an NLRB election to become the bargaining agent for the territory of Local 78. 9
    The Stockton Cannery Strike of 1937 and FTA Local 7
    The events in Stockton during April 1937 follow a similar pattern to those of Salinas and could be considered the perfection of the "Salinas Plan." The Agricultural Workers' Union-AFL, Local 20211, was organized with the help of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union-AFL (ILWU) and was given jurisdiction over all of northern California's canneries. 10 In Stockton, as in Salinas, the key issues for the union were collective bargaining, preferential hiring of union members, and an end to anti-union discrimination in hiring, as well as wages and working conditions. The AWU claimed a membership of 567 out of 1,400 cannery workers in the area. At the Stockton Food Products plant, however, the union claimed 360 of 450 workers as members. While the union hoped for modest gains in this plant alone, the powerful California Processers and Growers (CP & G) moved to eliminate unionism from northern California canneries in general. 11
    Following the pattern laid down in Salinas, CP & G with the help of the Merchants, Manufacturers and Employers Association (MMEA) of Stockton, established a citizen's committee which sent letters to local growers and merchants warning that Longshoremen and Communist pickets were coming to beat up local workers and farmers. Violence at the Stockton Food Products plant flared as the company tried to drive non-striking workers through the picket line and into the plant. This precipitated the calling up of a "Pick-handle Army" by the Sheriff. Approximately 1,200 men were recruited, organized along military lines, and armed with pick handles. This organizing work was done by Colonel Walter Garrison, prominent anti-communist and founder of the Associated Farmers of San Joaquin County. The union attempted conciliation, but workers were forced into a provocative situation by the canners. Violence flaired again as workers prepared to go back to work. The strike was broken.
    Organizing in the Stockton area continued under UCAPAWA/FTA Local 7, and faced similar problems -- company-sponsored unions, Teamster raids, the hostility of conservatives within the CIO --as those which eventually defeated FTA Local 78. The cannery drive of 1945 was marginally successful against the Teamster-CP & G alliance, and in the late 1940s the union began to organize asparagus cutters. 12 Workers in the asparagus fields were mostly Filipino immigrants who traveled between the fields around Stockton, and the canneries of the Alaska salmon industry (salmon cannery workers were known as Alaskeros). 13 The organizing drive among field workers is interesting because most of FTA had abandoned this very oppressed and difficult-to-organize group in favor of cannery workers. 14
    Richard Gladstein's law firm represented Local 7 in the legal battles arising from the 1937 Stockton Strike and many cases arising from the 1948 strike of asparagus cutters. The issues of these cases involved such things as 1) housing conditions for field workers; 2) the system of holding back part of workers pay until the harvest is over; and 3) violations of union members' right to picket. It is also possible that the law offices were involved in the defense of Local 7 officials under threat of deportation for alleged communist activities or sympathies. However, these cases are not represented in the FTA collection.
    When the FTA was expelled from the CIO, Local 7, unlike Local 78, joined the ILWU as the Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union Local 7-C. Soon the union became ILWU Local 37. The changes in union name did not reflect changes in personnel.
    Footnotes:
    1. For the policies, tactics and membership and funding of grower/processor organizations see, U. S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor: Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor. 7 7th Congress, 2nd Session, Report #1150. Printed 1948. See also, McWilliams, Carey Factories in the Field, The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California. Peregrine Publishers, Inc., 1971.
    2. For AFL-CIO rivalry see, The Norman Leonard Collection, FTA and related agricultural unions. Folders 1/09-15 on "Company Union Cases"; folders 1/16-1/33 on various UCAPAWA locals; and folders 2/10-3/18 on UCAPAWA Local 78. For a synopsis of the situation in Santa Clara County see, Glenna Matthews, "The Fruit Workers of Santa Clara Valley: Alternative Paths to Union Organization During the 1930s" Pacific Historical Review, Pacific Coast Branch: American Historical Association, 1985, pp. 51-70. On the UCAPAWA/FTA and Teamsters rivalry in the canneries see, Vicki Ruiz, Cannery Women, Cannery Lives:Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1987, pp. 41-57, and pp. 103- 117.
    3. For the history of Local 78 in its own words see: "The Story of Local 78 FTA," ILWU Library, San Francisco. See also: Jamieson, editor. Labor Unionism in American Agriculture. Department of Labor Bulletin No. 836, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1945, pp. 27-29; and U. S. Senate, Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor, #398, pp. 1330 and following.
    4. For a detailed description of the Salinas Strike of 1936 see, U. S. Senate, Committee on Education and Labor, Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor, 78th Congress, 2nd Session, Report #398, Printed 1948, pp. 1330 and following.
    5. U. S. Senate, Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor, #1150, pp. 484-488.
    6. The Norman Leonard Collection. FTA and related agricultural unions, folders 1/07- 08; 2/01-08; 3/09-10; 3/20-29.
    7. "Salinas Teamsters dumped in NLRB poll," The Labor Herald: October 5, 1948; and "The Story of Local 78 FTA," ILWU Library, San Francisco, California.
    8. Vicki Ruiz, Cannery Women, Cannery Lives, pp. 117.
    9. The Norman Leonard Collection, FTA and related agricultural unions, folder 4/41. See also: ILWU Library, clipping from San Francisco Chronicle, October 25, 1950.
    10. Harvey Swartz, The March Inland: Origins of the ILWU Warehouse Division 1934-1938. Institute of Industrial Relations, UCLA, 1978, p. 148. See also:The Norman Leonard Collection, FTA and related agricultural unions, folders 1/27-29.
    11. For a detailed description of the Stockton Cannery Strike of 1937 see: U. S. Senate, Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor, #1150, pp. 1385-1405. See also: The Norman Leonard Collection, FTA and related agricultural unions, folders 1/13-15.
    12. Steve Murdock, "The Story of the Cannery Drive," in the ILWU Library, San Francisco, California.
    13. Chris Mensalvas, "Taking the Offensive," 1952 Yearbook, ILWU Local 37, p. 5. See also: Ernesto Mangaoang, "Report of the Business Agent," 1952 Yearbook, ILWU Local 37, pp. 7-9; and Alaskeros: a Documentary Exhibit on Pioneer Filipino Cannery Workers. ILWU Library, San Francisco, California.
    14. Mensalvas, "Taking the Offensive"; and Mangaoang, "Report of the Business Agent," ILWU Library. See also: The Norman Leonard Collection, FTA and related agricultural unions, folders 4/01-41; see also: Cletus Daniel, Bitter Harvest, a History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941. Cornell University Press, Ithica, 1981, pp. 277-281.

    Scope and Content

    The files in this collection have been divided into series following, as closely as possible, the numbering system used by the law offices. Generally speaking, this system assigns a four-digit number (e.g. 2015) to each client. Ascending numbers then are added after a decimal point (2015.00; 2015.01; 2015.02, etc.) Successive folders pertaining to the same case or litigant are indicated in different ways. For example, three folders on Stockton AWU Local 20211 are number 2015.09, 2015.091, and 2015.092. A series of folders on the NLRB cases arising from the Salinas strike and blacklist, however, are numbered 2015.152, 2015.152 B, 2015.152 C, and so on. Furthermore, when UCAPAWA changed to FTA in 1944 it received the number 2013. The several series pertaining to FTA Local 7 between 1948 and 1952 are numbered with the following system: 2013.02, 2013.02-1, 2013.02-2. In this case, the two digits to the right of the decimal indicate a case or group of cases pertaining to one client, or litigant, and the number to the right of the cash represents that folder's place in a consecutive series. For instance, in the example used above, "2013" indicates FTA, ".02" indicates Eviction Cases, and "-1," being the second folder (after 2013.02) happens to be a General File. Original folder numbers are listed with folder titles in the box listing, as well as on the folders themselves.
    Folders were placed in order following the original numbering system and then divided into series, by union local (client), or case. In addition, sub-series of relating folders were created. Material in this collection includes correspondence, union organizing material, news clippings, and legal documents (memorandums, affidavits, evidence, decisions, etc.) from various courts and the National Labor Relations Board. Oversize items have been relocated to the Labor Archives and Research Center (LARC) Oversize Collection. Of particular interest is a strike poster from the Salinas-Watsonville area protesting unfair labor practices (1936 or 1937). Photographs have been removed to the Leonard Collection Photographs Box (Photograph Collection #11). These photographs document unfair employer practices, violence against labor leaders, and living conditions of migrant farm workers.
    Among early material relating indirectly to agricultural unions is the series: Anti-Picketing Law Cases. These two cases, particularly the Fels case (1/03 and 1/04), document the effort to aid union organization by challenging obstructive legislation. Two folders on the NLRB (1/05 and 1/06) show that Gladstein, Grossman and Margolis hoped to influence Board decisions on cases of indirect importance to their clients.
    The largest series, United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America, represents the period 1936-1944. UCAPAWA District 2 covered California, Hawaii and Arizona, and documents relating to the district office can be found in folders 1/07 and 1/08. Letters documenting workers' opinions of various New Deal Programs (1/08), as well as routine correspondence are in these files. A two-page document, "The History of UCAPAWA in California," is of interest (1/07).
    Of interest to those researching AFL-CIO rivalry in the 1930s and -40s is the sub- series on Company Union Cases (1/9-15). Legal documents, including 2 copies of the NLRB decision (1/09/14), relate in some detail the set up of AFL unions, aided by growers and packers, in an attempt to head off a successful CIO drive. Day-by-day histories of the Stockton Strike of 1937 can be found in folders 1/13 and 1/15. Evidence of employer influence in favor of the rival AFL local is found in a pamphlets sent to employees by Cal-Pak, the largest canning company in California (1/13). Included is a ballot card for upcoming elections, with suggestions. A program for the "Cannery Workers Dance" is of special interest (1/13). The dance was put on by the company-sponsored local, and the program includes an annotated guest list which documents employer influence on the rival AFL union in Stockton. Folder 1/15 contains correspondence between Gladstein and Donal Henderson, President of UCAPAWA, concerning the Stockton situation, and evidence used in the Company Union Cases, including information onthe AFL-CIO rivalry in San Jose. Folder 2/03 includes communications between Grossman in Stockton working on the Cannery Strike, and Gladstein in Salinas working on the NLRB case. The challenge of the AFL- Company-sponsored unions to UCAPAWA also is documented in the folders pertaining to UCAPAWA, Stockton (1/27-1/29).
    Files pertaining to various UCAPAWA locals in Northern California (1/16-1/33) show the similarity of challenges facing CIO organizers throughout the region. One of the biggest problems facing UCAPAWA seems to have been anti-CIO hiring practices. Of interest within this series are documents relating to the Committee to Aid Agricultural Organization, whose sponsor was John Steinbeck (1/24). The Committee brought the support of California's artistic and film community to the cause of farm workers. Removed from this folder were several photographs of migrant worker camps of uncertain location. Also of interest are photographs of Faustino Oritz, leader of a strike by pickle packers in Hayward (1/31). These two photographs document the beating that he received at the hands of sheriff's deputies. Accompanying documents explain the circumstances of this event.
    A large series pertains to UCAPAWA Local 78 (2/01-3/18). Subjects include contract negotiations (2/01), cases arising from the 1936 Salinas strike, and various legal and NLRB cases. Information on the 1936 court injunction against the GSA, as well as correspondence are found in folder 2/02 and in 2/03. Insights into living conditions of packing-shed workers in this era can be found on the many "Back Pay Questionnaires" (2/09-2/12 and 2/21) These were used to assess claims for back pay under the NLRB order of 1939 and include notes on earning, injuries and other life conditions. Information on wages in the industry can be found in folder 3/01. Folder 3/04 contains lists of names and addresses of workers in the Salinas- Watsonville area in 1936.
    Affidavits relating to the 1936 Salinas Strike, and the GSA blacklist of union members (3/05) are of interest both for factual data and for workers' attitudes. A group of folders (3/12-22) titled "Unemployment Insurance," concerns Gladstein, Grossman and Margolis' representation of union member who were refused unemployment insurance. The folders "appeals denied," and "appeals approved" also contain interesting information on workers lives. Folders 3/06-08 contain a variety of evidence from the 1936 Salinas Strike, including a worker identification card used by the GSA Hiring Hall, much interesting correspondence, many union bulletins, and other evidence of illegal GSA hiring practices. Relocated from this file were: a 1935 contract offer from GSA to the union (moved to Oversize); photographs documenting illegal GSA hiring practices, and anti-union sentiment (to Leonard Photographs); and a strike poster (to Oversize).
    Other folders under UCAPAWA Local 78 include items relating to sub-locals throughout California and Arizona. Of interest are an anti-picketing case, Rassmussen versus Superior Court (3/28), attempts by UCAPAWA to take over an inactive Teamsters local in Arizona (3/30), as well as an early (1943) if abortive attempt to challenge race discrimination in Fresno (3/24). Also notable are two folders on the legal definition of agricultural labor (3/25 and 3/26).
    Folders pertaining to FTA Local 7 in Stockton, and in particular cases arising from the 1948 Asparagus Cutters' Strike, are divided into 5 sub-series: General; Cabebe v. Souza; Eviction Cases; Crinimal Cases; and Cabrera v. Western Farms Co. (Hold Back Cases) Materials include affidavits, memorandums, stipulations, agreements, decisions and correspondence. The general file for each sub-series contains correspondence between lawyer Lloyd McMurry and Local 7. These correspondence are useful because in them McMurry outlines the important issues in each case. Many correspondence are given over to the question of paying the lawyers. Folder 4/16 under Eviction Cases contains listings of personal property lost by workers when they were evicted from grower-owned housing during the strike of 1948.
    Folder 4/40 and 4/41 briefly document the difficulties faced by FTA locals shortly before, as well as after expulsion from the CIO in January 1950. Correspondence and other items from the 1950 NLRB election in Salinas can be found in folder 4/41.

    Timeline

    1932 Vegetable Packers Association Local 18211, Salinas Valley (forerunner of F & VWU-AFL)
    1933 Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU), affiliated with the Communist Party, leads an unsuccessful strike in the Imperial Valley
    1935 State Federation of Labor charters Fruit and Vegetable Workers Union (F & VWU) Local 18211, Salinas.
      A strike ends with two workers dead and a union contract with the Growers-Shippers Vegetable Association in Salinas Valley.
    1936 May: State Federation of Labor charters Agricultural Workers Union (AWU) Local 20211, Stockton.
      September: Strike by lettuce packers and Local 18211, Salinas is broken by GSVA (the "Battle of Salinas")
    1937 March: Stockton Labor Council authorizes AWU 20211 to organize cannery workers.
      April: Stockton Cannery Strike
      July: UCAPAWA founded as part of the new CIO. Cannery and packing house unions soon quit AFL for CIO.
    1944 UCAPAWA changes name to Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers of America (FTA) No personnel change.
    1945 FTA begins big push to get control of northern Californai canneries: "The Cannery Drive"
    1948 Asparagus Cutters Strike: FTA Local 7 moves to organized Filipino field workers in the Stockton area.
      Teamsters Raid: FTA Local 78 successfully defends territory from Teamsters.
    1949 FTA Local 78 again defeats Teamster attempt to take over its territory.
    1950 January: CIO expells FTA and other left-wing unions. FTA joins new union, DPOWA. Local 7 joins ILWU.
      October: Local 78 loses NLRB election to CIO.

    Bibliography

    This bibliography includes the sources for the History section of the descriptive guide, as well as background material on the situation and history of agricultural workers in California. Many of these items can be found in the Labor Archives.

    Books

    • Daniel, Cletus. Bitter Harvest, a History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941. Cornell University Press, Ithica, 1981.
    • Majka, Linda and Theo. Farm Workers, Agribusiness, and the State. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1982.
    • McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field, the Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California. Peregrime Publishers, Inc., 1971.
    • Ruiz, Vicki. Cannery Women, Cannery Lives; Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry: 1930-1950. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1987.
    • Steinbeck, John. The Harvest Gypsies, on the Road to the Grapes of Wrath. The San Francisco News, 1936. Heyday Books, Berkeley, 1988.
    • Swartz, Harvey. The March Inland: Origins of the ILWU Warehouse Division, 1934-1938. Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Los Angeles, 1978.

    Government Publications

    • Jamieson (editor). Labor Unionism in American Agriculture. Department of Labor Bulletin no. 836. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1945
    • U. S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor: Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor. 77th Congress, 2nd Session, Report #1150 (part 4). Printed 1948.
    • U. S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor: Report on Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor. 78th Congress, 2nd Session, Report #398 (part 7). Printed 1948.

    Journal Articles

    • Matthews, Glenna. "The Fruit Workers of Santa Clara Valey: Alternative Paths to Union Organization during the 1930s," Pacific Historical Review. Pacific Coast Branch: American Historical Association, 1985.
    • StreetRichard Steven. "The Battle of Salinas: San Francisco Bay Area Press Photographers and the Salinas Valley Lettuce Strike of 1936," Journal of the West 26(2), 1987, pp. 41-51. [Many god photographs of the battle between strikers and police/vigilantes]

    Bay Area Archives

    • The Anne Rand Research Library

      ILWU International Hall

      1188 Franklin, Room 324

      San Francisco, CA 94109 tel. 415-775-0533
    The ILWU Library has some of the files of FTA Local 7 which becme ILWU Local 37. Also here are interesting items on FTA Loal &8, as well as UCAPAWA material, and ILWU material relating to FTA and UCAPAWA.

    University of California, Berkeley:

    • Business and Social Science Library

      30 Stephens Hall

      tel. 510-642-0370
    • The Bancroft Library

      tel. 510-642-3781
    The University of California, Berkeley, Business and Social Science Library has the UCAPAWA/FTA News from 1939-1950 on microfilm. The Paul Taylor Papers in the Bancroft Library may also be helpful.