Finding aid prepared by Tracy Liley
California State University, Dominguez Hills
Archives & Special Collections
University Library, Room G-145
1000 E. Victoria Street
Carson, California 90747
Phone: (310) 243-3895

Descriptive Summary

Title: Mochizuki (Yukio) Collection,
Dates: 1942-1998
Collection Number: Consult repository.
Collector: Mochizuki, Yukio
Extent: 4 boxes 2 linear ft
Repository: California State University, Dominguez Hills Archives and Special Collections
Archives & Special Collection
University Library, Room G-145
1000 E. Victoria Street
Carson, California 90747
Phone: (310) 243-3013
Abstract: Colleciton of notes, articles, correspondence, photographs, and term papers collected by Yukio Mochizuki, a student at CSUDH, while researching Japanese-American and Japanese-Peruvian internment during World War II.
Language: Collection material is in English and Japanese

Administration Information


There are no access restrictions on this collection.

Publication Rights

All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Director of Archives and Special Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical materials and not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.

Preferred Citation

[Title of item], Mochizuki (Yukio) Collection, Courtesy of the Department of Archives and Special Collections. University Library. California State University, Dominguez Hills

Acquisition Information

Materials received from Dr. Donald Hata, professor at CSUDH, 1998.

Processing Information

Originally processed by Traci Liley, 1998.

Project Information

This finding aid was created as part of Early Los Angeles/Rancho San Pedro Manuscript Cataloging Project, a CSU Dominguez Hills Library project funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission. The project started in 2005. Project Director was Greg Williams. Project Archivists were Thomas Philo and Jennifer Allan Goldman.


Materials in the Mochizuki Collection were accumulated by Yukio Mochizuki. Mr. Mochizuki was an undergraduate student at California State University Dominguez Hills during the late 1970's. Mr. Mochizuki's research focus pertained to the Japanese-Peruvian internment during World War II. The collection was left in the care of Dr. Donald Hata, Professor of History at California State University Dominguez Hills. Dr. Hata graciously turned the collection over to the University Archives in May of 1998. The collection was processed during the Summer of 1998 and is open to research without restrictions.
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. This order led to the removal of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry from the west coast of the United States. The War Relocation Authority set up ten internment camps to house the Japanese-Americans. However, the United States also had internment camps for Axis nationals from South America. As early as 1938 many South American governments were working with the United States to intern or repatriate all Axis nationals. This included people of Japanese, German, and Italian ancestry in South America. It was the hope of the participating governments that these nationals could be used in POW trades. Thirteen countries from South America participated in this plan. However, eighty percent of the internees from South America were sent by Peru.
The first group of Japanese-Peruvians left Peru aboard the Etolin on April 5, 1942. Many others followed soon after.The Japanese-Peruvians were housed in three different camps in Texas: Kenedy, Seagoville, and Crystal City. They lived in these camps for the duration of the war.
After being released from the camps at the end of the war, the Japanese-Peruvian internees were not allow to return to Peru, regardless of their citizenship. Lawsuits were filed on behalf of some of the Japanese-Peruvians to allow them to stay in the United States because they had no other place to go. The U.S. Department of Immigration tried to deport the internees because they entered the country illegally. Some were still living in the old internment camps as late as 1948 because of the legal difficulties. Eventually some of the internees went to Japan and a very few were allowed back into Peru. The majority remained in the United States.
In 1988, the Japanese-American internees were offered a formal apology along with $20,000 from the United States government. Since that time, a group of Japanese-Peruvians have been lobbying for the same consideration. In June of 1998, President Clinton formally apologized to the survivors of the Japanese-Peruvian internment and each survivor living in the United States received $5000. As of this date, no apology has been forthcoming from Peru.

Scope and Content

The Mochizuki Collection contains correspondence, documents, newspaper articles, term papers, and photographs. Mr Mochizuki's original research was about Japanese-American internment, so there is some material related to that theme. However, most of the material relates to the Japanese-Peruvian internment.
The majority of the material was collected during 1977. Most of the material was found in an orderly condition at the time of processing. However, rusting metal binders and staples were discarded. Overall, the material seemed to be in good shape. The collection had been stored in a box which was kept in Dr. Hata's office. At his request, copies of the donated material will be returned to him. Mr. Mochizuki's correspondence includes research requests, interviews by mail, and memos on how his work was progressing. There is also correspondence between Japanese-Peruvian internees and various government officials. Some has been translated from Spanish by John Romero.
There are personal documents belonging to Japanese-Peruvian internees. Most of these belong to Manuel Ykari, a native born Peruvian who eventually stayed in the United States and became a citizen. There is an official report by John Emmerson, Second Secretary to the American Embassy in Peru during World War II. There are also other government memos included. Warren Rucker's unpublished Master's Thesis on Japanese-Peruvians is also contained in this collection. In addition, there are newspaper articles dating from the 1940's through the 1980's on various subjects. These include the internment of Japanese-Americans, Japanese-Peruvians, and Japanese-Canadians. There are also articles from Japanese language newspapers.
The photographs in the collection belonged to Manuel Ykari. The original photographs are in the collection as well as xerox copies and some of the negatives. Most of the pictures seem to be from the time he worked at Seabrook Farms after the war. There are a few which seem to be from an internment camp. There are some term papers by various authors in this collection. There are several on Japanese-Americans and two on the Japanese-Peruvians. Mr. Mochizuki's finished term paper, for which he did this research, is included. Mr. Mochizuki got copies of some of his material from Michi Weglyn. He also collected quite a bit of personal documentation from his interviews with Manuel Ykari. The related term papers were added to the collection by Dr. Hata.


Arranged in four series:
  • Series I: Correspondence (1942-1977)
  • Series II: Manuel Ykari Documents (1943-1959)
  • Series III: Publications (1943-1998)
  • Series IV: Audio Interview Tapes (1977) (Addition)

Indexing Terms


Crystal City Internment Camp (Crystal City, Tex.)
Japanese -- Peru -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945
Japanese periodicals

Personal Names

Hata, Donald Teruo, 1934-

Geographic Areas

Crystal City (Tex.)

Related Material

Asian Pacific Collection

Container List


Correspondence 1942-1977

Physical Description: 42 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series contains all Yukio Mochizuki's research correspondence, interview notes, and information on his research contacts. It also contains rosters of internees, government memos and reports, and an unpublished Master's Thesis on the subject.
Box 1, Folder 1

One letter to James Bell requesting research help 1977

Box 1, Folder 2

One research request letter to Commander of Fort Bliss, Texas. 1977

Box 1, Folder 3

One letter from Yasuko Hanami in regards to research. Original envelope included. 1977

Box 1, Folder 4

Various letters and memos to/from Dr. Donald Hata regarding research and independent study project. 1977

Box 1, Folder 5

One research request letter to Mike Honda. 1977

Box 1, Folder 6

Thank you letter to Yoshinari Honda for an interview. 1977

Box 1, Folder 7

Three different drafts of an interview letter to Raymond Ickes (Re: Japanese- Peruvians) One letter from Ickes responding to interview questions. One letter to Raymond Ickes asking more questions. 1977

Box 1, Folder 8

Thank you letter to Isamu Kurotobi. One letter with interview questions to Kurotobi. Reply letter from Kurotobi to previous letter. Telegram from Kurotobi requesting assistance for wife's visa problem. Response letter to Kurotobi, re: wife. 1977

Box 1, Folder 9

Two thank you letters to Naoko Kurotobi (wife of Isamu). 1977

Box 1, Folder 10

Research request letter to Kanji Nishijima. (Copy of first draft also.) 1977

Box 1, Folder 11

Thank you letter to Tazuko Shibusawa for helping with interviews at Japan Retirement 1977

Box 1, Folder 12

Research request letter to Yukio Takamatsu, Consul General of the Japan Consulate in Los Angeles. 1977

Box 1, Folder 13

One letter regarding sharing information to Alan Taniguchi. 1977

Box 1, Folder 14

Research request letter to Izumi Taniguchi. Reply letter from Taniguchi. Thank you letter to Taniguchi. 1977

Box 1, Folder 15

Research request letter to Ernest Uno. 1977

Box 1, Folder 16

Thank you letter to Fred I. Wada, Chairman of the Board at the Japan Retirement Home in Los Angeles. 1977

Box 1, Folder 17

Thank you letter to Harukichi Watanabe for interviews given. 1977

Box 1, Folder 18

Various letters to/from Michi Weglyn regarding research, includes information she uncovered during her own research. 1977

Box 1, Folder 19

Various letters and memos to Dr. Agnes Yamada regarding independent study project for ENG-298. One memo has background of Isamu Kurotobi, a Japanese- Peruvian interned during World War II. 1977

Box 1, Folder 20

Mochizuki Interview Notes: Harukichi Watanabe interview . Mrs. Fujie Honda interview . Isamu Kurotobi interview Includes a list of names and addresses for other possible interview subjects. 1977

Box 1, Folder 21

Various research sources used by Yukio Mochizuki. Includes names, addresses and bibliography put together by Mochizuki. There is also a brochure from the Alta California Bookstore with a listing of books on or about Japanese- Americans.

Box 1, Folder 22

Two "Who's Who in America" biographical sketches of John K. Emmerson, Foreign Service Officer in Peru and Japan. 1975, 1977

Box 1, Folder 23

Memo to American Ambassador from John K. Emmerson outlining his opinion on the Japanese colony in Peru. 1942

Box 1, Folder 24

Newspaper articles mentioning or about Dr. Donald Hata, CSUDH. Various dates: 1975-1977

Box 1, Folder 25

Correspondence of Hector Hayashi with Peruvian government. Documents are in Spanish. 1944, 1946

Box 1, Folder 26

Personal document of Isamu Kurotobi, (Oregon liquor license). Includes undated copy of news article in Spanish. 1952

Box 1, Folder 27

Correspondence of Isamu Taniguchi. Information concerns Japanese-Americans. Originals in Japanese but there is a translated copy of one letter. 1963-1977

Box 1, Folder 28

Translation of a newspaper article which mentions Isamu Taniguchi. New York Nichibei 1963

Box 1, Folder 29

Copy of a letter, in Spanish, from Victor Tateishi to Special Secretary, Jonathan Bingham. 1946

Box 1, Folder 30

Harukichi Watanabe correspondence. There are two letters of reference on Mr Watanabe's behalf. 1946-1947

Box 1, Folder 31

Copies of Japanese language newspaper articles about or mentioning Harukichi Watanabe. No date

Box 1, Folder 32

Personal documents of Harukichi Watanabe. Includes receipts from U. S. Justice Department; ie: internment camps. There is also a copy of Mr. Watanabe's certificate of identification from the Justice Department. 1944

Box 1, Folder 33

Jose Asin Watanabe correspondence with the Peruvian government, in Spanish. One personal note, in Spanish. 1943-1951

Box 1, Folder 34

Copies of various correspondence of Michi Weglyn. 1) Handwritten note, author unknown, on Ballet Peruano letterhead, 2) letter from Izumi Taniguchi, 3) letter from E. Fuhr, German internee at Crystal City. 1969, 1977

Box 1, Folder 35

Two newspaper articles about Michi Weglyn. 1977

Box 1, Folder 36

Copy of chapter 2 of Michi Weglyn's Years of Infamy. (Discusses internment of Japanese from South America.)

Box 1, Folder 37

Seabrook Farm Roster. A partial listing of Japanese-Peruvians at Seabrook Farm or previously at Seabrook. There is also a list in Japanese. 1950

Box 1, Folder 38

Roster of an unknown origin. Listing by family name, age and gender.

Box 1, Folder 39

Memo to a Mr. Gray. Mentions Peru's intent and President Roosevelt's approval of removing the Japanese from Peru. 1944

Box 1, Folder 40

Copy of John K. Emmerson's report, "Japanese in Peru." Written by the former Second Secretary of the Embassy in Lima. The report includes history of Japanese in Peru, maps, statistics and the possible threat to South America. 1943

Box 1, Folder 41

Copies of various memos from throughout the State Department evaluating the "Japanese in Peru" report by John K. Emmerson.

Box 1, Folder 42

Warren P. Rucker's, University of Virginia, Master's Thesis #3884 "United States-- Peruvian Policy Toward Peruvian-Japanese Persons during World War II." 1970


Manuel Ykari Documents 1943-1959

Physical Description: 10 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series contains personal documents, correspondence and photographs belonging to a Japanese-Peruvian former internee.
Box 2, Folder 1

Correspondence between Manuel Ykari and government. Letters in Spanish, some with translations. 1943-1947

Box 2, Folder 2

Correspondence between Manuel Ykari and William Collins, attorney. Includes list of payments made by Japanese-Peruvians who hired Collins. 1952

Box 2, Folder 3

Personal correspondence of Ykari including letters, poems and stories.

Box 2, Folder 4

Power of Attorney papers of Manuel Ykari and Luis Sakoda. 1946-1948

Box 2, Folder 5

Personal documents of Manuel Ykari. Includes various receipts for dental services, books, car and life insurance. Address reporting cards.

Box 2, Folder 6

Citizenship material of Manuel Ykari. Includes receipt for Petition of Naturalization , citizenship booklet , envelope with possible date of naturalization Newspaper articles about citizenship swearing in ceremony. 1958-1959

Box 2, Folder 7

Income tax information and documents of Manuel Ykari. 1946- 1957

Box 2, Folder 8

Correspondence during Seabrook Farm years of Manuel Ykari. Includes notice of sponsorship of move to Los Angeles. There is also a document in Japanese, no translation. 1947-1949

Box 2, Folder 9

Photographs belonging to Manuel Ykari. Includes copies and some negatives. 1940s

Box 2, Folder 10

Japanese-Peruvian School Yearbook. Fiftieth Anniversary Issue. Includes a letter of explanation by Yukio Mochizuki regarding Manuel Ykari's donation of the annual.


Publications 1943-1998

Physical Description: 23 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series contains various news articles, poetry books, and term papers. Some of the material is in Japanese.
Box 3, Folder 1

Presidential Proclamation: "Removal of Alien Enemies" 1945

Box 3, Folder 2

Internment Camp Newsletters: seven newsletters from Crystal City (English); one newsletter from Kooskia (Japanese) 1943-1946

Box 3, Folder 3

JACL "Outlook" newsletter Article on Crystal City camp. 1975

Box 3, Folder 4

Copy of journal article, "Japanese Internees from Peru," written by Edward Barnhart. Published in Pacific Historical Review (XXX:2 May 1962), P. 169- 78. 1962

Box 3, Folder 5

Copies of five articles on varying subjects having to do with Japanese-Americans. All are in English

Box 3, Folder 6

Three articles from The Colorado Times 1943-1944

Box 3, Folder 7

Three articles from the Rafu Shimpo, in English, about Japanese- Canadians 1977, 1986

Box 3, Folder 8

Five articles on Japanese-Peruvians, various newspapers and dates. 1948-1977

Box 3, Folder 9

Various newspaper articles in Japanese. Copies included to show which articles go together. (There is one translation in English 1963

Box 3, Folder 10

Two miscellaneous articles, in English, about Japanese subjects.

Box 3, Folder 11

Two unpublished articles by Judy Tachibana. 1) "Commission Examines Wartime Relocation" and 2) Article on Henry Ueno.

Box 3, Folder 12

Judy Tachibana correspondence regarding research on the subject of Japanese- American relocation. 1976-1981

Box 3, Folder 13

"The Human Cost of Asian Internment Camps: One Man's Story," by Judy Tachibana. Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 1981

Box 3, Folder 14

Notes found with Tachibana material, but given the subject is Japanese-Peruvian, they may be notes made by Yukio Mochizuki.

Box 3, Folder 15

Poston Poetry Book, in Japanese, undated.

Box 3, Folder 16

Poetry or story book in Japanese, cover has picture of a monkey. Source listed as Manuel Ykari.

Box 3, Folder 17

Poetry or story book in Japanese, cover has a train on it. Source listed as Manuel Ykari.

Box 3, Folder 18

Poetry or story book in Japanese, cover has a boy playing with cat and a dog. Source listed as Manuel Ykari.

Box 3, Folder 19

Miscellaneous Japanese language material, needs to be translated.

Box 3, Folder 20

Miscellaneous Spanish language material, two letters that need to be translated. 1943

Box 3, Folder 21

Yukio Mochizuki Term Papers: 1) "A Japanese Proverb Trilogue" for EAS-200, Spring 1977, CSUDH. 2) "A Summarization of History- 298" for HIS-298, Fall 1977, CSUDH. Both papers include a bibliography of reference sources. 1977

Box 3, Folder 22

Eileen Naohara Term Paper: "A Kibei's View of Life in Relocation Camps During World War II" for HIS-100, Spring 1974, CSUDH. Included with the paper is a cassette of the author's interview with her subject. 1974

Box 3, Folder 23

Traci Liley Term Paper: "The Forgotten Internees: The Japanese of Peru" for HIS-490, Spring 1998, CSUDH. 1998


Audio Tape Interviews 1977

Physical Description: 8 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series contains audio cassette tapes of interviews done by Yukio Mochizuki.
Box 4, Folder 1

Mrs. Ikemoto, Side 1, H. Watanabe, Side 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 2

H. Watanabe, Side 1 & 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 3

H. Watanabe, Side 1, M. Ykari, Side 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 4

M. Ykari, Side 1 & 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 5

M. Ykari, Side 1, Side 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 6

M. Ykari, Side 1 & 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 7

Yoshinari Honda, Side 1& 2, 1977

Box 4, Folder 8

Yoshinari Honda, Side 1 & 2, 1977