Scope and Content of Collection
Title: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty broadcast records
Collection number: 2000C120
circa 7000 linear feet
Hoover Institution Archives
Stanford, California 94305-6010
Abstract: American radio broadcasting organization operating Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. Includes sound recordings of broadcasts,
scripts, correspondence, and memoranda, relating to broadcasts by Radio Free Europe to audiences in Eastern Europe and to
broadcasts by Radio Liberty Liberty to audiences in the Soviet Union.
Physical location: Hoover Institution Archives
Languages represented in the collection:
Collection is open for research. Portions of the collection in process open only by request.
A portion of the collection is stored off-site. It may be possible to have a limited number of boxes brought to the archives
reading room for examination. A minimum of two days notice is required. Please contact the Hoover Institution Archives for
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to
copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives
at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see
or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.
For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives
[Identification of item], Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty broadcast records, [Box no.], Hoover Institution Archives
Acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives in 2000
Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find
the collection in Stanford University's online catalog at
. Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the online catalog is larger than the number
of boxes listed in this finding aid.
Scope and Content of Collection
The RFE/RL Broadcast Archive consists of the materials produced by RFE/RL for its radio programs. While the primary elements
of this collection are tapes and scripts, arranged by broadcast department or language service, there is also a good deal
of derivative and associated documentation created, received or collected in the course of the daily functioning of the broadcasting
service. Such documentation includes editorial and research files, program logs and broadcast schedules, special programs,
work plans, program lists, listener mail, papers of individual employees, collected or produced in the course of their duties,
and other types of documentation.
The most important set of such derivative documents is the
Daily Broadcast Analyses (DBAs), which form the Daily Broadcast Analysis series. The DBAs were used by management and the broadcasing departments and language
services to track the quality and content of programming. A special department, the Broadcasting Analysis Department, existed
to collect data on programming and compile it into DBAs, which were then distributed to management and back to the appropriate
desks. In the collection, they are arranged according to the category of origin: Radio Free Afghanistan, Radio Free Europe,
Radio Free Europe Baltic, Radio Liberty Nationality Services, Radio Liberty Russian Service. The RFE DBAs contain texts of
all the services and departments together for each day. DBAs were not issued every day, so the collection contains gaps. A
separate category of translated scripts or parts of scripts is also part of the DBA series and listed at its end.
Albanian Monitoring Subsection series consists of the papers of one of its employees, Nicolo Prenushi. An Albanian Language Service as such existed for a brief
period of time in the early 1950s, leaving only the Monitoring Subsection thereafter.
Azerbaijani Language Service contains scripts and other materials, primarily collected writings and research files created by the service chief, Mirza
Bulgarian, Czechslovak, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, and Slovak broadcast departments and language services contain similar material, arranged by physical form and chronologically thereafter, but it should be cited by date as the
box numbers will change.
Many early scripts and programs are available only on microfilm. There is a register for these in a neighboring binder, labeled
"Programs on Microfilm," and covering primarily the 1950s.
News and Current Affairs series contains the news budget, which includes reports from wire agencies and other sources on events during the Hungarian Revolution
of 1956 and Prague Spring of 1968, as well as certain other topics. The series also contains scripts - printed versions of
news events and interviews as read by announcers, with sound bites of the event, speech, or interview on audio tapes.
Sound Recordings consist of broadcast recordings, monitoring recordings, off-air recordings, and music recordings. Broadcast recordings of
RFE/RL broadcasts were captured either in the studio or direct from a transmitter. They constitute the defining record of
what RFE/RL committed to air. Typical content includes news reports, interviews, speeches, sermons, dramatic programming,
and music. Monitoring recordings represent radio broadcasts other than RFE/RL that were monitored on a radio in the RFE/RL
office and recorded to tape. Off-air recordings are raw captures of interviews, speeches, literary readings, music performances,
etc. that would have been edited for use on future broadcasts. Music recordings are predominantly commercially issued popular,
classical, and folk releases collected for on-air play; they are sometimes called a service’s “music library.” It is important
to note that music related broadcast programming, such as the Romanian Language Service’s “Metronome” program, are considered
broadcast recordings since they contain whole programs as they were heard on air.
While part of the larger whole, each language service operated independently, with different practices regarding programming
logs, the labeling of tapes etc. Nearly all services reused tapes in an effort to conserve resources, particularly in the
early years. Consequently, it is not uncommon for a language service to be missing sound recordings in multi-year spans, in
some cases with significant gaps on the order of decades. Scripts are generally a more complete resource than recordings,
which are usually scattered across time; scripts of early RFE programming are available on microfilm or paper even when no
recordings may exist. Scripts are also available for many of the extant broadcast recordings and can serve as an index to
their content. If an item of interest is found in a script, the date of that script can be used to search for a sound recording
of the same date. This is the most convenient way to approach the resordings, as most have not been indexed for content. In
some cases, as with the Polish service, a database can be used to find appropriate sound recordings.
From its earliest days through August 1995, when the radios adopted logging media to record all transmitters at once, nearly
all recorded sound produced or recorded by RFE/RL was captured on ¼” open reel tape. Exceptions include an early set of Crusade
for Freedom recordings on lacquer disc and particular services capturing limited broadcast runs, raw interview footage, and/or
varying production elements on cassette and cartridge tape. Cassette, DAT and MiniDisc served this same purpose in the years
From August 24, 1995 through October 31, 2006, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty committed its broadcast recordings to multi-channel
logging media. Recordings of programs broadcast August 24, 1995 through August 26, 1999 are saved on VHS tapes encoded using
Racal Wordsafe machines while recordings broadcast September 25, 1999 through October 31, 2006 are on DDS tapes encoded using
an RCS Tracker system. Both systems recorded multiple concurrent tracks of audio, capturing on one tape the content of several
different transmitters. The Racal Wordsafe system captured twelve concurrent tracks, each 25 hours in duration, meaning each
tape has the potential to hold 300 hours of content. Tape is not the only storage mechanism for audio recorded using the RCS
Tracker system – it created audio files independent of tape, to be saved in whatever manner the user preferred – however tape
(DDS in this case) was the method chosen by RFE/RL. Each tape contains upward of eight concurrent tracks; multiple decks operated
simultaneously affording the capture of all operating transmitters. The reader should note that, for inventory purposes, tapes
from this period are counted as single physical items despite containing multiple recordings from different language services.
Consequently, the sound recordings from this era – see
Multiple Language Services sound recordings series description – constitute 6,809 physical items rather than the 55,800 audio recordings.
The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in
the library's online public access catalog.
Radio Free Europe.
Radio Liberty (Munich, Germany)
Radio broadcasting, Europe, Eastern.
Radio broadcasting, Soviet Union.