Jump to Content

Collection Guide
Collection Title:
Collection Number:
Get Items:
Register of the Poland. Ambasada (Soviet Union) Records, 1941-1944
No online items No online items
View entire collection guide What's This?
PDF (100.16 Kb) HTML
Search this collection
Collection Details
Table of contents What's This?
  • Descriptive Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • Access Points
  • Biography

  • Descriptive Summary

    Title: Poland. Ambasada (Soviet Union),
    Date (inclusive): 1941-1944
    Collection Number: 45014
    Creator: Poland. Ambasada (Soviet Union) Records
    Collection Size: 58 manuscript boxes, 1 oversize folder (24.6 linear feet)
    Repository: Hoover Institution Archives
    Stanford, California 94305-6010
    Shelf location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the online catalog.
    Abstract: Reports, correspondence, accounts, lists, testimonies, questionnaires, certificates, petitions, card files, maps, circulars, graphs, protocols, and clippings, relating to World War II, the Soviet occupation of Poland, the Polish-Soviet military and diplomatic agreements of 1941, the re- establishment of the Polish embassy in Moscow, Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, deportations of Polish citizens to the Soviet Union, labor camps and settlements, relief work by the Polish social welfare department delegations among the deportees, the Polish armed forces formed in the Soviet Union, evacuation of Polish citizens to the Middle East, the Katyn massacre of Polish officers, and the breakdown of Polish-Soviet relations in 1943. Includes material on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet government, 1928-1929. A digital copy of this entire collection is available at http://szukajwarchiwach.pl/800/35/0/-/ .
    Language: Polish.

    Administrative Information


    Collection is open for research.

    Publication Rights

    For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], Poland. Ambasada (Soviet Union) Records, [Box no.], Hoover Institution Archives.

    Alternative Form Available

    Also available on microfilm (79 reels).
    Digital copy in Poland's National Digital Archive at http://szukajwarchiwach.pl/800/35/0/-/ . It was digitized from microfilm by the Polish State Archives.

    Access Points

    Katyn Forest Massacre, 1940
    Poles--Soviet Union
    Prisoners of war
    World War, 1939-1945
    World War, 1939-1945--Civilian relief
    World War, 1939-1945--Conscript labor
    World War, 1939-1945--Deportations from Poland
    World War, 1939-1945--Diplomatic history
    World War, 1939-1945--Poland
    World War, 1939-1945--Prisoners and prisons
    World War, 1939-1945--Refugees
    World War, 1939-1945--Soviet Union
    Poland--Foreign relations--Soviet Union
    Poland--History--Occupation, 1939-1945
    Soviet Union
    Russia (Federation)
    Soviet Union--Foreign relations--Poland
    Soviet Union--Politics and government--1917-1936


    Polish-Soviet diplomatic relations were severed with the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland on September 17, 1939. After the German invasion of the USSR in June 1941, however, the Soviet government re-established diplomatic relations with the Polish government, then in exile in London. An agreement was signed on July 30, 1941, followed by a military accord on August 14. The Poles were allowed to re-establish an Embassy in Moscow, to form an army on Soviet territory for the common struggle against Germany, and to set up a network of Polish citizens deported to the USSR in 1939-1941.
    Friction soon developed in several areas, leading to an eventual break in diplomatic relations. Of particular concern to the Polish government were the Polish deportees, many of whom were forced to accept Soviet rather than Polish citizenship. The activities of the Polish social welfare workers awoke the suspicions of the Soviet authorities, who conducted a series of arrests in June and July of 1942. Finally, the question of the fate of between 8,300 and 8,400 Polish officers who had been taken prisoner by the Soviet forces in 1939 and who were supposed to be released from the prison camps at Kozel'sk, Starobelsk and Ostashkov became a source of Polish-Soviet discord. The discovery by the Germans of mass graves of between 4,443 and 4,800 Polish officers at Katyn on April 13, 1943, seemed to confirm Polish suspicions. The Soviet authorities responded by accusing the Polish government of collaboration with the Germans. On April 25, 1943, the Soviet government broke diplomatic relations with the Polish government, and the mission of the Polish Embassy was officially terminated.
    The Polish ambassador in Moscow from 1941 to July 5, 1942 was Stanislaw Kot. After the general evacuation, when the Embassy was moved to Kuibyshev, the post was assumed by Tadeusz Romer. He remained there until July 25, 1943, although his official status had been revoked in April of that year. The Romer papers are located at the Public Archives of Canada, and a microfilm copy has been deposited at the Hoover Institution.
    A major part of the activity of the Polish Embassy was the organization of a network of social welfare "delegations" administered by "hommes de confiance" appointed by the Social Welfare Department. The Embassy repre-sentatives were responsible for the physical well-being and in some cases the religious and educational care of the more than one million Polish citizens deported by the Soviet authorities to labor camps and settlements in 1939-1941. A mass southward evacuation of these deportees was effected in 1943, and many made their way to Britain via Iran. A large number were interviewed in Tehran in 1943 regarding their experiences in the USSR. The interviews themselves are a part of the General Wladyslaw Anders Collection at the Hoover Institution.