Scope and Content
Title: Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND) Records,
Date (inclusive): 1985-1996
Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense
Extent: 2.5 linear feet and audiovisual material
Photographs: In boxes 1 and 3.
Audiovisual: Eleven audiocassettes in boxes 2 and 3.
Henry Madden Library (California State University, Fresno).
Sanoian Special Collections Library.
The records were donated by Werner Lipton in 1997.
The collection is open for research.
Copyright has been transferred to California State University, Fresno.
[Identification of item], Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense
(STAND) Records, Sanoian Special Collections Library, California State University,
The Sane Transportation Alternatives for Neighborhood Defense (STAND), a grass-roots
organization formed out of opposition to the construction of Freeway 168, began in
November 1988. The STAND committee was composed of Werner Lipton, Coordinator; John
Gamboa, Treasurer; Susan Escobar; Jeanne Larson; Beki Moody and Scott Werner. They, along
with volunteers, banded together to collect over 1,200 signatures to prevent construction
of the proposed freeway. STAND's opposition to the freeway was based on several factors,
one of which was the destruction of more than 800 houses that lay in the freeway's path.
The neighborhood in the area of construction was primarily made up of middle-income,
racially diverse residents who suddenly found themselves displaced, looking for homes in
an inflated market. STAND's concerns included, but were not limited to, the environmental
impact of another freeway in the Fresno area, the effect the proposed freeway would have
on local businesses and the effectiveness Freeway 168 would have in alleviating traffic
congestion. The efforts of STAND and other organizations were ultimately unsuccessful;
Freeway 168 will be built.
Plans for Freeway 168 began in 1955 when the City of Fresno and California State
University, Fresno arranged for the freeway to run through the campus. In 1963 the
California Highway Commission agreed that Freeway 168 would run between Lewis Avenue and
Shaw Avenue. Plans for the highway were dropped due to lack of funds. The passing of
Measure C in 1986, a ½% sales tax collected to improve road conditions as well as
transportation in Fresno County, revitalized plans for the freeway.
Scope and Content
The STAND records measure 2.5 linear feet and date from 1985 to 1996. The collection is
arranged in twelve series: Background information, Contacts, Displacement, Environmental
issues, Freeway 168, Funding, Legal issues, Members of STAND, Other grass-roots effort,
Publicity, Related organization, and Supporting material.
Background information series (1991-1993) contains two
position papers, one published in 1991 and one from 1992. The position papers give a
brief overview of STAND's arguments and alternatives to Freeway 168, as well as the
background on Freeway 168. Information on the funding for the project as well as a map of
the freeway are also included.
Contacts series (1989-1995) depicts STAND's efforts to win
support for their cause through correspondence with the local City Council, State
Assembly as well as various local organizations. The City Council folder covers the 1994
and 1993 elections. The 1993 election contains surveys distributed by STAND to City
Council members as well as those running the Board of Supervisors to ascertain their
position on the proposed freeway.
Displacement series (1989-1996) predominantly covers the
Caltran organization, (California State Department of Transportation) which bought the
homes along the freeway construction area. An article in the file written by Werner
Lipton entitled "The 'Scudding' of Fresno," which appeared in
Moving People,expresses Lipton's indignation over the lack of concern by the Fresno City
Council and Caltrans for the people living in the neighborhood. Also included is
correspondence with Caltrans concerning the lack of maintenance of the homes purchased by
Caltrans which were to be destroyed. The correspondence between the two organizations
depicts the sometimes frustrating communication with an organization as big as Caltrans.
An array of information on the quality of the air in the San Joaquin Valley and the
Sierra is contained in the
Environmental issues series
(1989-1995). The series offers some information on the possible University of California
(UC) site in Fresno County. The construction of Freeway 168 played a part in the
consideration of Fresno as the site of the tenth UC campus. STAND's opposition focused on
the negative environmental impact the freeway would have not only on Fresno but on the
surrounding area of the proposed UC campus. According to a letter written by Lipton dated
March 2, 1994, "The Academy site is particularly susceptible to air pollution due to
inversion, so that the air quality there is substantially worse than in Fresno" (Box 2,
Environmental issues, University of California site, Correspondence, 1992-1995).
Correspondence between STAND and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
can be found in this series as well. Included is a report that outlines the inconsistent
and incorrect information in the Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact
Statement according to the STAND committee.
Proposed alternatives to
Freeway 168 as well as the petition
presented to the Fresno County Transportation Authority can be found in this series
(1989-1995). One proposed alternative was a light rail system in Fresno. STAND joined the
Fresno-Clovis Beltway Committee to promote the idea as a feasible alternative.
Funding series (1989-1996) includes the annual reports of
the Fresno County Transportation Authority (FCTA). The series also includes an almost
complete set of the meeting minutes for the same time span. The FCTA, a seven-member
committee, is responsible for collecting the money from Measure C and determines how the
funds should be spent and which projects should be allotted funding according to the
terms of Measure C. Much of the material shows how dedicated STAND was in being well
informed about the decisions being made on Freeway 168. STAND members expressed their
opposition to the money being spent on the freeway at numerous FCTA meetings. Werner
Lipton's handwritten notes on the agendas are extensive.
STAND sought legal council in their pursuit in stopping the building of Freeway 168. The
Legal issues series contains their records with two attorneys,
Richard Harriman and Robert Wright, dating from 1991 to 1993.
The records contain the folders of two
Members of STAND(1985-1996), Beki Moody and Jeanne Larson. The folders contain information on how
they worked together with Werner Lipton as well as their personal roles in the
Werner Lipton worked with Joanne Nuckols, the leader of the opposition to Freeway 710 in
South Pasadena, as they pursued their parallel efforts. Their correspondence as well as
an article written about Nuckols's fight against the freeway is located in the
Other grass-roots effort series (1994).
Publicity series (1989-1995) covers STAND's efforts to
launch their cause into the media. Several press releases as well as numerous editorials
written by STAND members and their supporters are located in this series. A few
photographs of their campaign movement as well as photographs of television interviews
are available for viewing. An audiocassette of an interview with Werner Lipton on KMJ
news radio is also available.
Related organization series (1991-1996) includes information
on the unmet transit needs in Fresno County. The series includes the Council of Fresno
County Governments (COG) meeting minutes.
STAND's research as well as presentation material (1986-1996) is located in the
Supporting material series. STAND researched different laws
pertaining to freeways. There are also newspaper clipping on the effects freeways are
having in bigger cities such as Boston.