Guide to the Flaherty Collection: Japanese Internment Records

SJSU Library Special Collections & Archives
San Jose State University Library
Special Collections & Archives
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
One Washington Square
San Jose, CA 95192-0028
Phone: (408) 808-2061
Fax: (408) 808-2063
Email: specialcollections@sjsu.edu
URL: http://library.sjsu.edu/sjsu-special-collections/sjsu-special-collections-and-archives
© 2006
San Jose State University. All rights reserved.

Guide to the Flaherty Collection: Japanese Internment Records

MSS-2006-05-02

SJSU Special Collections & Archives
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
San José State University
One Washington Square
San José, CA 95192-0028
Phone: (408) 808-2062
Fax: (408) 808-2063
Email: special.collections@sjsu.edu
URL: http://library.sjsu.edu/sjsu-special-collections/sjsu-special-collections-and-archives
Processed by:
Russell Rader
Date Completed:
2006
Encoded by:
Russell Rader
© 2005 Trustees of the California State University. All rights reserved.

Collection Summary

Title: Flaherty Collection: Japanese Internment Records
Date (bulk): 1921-1966, bulk 1942
Accession number: MSS-2006-02
Creator: Fullerton, Colonel Hugh T.

United States. Army. Western Defense Command and Fourth Army.

United States. Wartime Civil Control Administration

United States. War Relocation Authority

Collector: Flaherty, John Melvin

San José State College
Collection Size: 1-3inch flat-box, 4 cartons, 2 oversized boxes (11 linear feet)
Repository: San José State University Library, Special Collections & Archives
San José, California 95192-0028
Abstract: The War Relocation Authority (WRA), together with the Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA), the Civil Affairs Division (CAD) and the Office of the Commanding General (OFG) of the Western Defense Command (WDC) operated together to segregate and house some 110,000 men women and children from 1942 to 1945. The collection contains documents and photographs relating to the establishment and administrative workings of the (WDC), the (WRA) and the (WCCA) for the year 1942.
Physical location:

Vault 1, Range 20B
Languages:

Languages represented in the collection: English

Access

Collection is open for research.

Publication Rights

Copyright has not been assigned to the San José State University Library Special Collections & Archives. All requests for permission to publish or quote manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Director of Special Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Special Collections & Archives as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the reader. Copyright restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files from or derived from these collections is restricted to research and educational purposes.

Preferred Citation

Flaherty Collection: Japanese Internment Records, San José State University Library, Special Collections & Archives.

Acquisition Information

The bulk of this artificial collection was donated to the SJSU Special Collections by John Melvin Flaherty, Jr. The remainder of the collection was compiled by SJSC library staff.

Processing Information

Processing and guide prepared by Russell Rader, reviewed by Danelle Moon. Guide encoded by Russell Rader, 2006

Custodial History

It appears that the bulk of Flaherty Collection was initially part of a larger group of documents collected and maintained by Colonel Hugh T. Fullerton of the Western Defence Command. Colonel Fullerton gave the documents to John Melvin Flaherty, Jr. with instructions to distribute the collection of material to the libraries of San José State College and Stanford University.

Biography / Administrative History

On February 19, 1942 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 providing broad powers for the War Department to create exclusion zones and to initiate an evacuation program for the Western Defense Command (WDC). Under the leadership of General John Dewitt of the WDC, the Civil Affairs Division (CAD) and the Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA) were created in order to provide for the transition of voluntary evacuees, enemy aliens and United States citizens alike, from exclusion areas to other parts of the country. The failure of the voluntary evacuation plan led President Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 9102, which established the civilian run War Relocation Authority (WRA). The WRA was mandated to institute enforced evacuations. Due to the recalcitrance of states on the interior of the country to accept the Japanese evacuees or to provide for their safety, the WRA also constructed internment centers in order to house the evacuees. Between 1942-1945 the WRA, the WCCA, the CAD and the Office of the Commanding General of the Western Defense Command segregated and housed approximately 110,000 Japanese-American men, women and children.
Though the initial exclusion plan put forth by General Dewitt included both German and Italian citizens, the Japanese Americans bore the brunt of Executive Order 9066.

Bibliography and references cited

Baker, Lillian. American and Japanese Relocation in World War II : Fact, Fiction, and Fallacy. (Medford, OR: Webb Research Group, 1990)

City of San José Commission on the Internment of Local Japanese Americans. With Liberty and Justice for All: The Story of San José's Japanese Community. (San José, Calif. Distributed by the Santa Clara County Board of Supervisors, 1985).

Flaherty, John Melvin, Jr. The Decision to Evacuate and Intern the Japanese Residing on the Pacific Coast of the United States during World War II. (Unpublished masters thesis, California State University, San José, 1973)

Nishimoto, Richard S. Inside an American Concentration Camp : Japanese American Resistance at Poston, Arizona. Lane Ryo Hirabayashi (Ed.). (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995)

Smith, P. Democracy on Trial: the Japanese American Evacuation and Relocation in World War II. (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1995)

United States War Department. Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942 : Final Report/ United States Department of War. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 1978)

Weglyn, Michi. Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps. (New York: Morrow, 1976)

Related Material

Scope and Content of Collection

This artificial collection consists of documents and photographs relating to the establishment and administrative workings of the Western Defense Command (WDC), the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and the Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA) for the year 1942. It includes administrative policies, orders, manuals, correspondence, statistics, posters, photographs and newspaper clippings. The bulk of this collection documents the activities of 1942 but materials in series IV cover other time periods.

Arrangement

This collection is broken down into 5 series; Series I: War Relocation Authority; Series II: Wartime Civilian Control Administration; Series III: Western Defense Command; Series IV: Printed Matter and Series V: Japanese Internment Photograph Album
Within each series, folders have been given titles that often use abbriviations in place of full organizational names.

Abbreviation List

ATD
Alaska Travel Division
CAD
Civil Affairs Division
EOD
Evacuation Operations Division
OCG
Office of the Commanding General
SSB
Special Services Branch
WCCA
Wartime Civilian Control Administration
WDC
Western Defense Command
WRA
War Relocation Authority

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index similar items in the Library Of Congress

Subjects and Indexing Terms

United States. Army. Western Defense Command.
United States. Wartime Civil Control Administration
United States. War Relocation Authority
World War, 1939-1945 -- California
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945
World War, 1939-1945 -- Evacuation of civilians


Collection Contents

Box 1

Series I War Relocation Authority 1942

Physical Description: 7 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series is arranged alphabetically and is deliniated by division name, document type and date. This series documents the formation of the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and the internal workings of the agency including administrative memos and reports concerning the operation of the internment camps for the year 1942. In addition, bibliographies and reports compiled by the WRA examining the cultural background of Japanese Americans as well as an interview between the Director of the Colorado River Relocation Project and its Supply and Transportation Officer following a camp protest are included.
Folder 1-4

Administrative instructions 1942

Folder 1

Administrative manual 1942

Folder 2

Administrative notices 1942

Folder 3

Circulars 1942

Folder 4

Memoranda/Miscellaneous 1942

Folder 5

Legal authorizations 1942

Folder 6

Press briefings releases and statements 1942

Folder 7

Miscellaneous studies and center collected information 1942

Box 2

Series II Wartime Civilian Control Administration 1942

Physical Description: 18 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series is arranged alphabetically and is deliniated by division name, document type and date. Folders 16 and 17 are organized by their "transfer order number". This series is comprised of bulletins, circulars, memoranda, administrative notices, general, evacuation and transfer orders as well as public proclamations and exclusion orders issued by the Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA) in 1942.
Folder 8

ATD/administrative instructions/memoranda/miscellaneous 1942

Folder 9

EOD/reports and statistics/operations progress chart 1942

Folder 10-13

Instructions and regulations 1942

Folder 10

Miscellaneous/ March-June 1942

Folder 11

Miscellaneous/ July-October 1942

Folder 12

Operations manual 1942

Folder 13

Security manual 1942

Folder 14

Legal authorizations 1942

Folder 15-17

Orders 1942

Folder 15

Administrative 1942

Folder 16

Transfer 1-19 1942

Folder 17

Transfer 20-29 1942

Folder 18

Personnel/ Administrative instructions/Memoranda/Miscellaneous 1942

Folder 19

Reports and statistics/Japanese surname master list 1942

Folder 20-22

SSB/reports and statistics 1942

Folder 20

Daily recapitulation report.June 15 - August 2 1942

Folder 21

Daily recapitulation report. August 3 - September 27 1942

Folder 22

Daily recapitulation report. September 28 - November 3 1942

Folder 23-25

Statistical Division/ Reports and statistics 1942

Folder 23

Bulletins and reports 1942

Folder 24

Exclusion orders and camp locations 1942

Folder 25

Index of cities and towns in military areas 1942

Box 3

Series III Western Defense Command 1942

Physical Description: 13 folders and 2 oversized boxes

Scope and Content Note

This series is arranged alphabetically and is deliniated by division name, document type and date. This series is comprised of bulletins, circulars, memoranda, administrative notices, instructions and regulations (for camps and centers), reports and statistics, public notices, legal authorizations, press releases, evacuation proposals, exclusion orders and evacuation instructions, proclamations and blank camp forms. In addition, boxes 4 and 5 contain oversized materials which include exclusion orders, evacuation instructions, exclusion area maps and a population graph. The documents in folders 29 and 30 were put together by the WCCA Statistical Division for Lieutenant Colonel Ira K. Evans.
Folder 26-31

CADCAD 1942

Folder 26

Administrative instructions/Memoranda/Exclusions and evacuations/ March -April 1942

Folder 27

Administrative instructions/Memoranda/Exclusions and evacuations/ May - September 1942

Folder 28

Administrative instructions/Memoranda/Miscellaneous 1942

Folder 29

Proclamations, forms, statistical bulletins, press releases 1942

Folder 30

Exclusion orders and instructions 1942

Folder 31

Photographs 1942

Folder 32-38

OCG 1942

Folder 32

Administrative instructions/memoranda/Evacuation and transfer orders 1942

Folder 33

Administrative instructions/memoranda/Miscellaneous 1942

Folder 34

Correspondence 1942

Folder 35

Orders/General 1942

Folder 36

Civilian restrictive orders 1942

Folder 37

Public proclamations and exclusion orders 1 of 2 1942

Folder 38

Public proclamations and exclusion orders 2 of 2 1942

Box 4

Oversized/Civilian exclusion orders 1942

Box 5

Oversized/ Evacuation instructions, exclusion area maps, population graph 1942

Box 6

Series VI Printed Matter 1935-1945 1921 1947 1948 1966

Physical Description: 7 folders

Scope and Content Note

This series is arranged alphabetically and is deliniated by division name, document type and date. This series is comprised of senate bills and reports, press releases, speeches and excerpts of speeches from a variety of government representatives and private individuals as well as publications advocating for and against Japanese Americans and their civil rights. Of note, is a hand written letter concerning naturalization of Japanese Americans (in Miscellaneous) and the publications produced in the internment camps.
Folder 39-40

Bills and reports 1942

Folder 39

National Defense Migration 4th Interim Report 1942

Folder 40

U.S. and CA. senates’ reports 1942 1944 1945 1947

Folder 41

Government and private publications 1921 1938-1945 1966

Folder 42

Miscellaneous 1942 1943 1948

Folder 43-44

Speeches, official statements, press releases 1935 1936 1939 1942-1945

Folder 43

California Joint Immigration Committee 1935 1936 1939

Folder 44

Miscellaneous 1942-1945 1935

Folder 45

Relocation Center Publications 1942 1943

Box 7

Series V Japanese Internment Photograph Album 1942-1945

Physical Description: 1 photo album (149 photographs)

Scope and Content Note

This series contains photographs, taken from multiple sources, depicting a variety of activities undertaken by the Japanese evacuees from their initial registration at Civilian Control Centers, to their lives at the assembly centers and finally their evacuation to the internment camps (Relocation Centers). Of note is a photograph of a soldier posting exclusion order #1 that affected the Japanese living on Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, Washington. The compiler of the album is not stated.

Assembly Centers pictured
Santa Anita

Pomona,

Fresno

Stockton

Sacramento

Turlock

Puyallup

Long Beach

Salinas

Civilians Control Stations/ Reception centers pictured
Visala

Sanger

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Manzanar

War Relocation Centers pictured
Heart Mountain

Granada