Ethnographic Photographs of California Indian and Sonora Indian Subjects by Alfred L. Kroeber, 1901-1930

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The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California 94720-6000
© 1997
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Ethnographic Photographs of California Indian and Sonora Indian Subjects by Alfred L. Kroeber, 1901-1930

Accession 4690

Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology



University of California, Berkeley

Berkeley, California
Finding aid and digital represe ntations of archival materials funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Processed by:
Ira Jacknis and Lori Reyes
Encoded by:
California Heritage Digital Image Access Project staff in The Bancroft Library and The Library's Electronic Text Unit
Digital images processed by:
The Library Photographic Service
© 1998 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Collection Summary

Collection Title: Ethnographic Photographs of California Indian and Sonora Indian Subjects by Alfred L. Kroeber, 1901-1930
Collection Number: Accession 4690
Photographer: Alfred L. Kroeber
Extent: 636 photographic prints 626 digital objects
Repository: Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology University of California, Berkeley

Information for Researchers

Access

Original prints are restricted and may not be viewed unless permission is granted by the museum's Director. Photographs should be requested by their catalogue numbers.

Publication Rights

Copyright has been assigned to the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology. All requests for permission to publish photographs must be submitted in writing to the museum's Director.
Copyright restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

Preferred Citation

Ethnographic Photographs of California Indian and Sonora Indian Subjects by Alfred L. Kroeber, 1901-1930, Accession 4690, catalogue number ___, Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

Digital Representations Available

Digital representations of selected original pictorial materials are available in the list of materials below. Digital image files were prepared from selected Library originals by the Library Photographic Service. Library originals were copied onto 35mm color transparency film; the film was scanned and transferred to Kodak Photo CD (by Custom Process); and the Photo CD files were color-corrected and saved in JFIF (JPEG) format for use as viewing files.

Related Collections

Kroeber's personal photographs and papers are held by The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Administrative Information

Acquisition Information

Ethnographic photographs by Professor Alfred Kroeber in the collection of the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology are works made for hire.

Scope and Content

The information presented in the container listing, taken from the photographic ledger catalogues, is as complete as possible. Dates and places are missing when they were not originally recorded. The numbers that are included in parentheses for some of the photographs from 1907 refer to a series of bodily measurements, taken as part of a survey of the physical anthropology of California Indians. These were published by Edward Winslow Gifford in 1926, California Anthropometry (University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 22, no. 2).
Note in photographic catalogue: "Photographs numbered 15-3647 through 15-3842 were taken May 16-June 23 [1907], with a Slayton reflex camera and a Goerz series III, no. 3 (Dager) lens, by A.L. Kroeber, in connection with measurements among the Hupa and Yurok. Roman numbers denote film-packs, arabic numbers exposures, a and b left and right separate exposures on one film. In groups, the names always read from left to right."
See the article below for further information on the collection.

"Alfred Kroeber and the Photographic Representation of California Indians"

Ira Jacknis
Published in American Indian Culture and Research Journal
vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 15-32 (1996)
I ra Jacknis is Associate Reserach Anthropologist at the Phoebe Hearst Musem of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley. In addition to visual anthropology, his interests include museology, the history of anthropology, and the art and culture of Indians of Western North America.
Although Alfred Kroeber is universally regarded as the founder of California Indian studies, 1 his important use of the camera as an ethnographic tool is virtually unknown. In fact, Kroeber was one of the first anthropologists to photograph California Native peoples.
California has never attracted as many photographers as other regions of Native America, such as the Southwest. 2 Most likely, this was due to the rapid depopulation and massive acculturation. By the time of Kroeber's fieldwork at the turn of the century, there were comparatively few Native people left in the state, and from a naive, "Anglo" perspective, they did not look particularly Native. Most of the earliest surviving photographs of the California Indian are by a handful of professional photographers. 3 In the fall of 1892, Henry W. Henshaw photographed the Pomo living near Ukiah for the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology. 4 With these pictures, Henshaw became probably the first California Indian photographer who made his living as an anthropologist -although his training had been in biology. Several years later, Roland Dixon, a Harvard graduate student working for the American Museum of Natural History, began to photograph the Maidu in 1899. About the same time, Pliny Goddard, a Quaker missionary among the Hupa, was also taking pictures, which he later published as an anthropologist at the University of California. 5 Finally, in 1901, just before Kroeber joined the University, Dr. Philip M. Jones took a series of Californian Indian pictures for Phoebe Hearst, the founder of the University's Museum of Anthropology.
When Alfred Kroeber first arrived in California in the summer of 1900, he was still in the middle of research for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Born in 1876, Kroeber had grown up in Manhattan and attended Columbia University. While a graduate student in the late 1890s, he came under the influence of Franz Boas, who initiated him into anthropology. During the summers of 1899, 1900, and 1901, Kroeber made three collecting trips to the Arapaho and other Plains tribes, sponsored by the American Museum. We know that he used a camera on these expeditions, but the photos do not seem to have survived. 6
In August 1900, Kroeber was appointed Curator of Anthropology at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. After six weeks spent reviewing the collections, Kroeber set out on a collecting trip, first to the north and the Yurok, Hupa, Karuk around the Klamath River and then south to the Mohave. As the Academy could not afford to pay for collections, which were usually donated, he left by Christmas.
In late spring of the following year, Kroeber was offered a position in the new museum and department of Anthropology at the University of California, then being formed under the patronage of Phoebe Apperson Hearst. 7 At its inception, the program's mission was collecting and research; teaching was to be postponed. At the museum, Kroeber began with an unspecified curatorial position and was officially appointed curator in 1908; he became the Museum's director in 1925. 8 His initial academic position was that of instructor (1901-06), although he did not start teaching until spring of 1902. 9 Gradually, teaching occupied more of his time.
Alfred Kroeber was overwhelmingly a literary person. 10 He had been an English major in college, taking a master's in the subject in 1897. Accordingly, as an ethnographer his preferred subjects were language and myth, his preferred medium, pencil and notebook. Working, however, in an embracive, Boasian framework, 11 Kroeber made use of mechanical recording devices--cameras and especially phonographs--to document Native life.
ETHNOGRAPHIC AIMS
Like all ethnographers, Alfred Kroeber's specific fieldwork practice stemmed from his fundamental conception of the ethnological project. Three aspects deserve attention here: the creation of an objective record, the need for survey and comparison, and the construction of an "ethnographic present."
Kroeber took from his mentor Franz Boas a multi-media approach to recording Native cultures--including texts (primarily in Native languages), ethnographic observations, sound recordings, artifacts, as well as photographs. All were discrete objects in some way, and all could ultimately be preserved in a museum or archives. 12 Commenting on Kroeber's fieldwork methodology, historian Timothy Thoresen has noted that, "A trip that began with a search for baskets among the Yurok, for example, might well result also in notebooks full of lists of names for Yurok habitation sites with estimated population, information on house types, statements of both reported and observed practices, and several myths with comments on the informants." 13 For Kroeber, however, the visual world of photographs and artifacts was secondary to the verbal realm of linguistic notes and texts (folklore), and an examination of his field work activity reveals that he spent relatively little time in artifact collecting, and even less in photography.
Kroeber spent much of the first decade of his career in intensive fieldwork among the Indians of California. Though broad, this research was essentially shallow, at least during these early years. Confronted by the enormous cultural, social, and linguistic diversity of Native California, Kroeber's response was survey and mapping. 14 As he noted to Boas in 1903, "virtually all of my field work has been essentially comparative." 15 In that year, this on-going work was formally institutionalized as the Archaeological and Ethnological Survey of California, with the financial support of Phoebe Hearst. 16 Kroeber's dedication to survey explains the great diversity of Native groups that he recorded in just a few short years, and it may have discouraged him from focusing on the minute and concrete aspects of culture best captured by the camera.
Ultimately, in fact, photography could not answer the ethnological questions that Kroeber asked. His research was dedicated to the reconstruction of a Native past that no longer existed. 17 As he explained in the preface to his summarizing Handbook of the Indians of California, his mission was to "reconstruct and present the scheme within which these people in ancient and more recent times lived their lives. It is concerned with their civilization --at all events the appearance they presented on discovery, and whenever possible an unraveling, from such indications as analysis and comparison now and then afford, of the changes and growth of their culture." 18 Kroeber went on to explain that he was omitting "accounts of the relations of the natives with the whites and of the events befalling them after such contact was established." 19 He would, he added, consider post-contact culture only when necessary to "form an estimate of an ancient vanished culture." The lives of Native Californians had changed immensely since contact, especially in such crucial aspects of material culture as clothing and houses. Even their bodies had changed, with significant degrees of intermarriage. The camera could be of little use in documenting "the appearance they presented on discovery." It could not record a vanished culture.
OVERVIEW
As most of Kroeber's fieldwork, especially of Californian peoples, was sponsored by the University of California, it is not surprising that all of his surviving original photographs are in the collections of the Hearst Museum of Anthropology (formerly, the Lowie Museum), at the Berkeley campus. Although museum records make it difficult to determine precisely which photographs are Kroeber's, 636 images appear to have been taken by him. Generally, especially in his early years, Kroeber employed a smaller, more portable camera (with 3 1/2 by 3 1/2 inch film), instead of the larger glass-plate devices used by many professionals. 20
Kroeber's photography naturally corresponds to the people, places, and dates of his more general ethnographic fieldwork. Some of his pictures were taken in 1901, but most of his early photography came in 1902, when he spent several months in the field. For the following few years, academic duties kept him close to home. The next substantial body of photographs--in fact, the bulk of his work in this medium--were produced in 1907, when he took many portraits as part of a survey of the physical anthropology of California natives. Undoubtedly, he was also impelled by the knowledge that the department's founder and benefactor, Phoebe Hearst, would be drastically reducing her funding in 1908. 21 Kroeber's last ethnographic photographs were twenty images of the Seri of Baja California, taken in March of 1930.
Although Kroeber collected artifacts from at least eighteen different groups before 1918--when he finished work on the Handbook--his photography was much more restricted. Only three groups were substantially documented--the Yurok (220), Hupa (133), and Yahi (121). Five more were modestly recorded--Karuk (37), Cahuilla (35), Mohave (34), Yokuts (20), and Seri (20), and four were subjects of essentially miscellaneous photography--Round Valley Reservation (6), Luiseo (4), Wintun (3), and Southeastern Pomo (3).
The Yurok were virtually the first California group that Kroeber encountered, and they were, by far, the principal subject of his ethnography over his long career. 22 In contrast to other Native groups, which Kroeber usually photographed only once, the Yurok were visually documented repeatedly--in 1901, 1902, 1906, and 1907. Of these pictures, 89 depicted people and 72 were of scenery and sites.
The second-most popular subject of Kroeber's photography was Ishi, the last Yahi Indian, who lived at the Anthropology Museum of the University of California from September, 1911 until his death in March of 1916. In May of 1914, Kroeber took Ishi and a research team back to Ishi's homeland in the Deer Creek area of Tehama County, in northeastern California. For a month, Ishi demonstrated the now-vanished customs of his people, which Kroeber and his friends documented in about 150 images (about one half of the Ishi photo collection at the Museum).
Another relatively large body of Kroeber photographs were of the Hupa of the Trinity River area, also in Northwestern California. All his Hupa photographs were taken in 1907, nominally for the physical anthropology survey. Generally, Kroeber had left Hupa ethnography and photography to his University colleague Pliny Goddard, just as he had left recording of the Pomo to his student Samuel Barrett, and the Maidu to Roland Dixon's expeditions, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History.
Without doubt, the major subject of Kroeber's photography was people, most taken on his 1907 survey of physical anthropology. The second most common is scenery, with material culture (houses and artifact production/use) a distant third.
THINGS
Although not remembered today as a museum anthropologist, Kroeber actually did a fair amount of artifact collecting. 23 Unlike other ethnographic photographers--men like James Mooney or even Franz Boas--however, Kroeber took very few pictures of portable objects (baskets, drums, bows, etc.). In several pictures, he did record in a field setting artifacts that he subsequently collected for the Museum, for instance, a Yurok door and some baskets. 24
Architecture--family and sweat houses--was the principal subject of his material culture images. In keeping with his salvage motives, Kroeber recorded only the old-style plank houses that were rapidly becoming obsolete instead of the western-style milled frame houses in which most Yurok were living at the time. However, among the several important shots of house interiors, one can discern tin cans and other items of modern life.
Kroeber took very few shots of technological process, of objects being made and used. Most in this category depict fishing along the Klamath River. Furthermore, with one notable exception, Kroeber took no sequence shots of related stages in a given activity (e.g., pottery-making or dancing). 25 The principal exception occurred during the 1914 trip with Ishi to Deer Creek (see below).
PLACES
Kroeber took many pictures of scenery in Native territory, especially in the Klamath River area. While at first glance these images, with no sign of human occupation, appear to be devoid of ethnological interest, closer investigation (documented in the writing of Kroeber and his colleagues) reveals that they illustrate sites important to Native mythology or ritual. Following, perhaps, the cultural emphases of a riverine people, Kroeber also linked some of his photos spatially, constructing a panorama along a river or mountain valley by taking two or three contiguous and overlapping shots. 26
While such an approach was not unknown among ethnographic photographers of his time, 27 Kroeber's extensive interest in this sphere reveals an acute sensitivity to Native world view. Native peoples of Northwestern California regarded their surroundings as the sites of great events during mythic times. In adopting this perspective, Kroeber recalls the Native interests revealed in photographs by George Hunt, the Kwakiutl assistant of Franz Boas. 28 What is striking, for our argument, is that these pictures are devoid of a physical or surface meaning. That is, they derive their significance from intangibles, from what is not seen, and thus, they are yet another sign of Kroeber's interest in a primarily verbal ethnography.
PEOPLE
Most of Kroeber's photographs of people were taken on his 1907 physical anthropology survey. While many are indeed the kinds of head shots, posed in linked frontal and profile pairs, that would be suitable for such a survey, many are of groups of children, whole figures shot from a distance, which would be of little use for any scientific investigation. By Kroeber's time, such physical type photography had a long tradition in anthropology, but one that would not last much longer. 29 Kroeber measured many of these individuals (keyed to his field notes in the museum's photo catalogue).
Generally, people are dressed in their everyday, western attire; a few wear ceremonial regalia. Kroeber made no effort to dress them in aboriginal clothes, unlike Edward Curtis or even Franz Boas. 30 Kroeber probably did this because he did not intend to use the photos for public consumption, and/or because it would have taken too much time and effort away from his priority of writing.
Many of the people Kroeber photographed were related; in separate shots he recorded generations of grandparents, parents, and children. At least on his 1907 survey, his photography was actually quite comprehensive; he was able to take pictures of 93 Hupa people (21 men, 14 women, and 58 children) out of a total population of 420. 31
The photographs of Ishi are the largest body of Kroeber's portraits. He shared the photographic duties on the 1914 expedition with Dr. Saxton Pope, Ishi's friend and physician. Given Pope's keen interest in archery, it comes as no surprise that he took most of the pictures of Ishi using bow and arrow.
In many respects, this Ishi series is unusual in Kroeber's oeuvre. While living in San Francisco, Ishi wore white man's clothes--typically, trousers, shirt, jacket, and shoes. Although Ishi went up to Deer Creek in western clothing, Kroeber had him strip down for performances to be documented by the camera (sequences documenting fire-making, bow and arrow-making, hunting, fishing). In these images, Ishi wears a loin-cloth that he may never have worn before coming into the white man's world. Yahi men had formerly worn a variety of animal skin robes, blankets, and aprons. 32 In fact, although Ishi and his family were attempting to flee from "civilization," he lived his entire life in a world formed by the white man. Along with glass-bottle projectile points and metal spoons, the Yahi of Ishi's time also used cloth hats and denim bags. 33
The marked differences between the Ishi corpus and the rest of Kroeber's photographic portraits is a reflection of the special place that Ishi occupied in his research. First, Ishi was a major public sensation, and Kroeber may have felt more of a compulsion to "dress up" (or rather "down") Ishi. Perhaps significantly, he used a larger, 5 by 7 inch camera for the Ishi series, thereby ensuring a better, more detailed image. More generally, with an ethnography predicated upon salvage and the vanishing Indian, Kroeber believed that Ishi was the closest he had come to an untouched California aboriginal. These would be the photographs that he could never get.
PUBLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS
Alfred Kroeber used relatively few photos in his publications, and when he did, they are minimally captioned. His most extensively illustrated publication is his summary reference work, the Handbook of the Indians of California. 34 In the photographs, like the text itself, he supplements his own research with the work of his students and colleagues.
Generally, Kroeber presented his images very closely to how he originally photographed them, with little cropping, enlargement, or retouching. In his captions, he used his pictures to construct an "ethnographic present." None of the people illustrated in the Handbook are identified by personal name, which were often known to Kroeber. For instance, pictures of Ishi shooting a bow and drilling fire are identified as "Yahi" instead of with Ishi's name. 35 Nor did Kroeber date any of his photographs in captions until after 1940, when he began to publish his research in collaboration with his students. By then, these images had achieved a kind of historical significance.
In fact, Kroeber seems to have made the most extensive use of photographs quite late in his life, when he co-authored two important monographs with younger colleagues. Both were on Northwestern California subjects--on World Renewal ceremonies and fishing. In the former volume, there is a comparison between an 1890s photo by Augustus Ericson and a 1902 version by Kroeber of the same Yurok sweat house, with a consideration of the changes, and the latter volume includes a good deal of analysis based directly on photographic evidence. 36 Given the marked difference between these approaches and those publications authored solely by Kroeber, one may conclude that such photographic sophistication was due to Kroeber's student colleagues. 37
LEGACY
Research on the visual imagery of California Indians has not progressed enough to allow us to make an adequate comparison of Alfred Kroeber's work with those of his colleagues: fellow ethnographers such as Roland Dixon, Pliny Goddard, C. Hart Merriam, and John P. Harrington; students like Samuel A. Barrett and Edward W. Gifford; collectors John W. Hudson and Grace Nicholson; and professional photographers such as Augustus W. Ericson, who preceded Kroeber, and Edward Curtis, who came after. 38
A few comparisons strike one, however. Conspicuously absent in Kroeber's oeuvre are the ceremonial images of the Hupa and Yurok taken by his predecessor, Augustus W. Ericson. 39 Ericson had to overcome a good bit of resistance to take these pictures, and perhaps Kroeber's need to establish rapport encouraged him to respect Native wishes. Another possible reason was that Kroeber's summer trips did not coincide with the usual times of these ceremonies. Compared to Edward Curtis, Kroeber seems to have recorded Indian people as he found them, not dressing them up in archaic clothing (with the notable exception of Ishi) or in ceremonial regalia which they wore only at special occasions.
Alfred Kroeber's photographs have come to serve as some of our principal sources for the visual image of Native Californians. They were featured prominently in the major photographic album devoted to the subject, Almost Ancestors, as well as the recent magazine, News from Native California. 40 Perhaps the most interesting and most extensive use of his pictures was by his widow, Theodora Kroeber, in her influential biography of Ishi. 41 Relying heavily on the 1914 Deer Creek series, Mrs. Kroeber followed her husband's lead in situating Ishi as a pre-contact aborigine, further contributing to the creation of a mythical, in fact, timeless, "ethnographic present."
In the last decade, however, Native Californian cultures have been restored to their temporal position. The recent revitalization of these cultures has generated an intensive search for any and all records of earlier times. Native people are now the most interested and dedicated users of these ethnographic collections. Alfred Kroeber's photographs have been given a relevance and active use that would probably have surprised but not displeased him.
NOTES
1 Robert F. Heizer, "History of Research," in California, ed. Robert F. Heizer, Handbook of North American Indians, 8, ed. William C. Sturtevant (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978), 8; Sylvia Brakke Vane, "California Indians, Historians, and Ethnographers," California History 71 (1992):335. For invaluable assistance in locating and evaluating the Kroeber photographs, I would like to thank Mary Johenk, undergraduate at University of California, Berkeley. For stimulating conversations and guidance, I thank Eugene Prince, photographer, Hearst Museum, and Sally McLendon, City University of New York.
2 Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive review of California Indian photography; see Theodora Kroeber and Robert F. Heizer, Almost Ancestors: The First Californians (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1968). For pre-photographic representations in drawings, paintings, and etchings, see Theodora Kroeber, Albert B. Elsasser, and Robert F. Heizer, Drawn from Life: California Indians in Pen and Brush (Socorro, NM: Ballena Press, 1977).
3 Peter E. Palmquist, "Mirror of Our Conscience: Surviving Photographic Images of California Indians Produced Before 1860," Journal of California Anthropology 5 (1978):163-78.
4 Sally McLendon, "Preparing Museum Collections for Use as Primary Data in Ethnographic Research," in The Research Potential of Anthropological Museum Collections, eds. Anne-Marie Cantwell, James B. Griffin, Nan A. Rothschild (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 376, 1981), 203.
5 Pliny E. Goddard, Life and Culture of the Hupa (University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 1, 1903), 1-88.
6 Kroeber reported that most of his Arapaho photos had been destroyed in the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906. To date, the surviving prints to which he referred have not been located in the American Museum's collections. Alfred L. Kroeber to Clark Wissler, 19 October 1906, Dept. of Anthropology Archives, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH).
7 Timothy H. H. Thoresen, "Paying the Piper and Calling the Tune: The Beginnings of Academic Anthropology in California," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 11 (1975):257-75.
8 Kroeber retired from the Museum in 1947, serving as director emeritus until his death in 1960.
9 Kroeber's academic positions were: instructor (1901-06), assistant professor (1906-11), associate professor (1911-19), full professor (1919-46), professor emeritus (1946-60).
10 . . . Theodora Kroeber, Alfred Kroeber: A Personal Configuration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970).
11 Ira Jacknis, "Franz Boas and Exhibits: On the Limitations of the Museum Method of Anthropology," in Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture, ed. George W. Stocking (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 75-111; "The Ethnographic Object and the Object of Ethnology in the Early Career of Franz Boas," in Volkgeist as Method and Ethic: Essays on Boasian Ethnography and the German Anthropological Tradition, ed. George W. Stocking (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 185-214.
12 For a critical statement of Boas's "objective" and collecting orientation to ethnology, see his 1903 testimony to the Smithsonian committee investigating the Bureau of American Ethnology, in Curtis M. Hinsley, Jr., Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology, 1846-1910 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981), 268; and Jacknis, "The Ethnographic Object and the Object of Ethnology."
13 Timothy H. H. Thoresen, "Kroeber and the Yurok, 1900-1908," in Yurok Myths, by Alfred L. Kroeber (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), xxi.
14 Regna D. Darnell, "The Development of American Anthropology, 1879-1920: From the Bureau of American Ethnology to Franz Boas" (Ph.D. dissertation in Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, 1969), 299-318; Harner and McLendon in Eric R. Wolf, "Alfred Kroeber," in Totems and Teachers: Perspectives on the History of Anthropology, ed. Sydel Silverman (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), 58-60; Thomas Buckley, "Kroeber's Theory of Culture Areas and the Ethnology of Northwestern California," Anthropological Quarterly 62 (1989):15-26.
15 Alfred L. Kroeber to Franz Boas, 19 May 1903, AMNH.
16 Alfred Kroeber and Frederic W. Putnam, The Department of Anthropology of the University of California (Berkeley: University of California, 1905).
17 Thomas Buckley, "'The Little History of Pitiful Events': The Epistemological and Moral Contexts of Kroeber's Californian Ethnology," in Volkgeist as Method and Ethic: Essays on Boasian Ethnography and the German Anthropological Tradition, ed. George Stocking (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), 257-97.
18 Alfred L. Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin no. 78, 1925), v.
19 Kroeber, Handbook, vi.
20 Actually Kroeber seems to have used a variety of camera formats, including 2 1/2 by 3 1/2, 3 1/4 by 3 1/4, 3 1/2 by 5 1/2, 4 by 5, 5 by 7, 6 1/2 by 8 1/2, 8 by 10 inches. Such a diversity within a few years is a little surprising; it is not clear if these were all Museum cameras. He never seems to have used glass-plate negatives.
21 Thoresen, "Paying the Piper."
22 Thoresen, "Kroeber and the Yurok."
23 Ira Jacknis, "Alfred Kroeber as a Museum Anthropologist," Museum Anthropology 17 (1993):27-32.
24 Yurok wooden door (1-11855), collected in May, 1907 (Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, accession 288).
25 See Ira Jacknis, "Franz Boas and Photography," Studies in Visual Communication 10 (1984):2-60; "James Mooney as an Ethnographic Photographer," Visual Anthropology 3 (1990):179-212.
26 In June, 1907, Kroeber recorded the Yurok "Medicine for the Dead" on nineteen wax cylinders (37 min., 30 sec.), translated in Alfred L. Kroeber, Yurok Myths (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 305-07. "The formulist here addresses 19 landmarks (rocks that embody or contain spirits) beginning upriver and ending at the mouth of the Klamath at Requa." Richard Keeling, A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900-1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 81. Many of Kroeber's scenic shots were used by his student Thomas T. Waterman in his Yurok Geography (University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 16, 1920), 177-314.
27 For Mooney, cf. Jacknis, "James Mooney."
28 Ira Jacknis, "George Hunt, Kwakiutl Photographer," in Anthropology and Photography, 1860-1920, ed. Elizabeth Edwards (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), 146.
29 Jacknis, "Franz Boas and Photography"; Elizabeth Edwards, "Photographic 'Types': The Pursuit of Method," Visual Anthropology 3 (1992):235-58.
30 Jacknis, "Franz Boas and Photography."
31 William J. Wallace, "Hupa, Chilula, and Whilkut," in California, ed. Heizer, 176.
32 Jerald Jay Johnson, "Yana," in California, ed. Heizer, 367.
33 Robert F. Heizer and Theodora Kroeber, eds., Ishi, The Last Yahi: A Documentary History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 154.
34 Kroeber, Handbook.
35 Kroeber, Handbook, pl. 78. Of course, "Ishi" was not his real name, which he refused to divulge. Ishi, meaning "man" in Yahi, was given to him by Kroeber (Theodora Kroeber, Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961; deluxe, illustrated edition, 1976), 127-29.
36 Alfred Kroeber and Samuel A. Barrett, Fishing Among the Indians of Northwestern California (University of California Anthropological Records 21, 1960), 152; Alfred Kroeber and Edward W. Gifford, World Renewal: A Cult System of Native Northwest California (University of California Anthropological Records 13, 1949), 29-30, 33-34.
37 Several of Kroeber's physical-type portraits and most of his metric data were published by Edward W. Gifford as part of his summary of California Anthropometry (University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 22, 1926), 217-390. Gifford also includes a list of published portraits of Californian Indians (345-46). Interestingly, Gifford did not seem able to incorporate visual data into his analyses, using them more as confirmation and as illustrations. For a discussion of racial type photography in nineteenth century anthropology, see Edwards, "Photographic Types."
38 As Sally McLendon points out (pers. comm.), not all these "photographers" took their own pictures. The wonderful images associated with Grace Nicholson, for example, were probably taken by her field associate, Carroll S. Hartman (see McLendon, "Preparing Museum Collections," 213-18). She also notes that few photographers represented Indians from all over the state. Unlike Kroeber and Curtis, most worked among the Native peoples around their homes. There is still much research to be done on this subject.
39 Peter E. Palmquist with Lincoln Kilian, A.W. Ericson. The Photographers of the Humboldt Bay Region, 7 (Arcata, CA: Peter E. Palmquist, 1989), 95-97; revised edition of Fine California Views: The Photographs of A.W. Ericson (Eureka: Interface California Corporation, 1975).
40 T. Kroeber and Heizer, Almost Ancestors, as well as the recent magazine, News from Native California, edited by Malcolm Margolin (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1987 ).
41 T. Kroeber, Ishi in Two Worlds.

Container List

 

Yurok

 

15-1332 Bows

Number: 7

 

15-1333 Drum

Number: 8

 

15-1334 Baskets

Number: 10

 

15-1335 Baskets

Number: 11

 

15-1336 Dresses and head-bands

Number: 12

 

15-1337 Interior of house

Number: 14

Place: Weitchpec

 

15-1338 Interior of house

Number: 15

Place: Weitchpec

 

15-1339 Carved rock

Number: 16

Place: 2 mi below Weitchpec on river

 

15-1340 Carved rock

Number: 17

Place: 2 mi below Weitchpec on river

 

15-1341 Carved rock

Number: 18

Place: 2 mi below Weitchpec on river

 

15-1342 Carved rock

Number: 19

Place: 2 mi below Weitchpec on river

 

15-1343 Klamath River, looking up

Number: 20

Place: Just above Kepel

 

15-1344 Klamath River, rapids

Number: 21

Place: Kenek

 

15-1345 Fishing place

Number: 22

Place: Yurok territory

 

15-1346 Klamath River

Number: 23

Place: Yurok territory

 

15-1347 Klamath River

Number: 24

Place: Yurok territory

 

15-1348 Rock, past which women do not go in a canoe

Number: 25

Place: Near Merip

 

15-1349 Trinity River

Number: 26

 

15-1350 Klamath River

Number: 27

 

15-1351 Klamath River

Number: 28

 

15-1352 Village site

Number: 29

Place: Klamath River, 10 miles above mouth

 

15-1353 Klamath

Number: 30

Place: Klamath River

 

15-1354 Rainbow, between Turip and Wohkel

Number: 31

Place: Lower Klamath River

 

15-1355 Fresh water lagoon, looking west

Number: 32

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-1356 Freshwater and Stone Lagoons, looking south

Number: 33

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-1357 Freshwater Lagoon, looking northwest

Number: 34

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-1358 Freshwater Lagoon

Number: 35

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-1359 Freshwater Lagoon

Number: 37

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-1403 Looking down river from Pekwuten (Canyon Tom's)

Number: 111

Place: Weitchpec

 

15-1404 Pekwuten and Ertlerger and view of the Trinity

Number: 112

Place: From up river from Weitchpec

 

15-1405 Below Ertlerger

Number: 113

Place: Opposite Weitchpec (goes with 114)

 

15-1406 The "bar"

Number: 114

Place: At Weitchpec (goes with 113)

 

15-1407 Looking up stream. Looking up the Klamath from Weitchpec

Number: 115

Place: Just above Weitchpec

 

15-1408 Site of Loolego

Number: 116

Place: Just above Weitchpec

 

15-1409 Houke arekw (Houkcarek) rock

Number: 117

Place: Just above Weitchpec

 

15-1410 Slope where first dance of Weitchpec jumping dance is made

Number: 118

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1411 Slope where first dance of Weitchpec jumping dance is made

Number: 119

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1412 Part of Weitchpec and the bar

Number: 120

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1413 Old houses (Stone's and Billy Work's)

Number: 121

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1414 Two old houses

Number: 122

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1415 House site

Number: 123

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1416 Susie's House

Number: 124

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1417 Sweat-house

Number: 125

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1418 Sacred rock near large pepper tree

Number: 126

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1419 Yurok children (Yurok 1/2; White 1/4; Chinese 1/4)

Number: 127

Place: At Weitchpec

 

15-1420 View

Number: 128

Place: At Martin's Ferry ?

 

15-1421 Row of three houses

Number: 130

Place: Waxcek

 

15-1422 "Bluejay's buckskin" rock (\?)

Number: 131

Place: Waxcek

 

15-1423 Kewet Mt. (Weitchpec ridge) seen from down the river

Number: 132

Place: Near Merip?

 

15-1424 A'men Lake (Wilson Creek, north of Requa) cf 144

Number: 133

Place: At Requa

 

15-1425 The first redwood upstream

Number: 134

Place: Opposite Kepel

 

15-1426 Rockpile deposited by women

Number: 135

Place: Kepel

 

15-1427 The farthest upstream redwood

Number: 136

Place: Opposite Kepel

 

15-1428 no description.

Number: 137

Place: Kepel, Turip?

 

15-1429 Trimmed tree, north side of river

Number: 138

Place: Opposite, near Turip

 

15-1430 Place where dead emerge

Number: 139

Place: Opposite Turip

 

15-1431 Where boat from Requa lands when getting sweathouse sticks for jumping dance

Number: 140

 

15-1432 The mouth of the river

Number: 141

Place: From near or above Amenoku

 

15-1433 The mouth of the river

Number: 142

Place: From near or above Amenoku

 

15-1434 Looking up the river

Number: 143

Place: Just above and up river from Rekwoi Ranch

 

15-1435 Lake A'men (cf 133-lower end of lake)

Number: 144

Place: At Requa

 

15-1436 Southernmost of three ranch sites

Number: 145

Place: At A'men

 

15-1437 The beach at southernmost

Number: 146

Place: A'men

 

15-1438 Northernmost ranch sites-also mouth of Wilson Creek

Number: 147

Place: At A'men

 

15-1439 Middle of three ranch sites, old house still standing

Number: 149

Place: At A'men

 

15-1440 Northernmost ranch

Number: 150

Place: At A'men

 

15-1441 View

Number: 151

Place: Off A'men

 

15-1442 The mouth of the Klamath and part of Requa ranch

Number: 152

Place: Requa

 

15-1443 The mouth of the Klamath and part of Requa ranch

Number: 153

Place: Requa

 

15-1444 Welko

Number: 154

Place: Opposite Requa

 

15-1445 Yurok child (1/2 or 3/4 Indian)

Number: 155

Place: Requa

 

15-1446 Woman (Indian), girl (1/2 or 3/4 Indian) and child (1/1 or 3/4 Indian)

Number: 156

Place: At Requa

 

15-1447 Yurok men from near Requa

Number: 157

Place: Requa

 

15-1448 Yurok men from near Requa

Number: 158

Place: Requa

 

15-1449 Woman (Indian), 2 children (as in 156)

Number: 159

Place: Requa

 

15-1450 Yurok boy (3/4 Indian)

Number: 160

Place: From Weitchpec at Requa

 

15-1451 Yurok boys (Indian, 3/4 Indian)

Number: 161

 

15-1452 Yurok boys and house (right Indian, left 3/4 Indian)

Number: 162

 

15-1453 Yurok children (cf 156)

Number: 163

 

15-1454 Door of old house (in which to prepare for jumping dance)

Number: 164

Place: Rekwoi

 

15-1455 House used for jumping dance (cf 164)

Number: 165

Place: Rekwoi

 

15-1456 Mouth of the Klamath

Number: 166

 

15-1457 Looking up river at high tide

Number: 167

Place: From near Rekwoi

 

15-1458 Lagoon of the Klamath at mouth, looking south

Number: 168

 

15-1459 Place for dancing of last two days of Requa jumping dance, at foot of tree

Number: 169

Place: Welko

 

15-1460 Place for dancing of last two days of Requa jumping dance, at foot of tree

Number: 170

Place: Welko

 

15-1461 Orick (P.O.) Redwood Creek from south

Number: 171

 

15-1462 From hill above Arekw of Lagoon at mouth of Redwood Creek from south

Number: 172

Place: On hill above Arekw

 

15-1463 From hill above Arekw of Lagoon at mouth of Redwood Creek from south

Number: 173

Place: Seen from above Arekw

 

15-1464 Freshwater Lagoon, looking south from ridge which divides this Lagoon from Redwood Lagoon

Number: 174

 

15-1465 Freshwater Lagoon, looking south from ridge which divides this Lagoon from Redwood Lagoon

Number: 175

 

15-1466 Site of old Arekw

Number: 176

 

15-1467 North end of Big Lagoon

Number: 177

 

15-1479 Sacred rock

Number: 193

Place: Merip, Yurok village

Date: 1902

 

15-1480 Sacred rock

Number: 194

Place: Merip, Yurok village

Date: 1902

 

15-1481 Tree dressed for sweathouse wood

Number: 195

Place: Lower Klamath

 

15-2703

Number: 195

 

15-2704

Number: 195

 

15-2705 Stone (male)

Number: 201

Date: 7/06

 

15-2706 Stone (male)

Number: 202

Date: 7/06

 

15-2707 Stone (male)

Number: 203

Date: 7/06

 

15-2708 Yurok Indians (only 1st, 5th, 7th full bloods)

Number: 204

Date: 7/06

 

15-2709 Yurok Indians (only 1st, 5th, 7th full bloods)

Number: 205

Date: 7/06

 

15-2710 Jackson Ames, probably half Chinese

Number: 206

Date: 7/06

 

15-2711 Dave

Number: 207

Date: 7/06

 

15-2712 Yurok boys

Number: 208

Date: 7/06

 

15-2713 Domingo with drum for gambling

Number: 210

Date: 7/06

 

15-2714 Domingo with drum for gambling

Number: 211

Date: 7/06

 

15-2715 Yurok Indians (boy full blood, Robert Frank)

Number: 212

Date: 7/06

 

15-2716 Half breed Yurok with quarter breed children

Number: 213

Date: 7/06

 

15-2717 Half breed Yurok with quarter breed children

Number: 214

Date: 7/06

 

15-2718 Dandy

Number: 215

Date: 7/06

 

15-2719 Dandy

Number: 216

Date: 7/06

 

15-2720 Sam Smoker

Number: 217

Date: 7/06

 

15-2721 Jenny

Number: 218

Date: 7/06

 

15-2722 Jenny's sister

Number: 219

Date: 7/06

 

15-2723 Board-covered graves and old houses

Number: 220

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 7/06

 

15-2724 Steve

Number: 222

Date: 7/06

 

15-2725 Emma and children group

Number: 223

Date: 7/06

 

15-2726 Yurok half breed children group

Number: 224

Date: 7/06

 

15-2727 Yurok half breed children group

Number: 225

Date: 7/06

 

15-2728 Uppermost rapids with rock in stream where being lives who takes drowned men's bones

Number: 226

Place: Just above Kenek

Date: 7/06

 

15-2729 Umits fishing, seen from bank above

Number: 227

Date: 7/06

 

15-2730 Umits of Shaa, raising dip net

Number: 228

Date: 7/06

 

15-2731 The fish-dam site at Kepel, looking upstream

Number: 229

 

15-2732 On Klamath River. North side between Kepel and Meta

Number: 230

Date: 7/06

 

15-2733 Interior of sweathouse

Number: 231

Place: Meta

Date: 7/06

 

15-2734 Meta and trees trimmed for sweat house wood

Number: 232

Date: 7/06

 

15-2735 Interior of old house

Number: 235

Place: Ayotl, Klamath River

Date: 7/06

 

15-3769 Weitchpec Henry (158)

Number: xi 10

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3770 Weitchpec Henry (158), profile

Number: xi 11

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3771 Weitchpec Steve (Adams) (159)

Number: xi 12

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3772 Weitchpec Steve (Adams) (159) profile

Number: xii 2

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3773 Jackson Ames (160), 1/2 Yurok, 1/2 Chinese, full length

Number: xii 3

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3774 Jackson Ames (160), full face

Number: xii 4

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3775 Tommy Peter (161)

Number: xii 5

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3776 Tommy Peter (161), profile

Number: xii 6

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3777 Jimmy Frank (162), 1/4 White

Number: xii 7

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3778 Native house at Weitchpec, belonging to Stone

Number: xii 8

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3779 Stone's house with adjacent house of Billy Work

Number: xii 9

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3780 Six children of John Gist, they are 1/4 Yurok

Number: xii 10

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3781 Domingo (164)

Number: xii 12

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3782 Juanita (165), old woman

Number: xiii 3

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3783 Juanita (165), profile

Number: xiii 4

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3784 Madam (166), wife of Domingo

Number: xiii 5

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3785 Madam (166), profile

Number: xiii 6

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3786 Maggie (171)

Number: xiii 9

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3787 Looking southeast from village site

Number: xix 1

Place: Trinidad

 

15-3788 Ned (167)

Number: xiii 11

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3789 Ned (167), profile

Number: xiii 12

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3790 Dave Durban (170), profile

Number: xiv 1

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3791 Dave Durban (170), full face

Number: xiv 2

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3792 Win Scott, 1/2 Yurok, 1/2 White

Number: xiv 3a+b

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3793 Molly (172), mother of Fancin; old woman,

Number: xiv 4

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3794 Molly (172), mother of Fancin, profile

Number: xiv 5

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3795 Stone (174), old man

Number: xiv 6

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3796 Stone (174), profile

Number: xiv 7

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3797 Stone (174), profile

Number: xiv 8

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3798 Baby of Lena Henry Allen grandchild of 3769, 1/4 White

Number: xiv 9

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3799 Lena Henry Allen (176) daughter of 3769, profile see 13-1410

Number: xiv 12

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3800 Lucky (180) of Merip, old man

Number: xv 1

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3801 Lucky (180) of Merip, profile

Number: xv 2

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3802 Dan (181) of Kenek, old man

Number: xv 3

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3803 Dan (181), profile

Number: xv 4

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3804 Rock on sandbar below village -site called Kwenometur see page 14 of notebook 70-A.L.K.

Number: xv 5

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3805 Rapids at Kenek, with mythological rocks

Number: xv 6

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3806 Woweyek, famous fish place at rapids

Number: xv 7

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3807 Looking upstream from point of view of last

Number: xv 8

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3808 Woweyek, famous fish place at rapids

Number: xv 9

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3809 House-sites of Thunder (to left in grass) and of Earthquake (to right in brush), back of present village-site-see page 15 of notebook 70, A.L.K.

Number: xv 10

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3810 Home-site of Porpoise (depression in foreground) behind this wooded depression said to form a small lake in the winter

Number: xv 11

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3811 Home-site of Raccoon (depression in foreground) and of Coyote (in front of nearest central clump of trees) In background, prairie opposite and below Kenek

Number: xv 12

Place: Kenek, 6 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3812 Henry Campbell, old man

Number: xvi 1

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3813 Henry Campbell, profile

Number: xvi 2

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3814 Interior of native house, looking from entrance across floor

Number: xvi 3

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3815 Interior of native house, looking across central pit

Number: xvi 4

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3816 Interior of native house, looking toward entrance across floor

Number: xvi 5

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3817 Looking downstream to hill opposite Kepel, on which grow the farthest upstream redwoods on the Klamath River

Number: xvi 6

Place: Wa'soi, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3818 Umits (183), old man

Number: xvi 7

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3819 Umits (183), profile

Number: xvi 8

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3820 Molly, old woman

Number: xvi 9

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3821 Molly, profile

Number: xvi 10

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3822 Liza Griffin (186) and Emma Thomas (187) of Murek

Number: xvi 11

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3823 Liza Griffin (186) of Murek

Number: xvi 12

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3824 Liza Griffin (186) of Murek, profile

Number: xvii 1

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3825 Kewet Mt. (behind Weitchpec) looking upstream from flat on which Kepel village is built

Number: xvii 2

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3826 Hill across river from Kepel, down which fir branches are rolled for fish dam

Number: xvii 4

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3827 Hillside downstream from last, opposite Kepel, redwoods, the farthest up stream on Klamath River

Number: xvii 5

Place: Kepel, 12 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3828 Looking down Klamath River; on hillside to right is fir tree trimmed for sweathouse use

Number: xvii 6

Place: Murek, 13 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3829 Sacred sweathouse

Number: xvii 7

Place: Pekwan, 1 mi above Klamath Post office

Date: 1907

 

15-3830 Rear of house in which jumping dance is held; behind this another native house; to left, a sweathouse, and to left of this, corner of graveyard

Number: xvii 8

Place: Pekwan, 1 mi above Klamath Post office

Date: 1907

 

15-3831 Corner of house; showing door, now in museum as specimen 1-11855

Number: xvii 10

Place: Ayotl, 7 mi below Klamath Post Office

Date: 1907

 

15-3832 Alice Frank (202), young woman, niece of 3790, in native costume, full length

Number: xvii 11

Place: Rekwoi, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3833 Alice Frank (202)

Number: xvii 12

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3834 Alice Frank (202), full face

Number: xviii 1

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3835 Alice Frank (202), profile

Number: xviii 2

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3836 Two children of Alice Frank

Number: xviii 3

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3837 Robert Frank (194), brother of Alice Frank

Number: xviii 4

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3838 Robert Frank (194), profile

Number: xviii 5

Place: Requa, at Requa Del Norte County

Date: 1907

 

15-3839 Freshwater Lagoon, looking n.w.

Number: xviii 6

Place: Between Orick and Trinidad

Date: 1907

 

15-3840 Freshwater Lagoon, looking s.w. These two views piece together

Number: xviii 7

Place: Between Orick and Trinidad

Date: 1907

 

15-3841 Freshwater Lagoon, looking south These two views piece together

Number: xviii 8

Place: Between Orick and Trinidad

Date: 1907

 

15-3842 Looking southwest across Stone Lagoon, village site of Tsakhpekw in center

Number: xviii 9

Place: Between Orick and Trinidad

Date: 1907

 

15-3851 Oliver, Terkr's grandson

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3852 Two children of Fancin, part White

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3853 Two children of Fancin, part White

Place: Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3854 Lucky (180) of Merip

Place: Kenek, Klamath River

Date: 1907

 

15-3855 Lucky (180) of Merip

Place: Kenek, Klamath River

Date: 1907

 

15-3856 Dan (181), old man

Place: Kenek, Klamath River

Date: 1907

 

15-3857 Dan (181), profile

Place: Kenek, Klamath River

Date: 1907

 

15-3858 Carved boulder "Akhtemar hasi"

Place: 1-2 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3859 Carved boulder "Akhtemar hasi"

Place: 1-2 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3860 Carved boulder "Akhtemar hasi"

Place: 1-2 mi below Weitchpec

Date: 1907

 

15-3861 View northward over bar in front of Stone Lagoon

Place: Tsakhpek village site southwest end of Stone Lagoon

Date: 1907

 

15-3862 View northward over bar in front of Stone Lagoon facing further east

Place: Tsakhpek village site southwest end of Stone Lagoon

Date: 1907

 

15-3863 Goat Rock, from north

Place: Between Stone and Dry Lagoons

Date: 1907

 

15-3864 Dry Lagoon, from south. Village site on light area to right (E) of barn Goat Rock is in background

Place: Dry Lagoon

Date: 1907

 

15-3865 Looking south from over Big Lagoon, Patrick's Point in background

Place: Big Lagoon, Humboldt County

Date: 1907

 

15-6377 Houses, Yurok village of Waxcek

Place: Humboldt County

 

15-? Fanny Flounder, last Yurok Doctor on porch of her house

Place: Requa

 

Hupa

 

15-1326 Sacred house

Number: 1

Place: Hostler Ranch

 

15-1327 View from river

Number: 2

Place: Hostler Ranch

 

15-1328 Trinity River

Number: 3

 

15-1329 Trinity River

Number: 4

 

15-1330 Trinity River

Number: 5

Place: Below Hupa Valley

 

15-1331 Trinity River

Number: 6

Place: Below Hupa Valley

 

15-3647 Rachel Sherman (girl) (2) and Mrs. Nancy Sherman (her stepmother) (3) with baby in basket

Number: i 1a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3648 Robinson Shoemaker (4), young man cf 3846,

Number: i 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3649 Chicken hawk (6)

Number: i 3

 

15-3650 Chicken hawk (6), old man, profile,

Number: i 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3651 Mrs. Freddie (8), elderly woman,

Number: i 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3652 Freddie (7), elderly man,

Number: i 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3653 Freddie (7) and his wife (8)

Number: i 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3654 Mrs. Freddie(8), and Mr. Freddie (7), elderly people, profile

Number: i 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3655 Dora (10) and Fanny (9), young and old woman

Number: i 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3656 Fanny (9), Dora (10), in reverse order, profile

Number: i 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3657 Jim Anderson (11), elderly man

Number: ii 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3658 Jim Anderson (11), elderly man, profile

Number: ii 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3659 Three boys: Wilson Pratt (12), Hopi Sam (reservation shoemaker), Frank Davis (13)

Number: ii 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3660 Three boys: Wilson Pratt (12), Hopi Sam (reservation shoemaker), Frank Davis (13) -in reverse order, profile

Number: ii 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3661 Two small boys: Charles Peter (15) and Amos Little (14)

Number: ii 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3662 Two small boys: Charles Peter (15) and Amos Little (14)

Number: ii 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3663 Group of 16 girls, including mixed bloods

Number: ii 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3664 4 school girls: Effie Davis (24), Inez Socktich (21), Sara Adams (19), Lulu Todi (22)

Number: ii 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3665 4 school girls: Effie Davis (24), Inez Socktich (21), Sara Adams (19), Lulu Todi (22), profile

Number: ii 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3666 3 school girls: Helen Young (51), Lily McKeever (85), Lillian Jackson

Number: ii 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3667 3 school girls: Helen Young (51), Lily McKeever (85), Lillian Jackson profile

Number: ii 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3668 6 small school boys: Raymond Johnny, Anton Stansen, Chester Davis (46), Earl Hostler (118), Bob Oscar (123), Amos Little (14)

Number: iii 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3669 6 small school boys: Raymond Johnny, Anton Stansen, Chester Davis (46), Earl Hostler (118), Bob Oscar (123), Amos Little (14), profile

Number: iii 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3670 3 school boys: Freddie Ashton (49), Luther Tom (57), Philip Lack (27)

Number: iii 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3671 3 school boys: Freddie Ashton (49), Luther Tom (57), Philip Lack (27) profile

Number: iii 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3672 Three school boys: Frank Socktich (63), Luce Bosky, Dennis Slegoch

Number: iii 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3673 Three school boys: Frank Socktich (63), Luce Bosky, Dennis Slegoch, profile

Number: iii 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3674 Three school boys, 1/4-3/4 White: Henry Penny (125), Gorham Hickox (111), Fitzsimmons Orfield

Number: iii 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3675 5 small school boys: Francis Colegrove, Fred Rickey (117), Henry Cooper (110), Charlie Hayden (116), George Randall (95)

Number: iii 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3676 4 mixed blood school boys: Orville Allen (121), Robert Blodgett (73), Theodore Bob (64), Ernest Marshall

Number: iii 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3677 Amos Little (14), full and profile, also in 3660, 3661, 3668, 3669

Number: iii 10a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3678 Martin Gardner, full and profile

Number: iii 11a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3679 Laffayette Davis, full and profile

Number: iii 12a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3680 4 school girls: Florence Safford (89), Sara Bennett (88), Ollis Orcutt, Sophie Campbell (50)

Number: iv 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3681 Sophie Campbell (50)

Number: iv 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3682 4 school girls: Lida Caesar (133), Lulu Todi (22), Sara Adams (19), Florence Pratt (84)

Number: iv 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3683 Lida Caesar (133)

Number: iv 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3684 Lida Caesar (133), profile

Number: iv 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3685 Two school girls: Lulu Todi (22), Sara Adams (19), profile

Number: iv 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3686 4 school boys: Jette Albers (120), Jim Marshall (28), Sherman Young (108), William Hodge (76)

Number: iv 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3687 4 school boys: Philip Lack (27), Hiram Lack (\?) (78), Robert Blodgett (73), Freddie Ashton (49)

Number: iv 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3688 Freddie Ashton (49)

Number: iv 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3689 Freddie Ashton (49), profile

Number: iv 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3690 School boy, Albert Richard (70), full and profile

Number: iv 11a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3691 School boy, Francis Davis, full and profile

Number: iv 12a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3692 Arthur Saxon, Hupa policeman ( 91), full length

Number: v 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3693 Arthur Saxon, Hupa policeman (91), profile

Number: v 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3694 Arthur Saxon, Hupa policeman (91), full face

Number: v 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3695 4 school girls: Helen Young (51), Cepha Allen, Flora Maple (138), Caroline Eve

Number: v 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3696 Helen Young (51) see also 3666, 2695 full face and profile

Number: v 5a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3697 3 school girls: Violet Davis (82), Inez Socktich (21), Martha Socktich (135)

Number: v 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3698 3 school girls: Violet Davis (82), Inez Socktich (21), Martha Socktich (135) profile

Number: v 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3699 2 mixed-blood school girls: Georgie Billy (60) on right

Number: v 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3700 3 school girls: Lottie James (26), Emily Henry (61), Susie Jerry (67) double exposed

Number: v 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3701 3 school girls: Lottie James (26), Emily Henry (61), Susie Jerry (67)

Number: v 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3702 3 school girls: Lottie James (26), Emily Henry (61), Susie Jerry (67), in reverse order profile

Number: v 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3703 Group of Indian school girls

Number: v 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3704 School girl, Bessie Johnny (25), full and profile

Number: vi 1a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3705 School girl, Elsie Smoker (33), full and profile

Number: vi 2a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3706 School girl Lizzie John (65), full and profile

Number: vi 3a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3707 2 boys, William Smoker (80) and Henry Campbell (74)

Number: vi 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3708 Lehman Campbell (92), full and profile

Number: vi 5a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3709 2 school girls, Ethel Campbell (37) and Nancy Lack (39)

Number: vi 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3710 2 school girls, Ethel Campbell (37) and Nancy Lack (39), profile

Number: vi 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3711 Gladys Matilton (93)

Number: vi 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3712 Gladys Matilton (93), profile

Number: vi 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3713 Spencer (96)

Number: vi 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3714 Angelina Stevens (98), small girl, profile

Number: vi 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3715 Bob Senalton (99), man

Number: vii 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3716 Bob Senalton (99), man, profile

Number: vii 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3717 Ellen Davis (100), woman

Number: vii 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3718 Ellen Davis (100),woman, profile

Number: vii 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3719 Part of old house (Sanixon's) at Hostler village. The carved door slab is museum specimen 1-11653

Number: vii 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3720 Baldy (101), old man

Number: vii 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3721 Baldy (101), old man, profile

Number: vii 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3722 Jeff Baldy (103), young man

Number: vii 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3723 Jeff Baldy (103), young man, profile

Number: vii 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3724 Finlay Smith (104)

Number: vii 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3725 Lucinda Jack (105) and her mother Nellie Woodward (106)

Number: vii 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3726 Lucinda Jack (105) and her mother Nellie Woodward (106), profile

Number: vii 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3727 3 school girls: Ella Adams (131), Caroline Hickox (68), Ollie Frank (132)

Number: viii 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3728 3 school girls: Ella Adams (131), Caroline Hickox (68), Ollie Frank (132) profile

Number: viii 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3729 3 school girls: Bertha Smith (23), Dora Sanderson (52), Delia Matilden (41)

Number: viii 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3730 3 school girls: Bertha Smith (23), Dora Sanderson (52), Delia Matilden (41) profile

Number: viii 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3731 3 school girls: Liza Lowery (38), Aggie Donney (136), Lillian Larry (139)

Number: viii 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3732 3 school girls: Liza Lowery (38), Aggie Donney (136), Lillian Larry (139) profile

Number: viii 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3733 3 school girls: Dora Todi (20), Marie Socktich (40), Ella Smith

Number: viii 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3734 3 school girls: Dora Todi (20), Marie Socktich (40), Ella Smith, profile

Number: viii 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3735 Miss McLain, Indian service teacher

Number: viii 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3736 3 school girls: Josie Simpson (47), Lillian (or Lily) McKeever (85), Marion Hostler (36)

Number: viii 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3737 3 school girls: Josie Simpson (47), Lillian McKeever (85), Marion Hostler (36), profile

Number: viii 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3738 Mr. Frank Kyselka, agent

Number: viii 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3739 2 school girls: Josie Orcutt (137), Clarissa Dowd

Number: ix 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3740 2 school boys: Charles Peterson, McKinley Slegash

Number: ix 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3741 2 school boys: Charles Peterson, McKinley Slegash, profile

Number: ix 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3742 2 school boys Herbert Shepard (45), Harvey Socktich

Number: ix 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3743 2 school boys Herbert Shepard (45), Harvey Socktich, profile

Number: ix 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3744 2 school boys: Eddie Hayden (128), Lee Smoker (29), profile

Number: ix 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3745 Double exposure of last subjects, full face, and next

Number: ix 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3746 Anderson Meskit and Eddie Marshall

Number: ix 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3750 2 school girls: Stella Brown (86) and Lily McKeever (85)

Number: ix 12

Date: 1907

 

15-3751 2 half breed brothers Sam (1) and Oscar Brown (142)

Number: x 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3752 Elderly woman (Emma Lewis ?) (58)

Number: x 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3753 Elderly woman (Emma Lewis?) (58)

Number: x 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3754 Young woman, Lucy Quimby (144), profile

Number: x 5

Date: 1907

 

15-3755 Two exposures-superimposed of old woman Becky (145), full and profile see 15-3757

Number: x 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3756 Dr. Anderson, agency physician

Number: x 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3757 Becky (145), old woman, profile, see 15-3755

Number: x 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3758 Tom Hill (147), old man

Number: x 10

Date: 1907

 

15-3759 Tom Hill (147), profile

Number: x 11

Date: 1907

 

15-3760 Molly Socktich (148?), woman, full and profile

Number: x 12a+b

Date: 1907

 

15-3761 Blanche Brown (148?) and Sylvester Brown

Number: xi 1

Date: 1907

 

15-3762 Mrs. Annie Hayden (151) and child, profile

Number: xi 2

Date: 1907

 

15-3763 Mrs. Annie Hayden (151), full face

Number: xi 3

Date: 1907

 

15-3764 Jake Hostler (154) and two children

Number: xi 4

Date: 1907

 

15-3765 Dr. Tom (156), old Chimariko Indian profile

Number: xi 6

Date: 1907

 

15-3766 Dr. Tom (156), full face

Number: xi 7

Date: 1907

 

15-3767 Mrs. Dr. Tom (157)

Number: xi 8

Date: 1907

 

15-3768 Mrs. Dr. Tom (157), profile

Number: xi 9

Date: 1907

 

15-3843

Number: xi 9

 

15-3844

Number: xi 9

 

15-3845

Number: xi 9

 

15-3846

Number: xi 9

 

15-3847

Number: xi 9

 

15-3848

Number: xi 9

 

15-3849

Number: xi 9

 

15-3850

Number: xi 9

 

Karok

 

15-1366 Little hill stood on at New Years by medicine man; also tree under which dance is made

Number: 73

Place: Katimin

 

15-1367 Little hill stood on at New Years by medicine man; also tree under which dance is made. Different view. Ishibishi in background

Number: 74

Place: Katimin

 

15-1368 Rocks on east side of river

Number: 75

Place: Katimin

 

15-1369 Sand bar just above ranch and ferry where acorns are cooked for New Years

Number: 76

Place: Katimin

 

15-1370 View of Katimin from Ishibishi

Number: 77

 

15-1371 View of Katimin from Ishibishi from further upstream

Number: 78

 

15-1372 Anite Mt. from above Ishibishi

Number: 79

 

15-1373 Katimin seen from above Ishibishi

Number: 80

 

15-1374 Ishibishi children-Karok boys

Number: 81

 

15-1375 Ishibishi children-Karok girl

Number: 82

 

15-1376 Place of deerskin dance

Number: 83

Place: Part of Katimin

 

15-1377 Near boat crossing; place of war dance

Number: 84

Place: Katimin

 

15-1378 Sacred sweat house

Number: 85

Place: Katimin

 

15-1379 Sacred sweat house

Number: 86

Place: Katimin

 

15-1380 Sacred sweat house

Number: 87

Place: Katimin

 

15-1381 Sacred house

Number: 88

Place: Katimin

 

15-1382 Rockpile left by Ikxareya

Number: 89

Place: near Katimin in gully at foot of Anite

 

15-1383 Man fishing from platform

Number: 90

Place: Shanamkarak, looking toward Amaikyara

 

15-1384 Fishing, dip net

Number: 91

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1385 Fishing place and net

Number: 92

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1386 Fishing at foot of rapids

Number: 93

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1387 Amaikyara from rocky point projecting over river

Number: 94

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1388 Rapids

Number: 95

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1389 Karok man and girl

Number: 96

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1390 Salmon River

Number: 97

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1391 Looking up Salmon River

Number: 98

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1392 House

Number: 99

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1393 Karok man

Number: 100

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1394 Karok man

Number: 101

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1395 Salmon River, point where wind lives

Number: 102

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1396 Anite mountain seen from downstream

Number: 103

Place: Near Katimin

 

15-1397 Rapids and rocks on Amaikyara side

Number: 104

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1398 Rapids

Number: 105

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1399 New Years "alter" with rapids in background

Number: 106

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1400 New Years "altar"

Number: 108

Place: Shanamkarak

 

15-1401 Anite Mountain

Number: 109

Place: From just above Katimin

 

15-1402 Klamath River around foot of Anite

Number: 110

Place: From Katimin (Somes? Bar)

 

Wintun

 

15-5065 Tom Odock

Place: Colusa

Date: 1909

 

15-5066 Tom Odock

Place: Colusa

Date: 1909

 

15-5084 Tom Odock, Henry Johnson, Sam Garfield, and Tom Johnson. Wintun, Pomo, Yokuts, Pomo

Date: 8/09

 

Yahi

 

15-5401 Ishi, profile

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5402 Ishi, full face

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5403 Ishi, full face

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5404 Ishi crouching

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5405 Ishi and Sam Batwee

Place: Southern and Northern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5406 Ishi and Sam Batwee

Place: Southern and Northern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5410 Ishi, profile

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5411 Ishi, profile

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5412 Ishi, full face

Place: Southern Yana

Date: 9/11

 

15-5683 Ishi making bow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5684 Ishi making bow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5685 Ishi making bow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5686 Ishi examining wood for arrow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5687 Ishi scything wood for arrow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5688 Ishi peeling wood for arrow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5689 Ishi scything wood for arrow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5690 Ishi breaking obsidian

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5691 Ishi

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5692 Ishi flaking arrow point

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5693 Ishi flaking arrow point

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5694 Ishi flaking arrow point

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5695 Ishi flaking arrow point

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5696 Ishi shooting, kneeling

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5697 Ishi shooting, kneeling

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5698 Ishi shooting, standing

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5699 Ishi shooting, standing

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5700 Ishi shooting, standing

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5701 a, b Ishi shooting bow; following release of arrow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5702 Ishi walking with bow

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5703 Ishi calling rabbit, with hand to mouth, arrow on string

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5704 Deer with arrow in it

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5705 Ishi pulling arrow from deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5706 Ishi pulling arrow from deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5707 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5708 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5709a, b Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5710 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5711 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5712 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5713 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5714 Ishi skinning deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5715 Ishi cutting sinews from back of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5716 Ishi cutting sinews from back of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5717 Ishi cutting sinews from back of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5718 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5719 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5720 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5721 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5722 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5723 Ishi skinning head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5724 Ishi with skin removed from deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5725 Ishi preparing skin of head of deer

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5726 Ishi binding points on salmon harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5727 Ishi binding points on salmon harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5728 Ishi binding points on salmon harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5729 Ishi binding points on salmon harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5730 Ishi binding points on salmon harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5731 Ishi with harpoon at river

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5732 Ishi entering river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5733 Ishi crossing river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5734 Ishi emerging from river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5735 Ishi emerging from river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5736 Ishi emerging from river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5737 Ishi emerging from river with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5738 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5739 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5740 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5741 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5742 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5743 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5744 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5745 Ishi ready to spear with harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5746 Ishi swimming

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5747 Ishi swimming

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5748 Ishi swimming

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5749 Ishi swimming

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5750 Ishi swimming

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5751 Ishi standing on rock in river

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5752 Ishi standing on rock in river

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5753 Ishi throwing a stone across river

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5754 Ishi throwing a stone across river

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5755 Ishi drying a new fire drill over fire

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5756 Ishi drying a new fire drill over fire

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5757 Ishi drying a new fire drill over fire

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5758 Ishi bending fire drill with his hands

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5759 Ishi bending fire drill with his feet

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5760 Ishi bending fire drill with his teeth

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5761 Ishi sighting fire drill while straightening

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5762 Ishi sighting fire drill while straightening

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5763 Ishi drilling fire

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5764 Ishi drilling fire

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5765 Ishi nursing spark in tinder

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5766 Ishi blowing tinder into flame

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5767 Ishi, full face

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5768 Ishi, full face

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5769 Ishi full face

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5770 Ishi 3/4 view

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5771 Ishi profile

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5772 View upstream across mouth of Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5773 First (left hand) section of panoramic view to NW from campsite downstream from mouth of Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5774 Second section of panoramic view to NW from campsite downstream from mouth of Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5775 Third section of panoramic view to NW from campsite downstream from mouth of Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5776,a Right hand section of panoramic view to NW from campsite downstream from mouth of Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5777 Inhabited cave on Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5778 Inhabited cave on Sulphur Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5779 Ishi using harpoon

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5780 View

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5781 Ishi and group

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5782 Ishi and group

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5783 Ishi and group

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5784, e Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5785 Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5786 Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5787 Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5788 Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5789 Section of panoramic view taken looking NE and S from near Moak trail in vicinity of head of Little Dry Creek, upstream from Dillon's Cove

Place: Deer Creek, Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5790 Cave on south side of Mill Creek between center ford and Bunhalls's ford

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5791 Cave on south side of Mill Creek between center ford and Bunhalls's ford

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5792 Section of panoramic view towards the S and W taken from bluff on ridge between north fork of Little Mill Creek and Mill Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5793 Section of panoramic view towards the S and W taken from bluff on ridge between north fork of Little Mill Creek and Mill Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5794 Section of panoramic view towards the S and W taken from bluff on ridge between north fork of Little Mill Creek and Mill Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5795 Section of panoramic view towards the S and W taken from bluff on ridge between north fork of Little Mill Creek and Mill Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-5796 Section of panoramic view towards the S and W taken from bluff on ridge between north fork of Little Mill Creek and Mill Creek

Place: Tehama

Date: 1914

 

15-6404 Death mask of Ishi

Date: 1920

 

Southeast Pomo

 

15-8265 Lower Lake Pomo model house front. Put up at a Lake resort by a Little Lake Pomo

Date: 8/27

 

15-8266 Lower Lake Pomo model house interior. Put up at a Lake resort by a Little Lake Pomo

Date: 8/27

 

15-8267 Lower Lake Pomo model house interior. Put up at a Lake resort by a Little Lake Pomo

Date: 8/27

 

Round Valley Reservation

 

15-1360 Round Valley

Number: 39

 

15-1361 S. of Round Valley

Number: 40

 

15-1362 S. of Round Valley

Number: 43

 

15-1363 S. of Round Valley

Number: 44

 

15-1364 Looking south from Sanhedrin Divide toward Round Valley

Number: 45

 

15-1365 Looking south from Sanhedrin Divide toward Round Valley

Number: 46

 

Yokuts

 

15-1468 Illustrating position of man sitting temporarily

Number: 181

Date: 1903

 

15-1469 Illustrating position of man sitting temporarily

Number: 183

Date: 1903

 

15-1470 Illustrating position of man sitting temporarily

Number: 184

Date: 1903

 

15-1471 Illustrating position of man gambling

Number: 185

Date: 1903

 

15-1472 Illustrating position of man?

Number: 186

Date: 1903

 

15-1473 Illustrating position of woman sitting

Number: 187

Date: 1903

 

15-1474 Illustrating position of woman sitting temporarily

Number: 188

Date: 1903

 

15-1475 Illustrating position of woman pounding

Number: 189

Date: 1903

 

15-1476 Illustrating position of woman pounding

Number: 190

Date: 1903

 

15-1477 Illustrating mode of wearing head-dress

Number: 191

Date: 1903

 

15-1478 Illustrating mode of wearing head-dress

Number: 192

Date: 1903

 

15-2490 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2491 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2492 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2493 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2494 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2495 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2496 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2497 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

15-2498 Pigeon snare ambush

Place: Tule River Reservation

Date: 12/03

 

Luiseno

 

15-5068 Feliz Calac

Place: Rincon, Valley Center

Date: 10/09

 

15-6397 Luiseno basket 1-20909

Date: 1920

 

15-6398 Luiseno basket 1-20910

Date: 1920

 

15-5067 Feliz Calac

Place: Rincon, Valley Center

Date: 10/09

 

Cahuilla

 

15-4171 Antonio Martinez, full blood

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4172 William Levy and brother, full blood young men

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4173 Railroad hotel

Place: Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4174 Cahuilla house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4175 House, looking inside through brush

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4176 House

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4177 Stable

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4178 House

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4179 Unfinished house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4180 Unfinished house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4181 Another view of unfinished house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4182 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4183 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4184 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4185 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4186 Colorado desert and San Jacinto mountains

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4187 Colorado desert under cultivation

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4188 Colorado desert under cultivation

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4189 Interior of sweat house

Place: Morongo Reservation near Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4190 Interior of sweat house

Place: Morongo Reservationnear Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4191 Interior of sweat house

Place: Morongo Reservation near Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4192 Interior of sweat house

Place: Morongo Reservation near Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4193 Mortar of stone and basketry

Place: Morongo Reservation near Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4194 Morongo reservation and Mt. San Gorgonio

Place: near Banning

Date: 1907

 

15-4195 The Colorado desert

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4196 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4197 The Colorado desert

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4198 Storage basket for mesquite

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4199 Under a brush shade in front of house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-4200 Under a brush shade in front of house

Place: near Indio

Date: 1907

 

15-6399 Basket 1-11047

Date: 1920

 

15-6400 Basket 1-14396

Date: 1920

 

15-6401 Basket 1-14401

Date: 1920

 

15-6402 Basket 1-11058

Date: 1920

 

15-6403 Basket 1-14438

Date: 1920

 

Mohave

 

15-4309 Unfinished bead collar

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4310 Jack Jones, full figure

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4311 Jack Jones, head only

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4312 Bluebird, full figure

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4313 Bluebird, head only

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4314 Bluebird, head only

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4315 Leslie Wilbur, full face, cf 4331

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4316 Leslie Wilbur, profile

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4317 Paul, full face

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4318 Paul, profile

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4319 Mohave Indian, full face

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4320 Profile of 15-4319

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4321 Lame Jim, full face

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4322 Minnie Moos, full face

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4323 Minnie Moos, profile

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4324 Mohave woman

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4325 Mohave woman, full figure

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4326 Mohave woman, head only,

Place: near Needles same as 15-4324, 4325

Date: 1908

 

15-4327 Little Mohave girl

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4328 Two Mohave boys

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4329 Boys in 15-4328, profile

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4330 Ashpam, old man, 1/2 Mohave, 1/2 Chemehuevi, profile

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4331 Ashpam of 15-4330, full face and Leslie Wilbur of 15-4315

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4332 Daughter of Ashpam and a Chemehuevi woman, with two of her children

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4333 Charley, elderly Mohave Indian

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4334 Charley, full length

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4335 Little Mohave girl

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4336 Little Mohave girl

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4337 Interior of Old Mohave house, seen from corner near door

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4338 Interior of Mohave house Another view

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4339 Interior of house seen from doorway

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4340 Interior of house, seen from one of the corners opposite the door

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4341 Metate, showing single foot

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

15-4342 Large water jar showing ornamentation

Place: near Needles

Date: 1908

 

Seri

 

15-8726 Man

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8727 Man

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8728 Man closeup

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8729 Man closeup

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8730 Man

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8731 Man

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8732 Woman and child

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8733 Two women

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8734 Two women

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8735 Man, woman and five children

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8736 Two children

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8737 Woman and child

Place: Tiburon Island, opposite Punta San Miguel

Date: 3/30

 

15-8738 Woman with hat in hand

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8739 Man (hat in one hand, pot in other)

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8740 Two men (one holding hat, one holding deer head and hat)

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8741 Woman with pole, woman with pole and hat, boy with deer horns on head

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8742 Group of people with truck in background

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8743 Group of people with truck in background

Place: Mainland, Punta San Miguel

 

15-8770 Basket: 3-3158

Place: Tiburon Island

 

15-8771 Basket: 3-3159

Place: Tiburon Island