Scope and Content Note
Call Number: SC0058
Jordan, David Starr, 1851-1931
Title: David Starr Jordan papers
250 Linear feet
Language(s): The materials are in English.
Dept. of Special Collections & University Archives.
Stanford University Libraries.
557 Escondido Mall
Stanford, CA 94305-6064
Phone: (650) 725-1022
Personal papers given by Mrs. David Starr Jordan and others; official papers transferred from the Stanford University President's
Information about Access
The materials are open for research use.
Ownership & Copyright
Property rights reside with the repository. Literary rights reside with the creators of the documents or their heirs. To obtain
permission to publish or reproduce, please contact the Public Services Librarian of the Dept. of Special Collections and University
David Starr Jordan Papers (SC0058). Department of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries,
David Starr Jordan was born at Gainesville, New York, on January 19, 1851. His father was a farmer of comfortable circumstances
who cared a great deal more for poets than for the current agricultural literature. Young Jordan developed a marked distate
for the routine labors of the farm, preferring to collect butterflies and flowers to hauling hay. Jordan's schooling provided
more freedom than was common for boys of his generation and offered him the opportunity to catalogue the plants of his native
country in addition to learning French, Latin, history, and poetry.
In March, 1869, Jordan won a competitive examination for a scholarship from Wyoming County and entered Cornell University
to join the first freshman class (which had begun work in the fall of 1868). His progress was such that he was appointed an
instructor in botany in his junior year. Upon presentation of his thesis Wild Flowers of Wyoming County, Jordan received the
M.S. degree from Cornell in 1872. Thus, in less than four years, Jordan received the master's degree upon completion of an
After graduation, Jordan became professor of natural history at Lombard University, Galesburg, Illinois, 1872-73, spent the
summer of 1873 at Penikese Island with naturalist Louis Agassiz, served as principal of the Collegiate Institute in Appleton,
Wisconsin, 1873-74, and was a teacher at the Indianapolis High School in 1874-75.
In March, 1875, Jordan married Susan Bowen. Mrs. Jordan died in 1885, and in 1887, Jordan married Jessie Louise Knight. Jessie
Knight Jordan played an important role in Jordan's life, especially during his last years when illnes incapacitated him. Since
she conducted his business for him and carried on with some of his causes after he died, the papers of Mrs. Jordan are included
in this collection.
In 1875, Jordan received his M.D. from Indiana Medical College and that same year, became professor of biology at Butler University.
According to Jordan, the medical degree was obtained with no intention of going into medical practice, but with a view toward
better teaching of Biology. In 1878, he received his Ph.D. from Butler. In 1879, Dr. Jordan moved to Indiana University as
professor of natural history, and in January, 1885, he became president of Indiana University.
During these early years, Jordan concentrated more and more on fishes, due to the influential experience at Penikese with
Louis Agassiz. He spent his summers, often at his own expense, collecting data for the U.S. Fish Commission, later Bureau
of Fish and Fisheries, or the U.S. Census Bureau. In the course of his long career he studied and catalogued fish of the rivers
of the United States and Alaska; Pacific Coast salmon, fish of Japan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Samoa, and Hawaii. He also served on
numerous commissions, including the joint commission investigating the Bering Sea fur seal.
In the summer of 1881, Dr. Jordan climbed the Matterhorn, and for years thereafter, one of his most popular lectures to general
audiences was his description of this exciting event. As a lecturer, Jordan's services were constantly in demand. In addition
to his Matterhorn talk, he often spoke about evolution, education, and to youth groups on morality, temperance, and physical
In the Spring of 1891, Leland Stanford offered Jordan the presidency of the university established in memory of the Senator's
late son. Dr. Jordan accepted and in March began to recruit a faculty for the soon-to-open institution. Dr. Jordan's first
choice was John Casper Branner, who became Stanford's second president. While in Boston, Dr. Jordan wrote Dr. Branner that
he was discouraged about recruiting in New England, where there are men who nothing would induce to go west of Springfield,
and men whose regret of their lives is that they were born outside of Boston. Nonetheless, a faculty was recruited--in large
measure from Cornell and Indiana--and school commenced October 1, 1891.
Mr. Stanford died in June, 1893, and Stanford University faced an uncertain future. A long probate period and a suit by the
federal government for funds advanced to build the Central Pacific Railroad tempered the growth of the University until 1899.
During this period, Dr. Jordan stood by Mrs. Stanford, who expended great energy and the restricted resources available to
her to keep the University open. During what he called the six pretty long years, Jordan continued his ichthyological work
and found time to be president of the California Academy of Sciences (1896-1904 and 1908-1912). In 1892, he helped found the
Sierra Club and, henceforth, took personal interest in various efforts to preserve selected stands of redwood trees as parks.
He was aslo active in the establishment of Mr. Rainier and Yosemite as national parks, and in conservation movements generally.
In 1899, when the University received its inheritance and legal actions against the estate were a thing of the past, Mrs.
Stanford began a six-year building program to complete the physical structure of the University. To Jordan, the stone age
was another impediment to improving the scholastic position of Stanford.
Having achieved fame as an ichthyologist and educator, Jordan turned his interest to international peace, that was to occupy
much of his later life. The Spanish-American War and the Boer War in Africa provided the vehicles to express his concern.
In 1910 he became the chief director of the World Peace Foundation, endowed by Edwin Ginn, and president of the International
School of Peace. Events in Europe led Jordan to request extended leaves from the University in order to lecture on the follies
of war. In 1913 he resigned as president, became chancellor of the University, and devoted full time to the cause of peace.
During his later years as president of Stanford and in addition to his devotion to the peace cause, Jordan found time to serve
as a member of the International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature (1904), president of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science (1909-1910), vice-president of the International Congress of Zoologists (1910), and to receive honorary
degrees from Johns Hopkins University (1902), Illinois College (1905), and Indiana University (1909).
During his retirement Jordan continued his travels in the interest of classifying fish and was awarded the Order of the Rising
Sun by Japan for his scientific work (1922). His continuing efforts on behalf of peace brought him the Herman Peace Prize
in 1924, and his last public address on July 30, 1928, was titled No More War. Jordan died on September 19, 1931, after an
illness of several years.
Scope and Content Note
The Jordan Papers span 1861-1951, although the bulk of the collection dates between 1891 and 1929. Very few items pre-date
Jordan's connection with Stanford University and there is very little material after the severe stroke he suffered in the
summer of 1929. The papers of Jessie Knight Jordan [Series I-F], cover the two years of Jordan's illness, her reminiscences
and the memoires of his old friends.
The collection consists primarily of Jordan's voluminous correspondence (62.25 linear ft.) relating to professional and university
matters, but also contains other types of material such as writings (published and unpublished), clippings, journals and diaries,
scrapbooks, financial papers, biographical and genealogical information, and photographs.
The major subjects are those which deeply involved David Starr Jordan during his lifetime. In his autobiography,
The Days of a Man, he described himself as A Naturalist, Teacher, and Minor Prophet of Democracy.
Jordan was a naturalist-first a botanist and secondly and of greater significance an ichthyologist. In the latter field, his
works are still considered authoritative. In this role he was also interested in conservation, zoological nomenclature and
the protection of fur seals, which endeavor was extremely important and highly documented.
All his life he was a teacher. Even when he was a university president at Indiana and Stanford he personally taught courses.
His career as a public lecturer, beginning in 1871, was an educational endeavor-to teach natural history, moral goals and
standards, the progress of education and peace and international arbitration.
As an educator Jordan brought the separation of education from religion and the system of elective courses learned at Cornell
to the new western universities. In the field of science he emphasized the importance of field and laboratory work rather
than mere reliance on textbooks. He developed the idea of a junior college and was responsible for developing Stanford University
into an intellectually competitive university rather than the technical training school envisioned by the founders.
Social Darwinism was the major cause of Jordan's devotion to peace and his interests in eugenics, temperance, non-smoking
and genealogy. Anything that, to his mind, threatened to weaken or destroy man's natural abilities and health, Jordan fought
against. According to Jordan, was affected the degeneration of the race by destroying the most promising men and leaving the
least desirable at home to reproduce and create the future generations. He was limited by his puritan heritage and his belief
in the superiority of a biological, intellectual elite.
The David Starr Jordan Papers in the Hoover Institution Archives contain the majority of Jordan's papers relating to politics
and pacifism. A guide to that collection is available in the reading room of the Department of Special Collections.
Anderson, Melville Best, 1851-1933
Anthony, Susan B., (Susan Brownell), 1820-1906.
Barnes, Earl, 1861-1935.
Barnes, Mary Sheldon, 1850-1898
Bell, Alexander Graham.
Bierce, Ambrose, 1842-1913
Branner, John Casper, 1850-1922.
Bryan, William Jennings, 1860-1925
Burbank, Luther, 1849-1926.
Burgess, Frank Gelett.
Camp, Walter Chauncey, 1859-1925
Campbell, Douglas Houghton, 1859-1953.
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919.
Cleveland, Stephen Grover.
Coolbrith, Ina Donna.
Cooper, Sarah B.
Crocker, Charles Frederick.
Cubberley, Ellwood Patterson, 1868-1941
de Young, Meichel Harry.
Dole, Charles Fletcher.
Dole, Nathan Haskell.
Doyle, John T.
DuBois, William Edward Burghardt.
Dudley, William Russel, 1849-1911
Evermann, Barton Warren, 1853-1932.
Field, Charles K., (Charles Kellogg), 1873-1948.
Fremont, Jessie Benton, 1824-1902
Harper, William Rainey,, 1856-1906.
Harrison, Benjamin, 1833-1901
Hearst, Phoebe Apperson.
Hearst, William Randolph, 1863-1951.
Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964
Hoover, Lou Henry, 1874-1944.
Hopkins, Timothy, 1859-1937.
Hughes, Charles Evans, 1862-1948.
Huntington, Collis Potter.
Irwin, William Henry.
James, William, 1842-1910
Jordan, David Starr, 1851-1931
Jordan, Jessie Knight, 1867?-1952
Kellogg, Vernon Lyman.
Lodge, Henry Cabot.
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928.
MacDowell, Edward Alexander.
McClure, Samuel Sidney.
Mills, Sarah Lincoln.
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904
Norris, Charles Gilman.
Otis, Harrison Gray, 1837-1917.
Pardee, George C.
Phelan, James Duval.
Rolph, James, Jr.
Ross, Edward Alsworth,, 1866-1951.
Sanger, Margaret Higgins.
Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968
Stanford University -- General subdivision--Students.;
Stanford, Jane Lathrop, 1828-1905.
Stanford, Thomas Welton, 1832-1918.
Stoddard, Charles Warren.
Taft, William Howard.
Taylor, Edward Robeson.
Turner, Frederick Jackson.
Veblen, Thorstein, (Thorstein Bunde), 1857-1929.
Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey.
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915.
Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, 1854-1927.
White, Andrew Dickson,, 1832-1918.
White, Stephen Mallory, 1853-1901
Wilbur, Ray L., (Ray Lyman), 1875-1949
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924.
San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Calif., 1906
David Starr Jordan, the first president of Stanford University, and Orrin Leslie Elliott, first registrar, used adjacent offices
and later shared a common secretary in George A. Clark during the early years of the institution. Under this arrangement their
correspondence files were intermixed, and although three separate categories were maintained--President's Office, General
Letters, and University Letters--these distinctions were so vague as to prove meaningless. Thus, many hundreds of the letters
of the letters in the combined files were requests for catalogs or information about the institution by potential students.
All of the incoming letters and loose carbons and drafts of outgoing letters were copied into letterpress books. It is assumed
that these papers, official and unofficial, remained in the custody of the University.
When Dr. Jordan retired in 1913, a new file was created for his correspondence as chancellor, and later, chancellor emeritus.
The manner of arranging this correspondence is unknown.
In 1919, Dr. Jordan gave the Stanford Library a large amount of manuscript material of which the exact nature has not been
determined. Included in this gift were the Papers of the Fur Seal Commission maintained by Dr. Jordan's and the Commission's
secretary, George A. Clark. In that same year, Dr. Jordan gave the Hoover Collection (now the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution,
and Peace) his award-winning Plan of Education for Peace. Further gifts to the Hoover Collection followed in 1925-26, 1926-27,
Dr. Jordan died in 1931, and in 1933-34, his widow gave the Stanford Main Library manuscripts, journals, poems, and notebooks.
In that same year, Mrs. Jordan gave Cornell, Dr. Jordan's alma mater, books and student mementos, and other materials pertaining
to Jordan's student days.
In September 1934, the University registrar reported that he had employed an assistant to file the Jordan papers. In reporting
to the registrar, the assistant noted that she found so much overlapping that it is impossible to make a clear segregation.
I find that Mrs. Jordan was arranging the materials in many miscellaneous packages which must all be arranged by subject.
It would be difficult to arrange materials chronologically because dates are lacking... so the alphabetical arrangement is
necessary. In addition to arranging the files, the assistant segregated several thousand letters of interest to Dr. Elliott,
who at this time was writing a history of the University.
In 1941, the Hoover Library moved into a new multi-story building and assumed the custody of all the Jordan papers except
the official files stored in the President's vault. In 1943-44, Mrs. Jordan sent 36 files and three cartons of correspondence,
a diary, and other papers to Hoover, making a grand total of 107 boxes. In October, 1945, all the cartons except 24 concerned
with peace were returned to the Main Library.
At some unknown date, manuscript record books and some correspondence on fishes was turned over to the Division of Systematic
Biology. These have subsequently been delivered to the Archives for inclusion in the Jordan files.
In 1965, the Stanford Board of Trustees established the Stanford University Archives, which absorbed the Stanford Collection,
a memorabilia collection long maintained by the Library. At that time, the Stanford Collection contained 84 boxes of Jordan
Papers arranged by subject. Most of these papers dated after Dr. Jordan's retirement as President, or were his personal correspondence.
Less than a year after its establishment, the Archives received the Jordan files from the President's Office vault, of which
three cartons were hopelessly damaged by mildew. A careful search of accessible campus storage areas brought additional Jordan
letters, including those segregated for Dr. Elliott. After the microfilm edition of the Jordan Papers was approved by the
NHPRC, 59 volumes of Dr. Jordan's letter books (chronological files) were turned over to the Archives by the Registrar's Office.