Inventory of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners Records

Finding aid written by Sara Kuzak
California State Archives
1020 "O" Street
Sacramento, California 95814
Phone: (916) 653-2246
Fax: (916) 653-7363
Email: ArchivesWeb@sos.ca.gov
URL: http://www.sos.ca.gov/archives/
© 2009
California Secretary of State. All rights reserved.

Inventory of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners Records

Record Group number: R381, F2810

California State Archives

Office of the Secretary of State

Sacramento, California

Contact Information:

  • California State Archives
  • 1020 "O" Street
  • Sacramento, California 95814
  • Phone: (916) 653-2246
  • Fax: (916) 653-7363
  • Email: ArchivesWeb@sos.ca.gov
  • URL: http://www.sos.ca.gov/archives/
Processed by: Sara Kuzak
Date Completed: 2009
Encoded by: Sara Kuzak
© 2009 California Secretary of State. All rights reserved.

Descriptive Summary

Title: Board of Chiropractic Examiners Records
Dates: 1911-2000
Collection number: R381, F2810
Creator: California. Board of Chiropractic Examiners
Extent: 10 cubic feet
Repository: California State Archives
Sacramento, California
Abstract: The records of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners document California's efforts to establish professional standards to regulate the chiropractic profession in California. This record group contains 9 cubic feet of textual records from 1911 to 2000 and are organized into the following series: meeting minutes, meeting files, license files, license indexes, school accreditation files, administrative files, examinations, applications, correspondence, and investigative reports.
Physical location: California State Archives
Language: English

Administrative Information

Access

While the majority of the records are open for research, any access restrictions are noted in the record series descriptions.

Publication Rights

For permission to reproduce or publish, please contact the California State Archives. Permission for reproduction or publication is given on behalf of the California State Archives as the owner of the physical items. The researcher assumes all responsibility for possible infringement which may arise from reproduction or publication of materials from the California State Archives collections.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Board of Chiropractic Examiners Records, R381.[series number], [box and folder number], California State Archives, Office of the Secretary of State, Sacramento, California.

Acquisition Information

The California State Archives acquired the records of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners through a series of records transfers over several years.

Agency History

The State Board of Chiropractic Examiners was established in 1922. Prior to the creation of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners, the Board of Medical Examiners regulated chiropractors in California. The eight hundred or so practicing chiropractors in California at the time felt that the Board of Medical Examiners did not accept their alternative philosophy and methods. As a result, many chiropractors were not granted medical licenses to practice because they did not possess the required medical education or were not able to pass the medical examination. In the November 7, 1922 General Election, fifty-nine percent of California voters passed ballot measure sixteen, the Chiropractic Initiative Act of California. The Board of Chiropractic Examiners became effective on December 21, 1922. In addition to establishing the Board of Chiropractic Examiners and declaring its powers and duties, the Chiropractic Initiative Act prescribed the terms upon which licenses may be issued to chiropractic practitioners, set penalties for license violations, and repealed all acts and parts of acts inconsistent with the new measure.
The Board of Chiropractic Examiners remained an independent entity within state government until 1946 when it was added to the Department of Professional and Vocational Standards. Chapter 1394 of the Statutes of 1970 changed the name of the Department of Professional and Vocational Standards to the Department of Consumer Affairs in order to describe more fully the department's primary purpose of protecting the health, safety, and welfare of California's consumers. Effective March 1, 1976, the Board of Chiropractic Examiners withdrew from the Department of Consumer Affairs and once again became an independent agency under the direct supervision of the Governor's Office.
Initially, the Board of Chiropractic Examiners consisted of five members appointed by the Governor. Board members were required to have graduated from an approved chiropractic school or college and served either a one, two, or three-year term. A measure or resolution could be adopted by an affirmative vote from three board members. The board elected a president, vice president, and secretary from the members of the board, until 1949 when Chapter 151 allowed the board to assign a secretary that did not have to be member of the board. Chapter 151 also expanded the board's authority to determine minimum requirements for teachers in chiropractic schools and colleges and approve chiropractic schools and colleges whose graduates may apply for license in California. Moreover, Chapter 151 set new minimum requirements for chiropractic students by increasing the number of course hours and years of education. Through Chapter 151, the board also gained consent to employ staff to carry out investigations and clerical work. To support the expanding board, the license renewal fee increased from two dollars each year to an amount set by the board that could range from two to ten dollars annually. In 1959, Chapter 1768 transferred the authority to set the dollar amounts for fees payable by licensees and applicants from the board to the legislature.
In 1971, Chapter 1755 extended the term a board member could serve to four years. The legislation also defined the examination process and content in law. The board would be required to administer at least two examinations annually. The examination would consist of written, oral, and practical components covering chiropractic as taught in chiropractic schools or colleges. Funds gathered from examination and license renewal fees would be reported to the State Controller and deposited with the State Treasurer who maintained a special fund known as the "State Board of Chiropractic Examiners' Fund". The monies in this fund would only be used for expenses related to the duties of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners. Chapter 1755 also eliminated the requirement that all licensed chiropractors record their license with the county clerk, which lists would be available for public inspection.

Scope and Content

The records of the Board of Chiropractic Examiners document California's efforts to establish professional standards to regulate the chiropractic profession in California. This record group contains 9 cubic feet of textual records from 1911 to 2000 and are organized into the following series: meeting minutes, meeting files, license files, license indexes, school accreditation files, administrative files, examinations, applications, correspondence, and investigative reports.
The meeting minutes and meeting files provide detailed transcripts of board meetings throughout the Board of Chiropractic Examiners' existence. This series reveals the discussion and decision-making processes of the board in creating the examinations and regulating licensed chiropractors and chiropractic colleges. Additionally, meetings allowed the board to discuss national trends in the chiropractic profession to ensure that California's standards remained current. With the invention of new technologies and advances in chiropractic treatments in the twentieth century, the board continually reviewed and discussed if and how to incorporate this new information into their exams and teaching curriculum.
The license files, license indexes, and school accreditation files show the implementation and enforcement of the board's policies and standards. Researchers interested in a particular chiropractor or chiropractic college may find valuable biographical or historical information in these series. The License Indexes show how the board maintained accurate lists of active and inactive chiropractors in California.
The examinations series contains the Board of Chiropractic Examiners' professional examinations from 1930-1970. Analysis of these exams can show the evolution of chiropractic theory and methodology over forty years. The examinations also reveal the level of medical knowledge required to be a licensed doctor of chiropractic in California during the middle of the twentieth century.
Further accruals are expected.

Subjects

California. Board of Chiropractic Examiners
Chiropractic Law and legislation
Chiropractic Vocational guidance


Series Descriptions

R381.001, Box 1, folder 1 - Box 2, folder 3

Series 1. Meeting Minutes 1923-1988

Physical Description: 16 file folders and 6 audiotape.

Arrangement

Arranged chronologically by meeting date.

Access Information

Access to audiovisual material requires the production of use copies.

Scope and Content Note

Meeting minutes contain the meeting minutes from the Board of Chiropractic Examiners. Minutes include the date and location of the meeting and list of board members present. Meetings allowed the board the opportunity to review as a group the prior meeting's minutes, chiropractor licenses, and school accreditation applications. The Board also discussed regulations, legislation, and the state board examination for chiropractors at their meetings. Minutes from 1978-1979 are only available on audiocassette tapes. For Minutes after 1989 see the Meeting Files series.
R381.002, Box 2, folder 4 - Box 3, folder 14

Series 2. Meeting Files 1989-1992

Physical Description: 51 file folders

Arrangement

Arranged chronologically by meeting date.

Access Information

Closed session files in this series are RESTRICTED because they contain records of complaints to, or investigations conducted and compiled by a state agency for licensing purposes and are restricted per California Government Code section 6254 (f).
Those materials in this collection created more than 75 years ago are open without restriction; for access to other materials, please consult a reference archivist.

Scope and Content Note

For each meeting date the Board of Chiropractic Examiners held a closed session and an open session. During the open session, the board approved the actions taken in closed session and the minutes of the prior board meeting. As a result, meeting minutes are typically found in the following meeting's file. The board also discussed regulations, election of officers, disciplinary guidelines, and education requirements. Meeting files contain notes, agendas, minutes, memoranda, correspondence, meeting handouts, and executive director's reports.
The records of the closed sessions are restricted due to their investigatory and disciplinary nature. During the closed sessions the board would review disciplinary cases brought against licensed chiropractors and decide their penalty. Also during closed session, the board would confer with legal counsel and discuss the licensure examination including exam content and approval of examination commissioners. The closed session files are stamped "restricted".
R381.003, Box 3, folder 15 - Box 7, folder 7

Series 3. License Files 1928-2000

Physical Description: 195 file folders

Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by last name.

Access Information

This series is RESTRICTED because the files contain confidential personal information about the applicants, which is restricted per California Civil Code section 1798.
Those materials in this collection created more than 75 years ago are open without restriction; for access to other materials, please consult a reference archivist.

Scope and Content Note

The Board of Chiropractic Examiners created this series of license files for chiropractors that died between 1990-2000. The files contain applications, diplomas, educational records, license renewal receipts, correspondence, and photographs of the applicant. In some instances, a death certificate was sent to the Board of Chiropractic Examiners and can be found in the file.
Appendix A is an alphabetical name index for this series. It is also restricted from use by researchers and should only be used by archivists.
R381.004, Box 7, folder 8 - Box 7, folder 11

Series 4. License Indexes 1923-1980

Physical Description: 4 file folder and 6 volumes.

Arrangement

Arranged chronologically by the date the license was granted.

Access Information

This series is RESTRICTED because the files contain confidential personal information about the applicants, which is restricted per California Civil Code section 1798.
Those materials in this collection created more than 75 years ago are open without restriction; for access to other materials, please consult a reference archivist.

Scope and Content Note

License indexes include registers of chiropractors that gained licenses through reciprocity from other states. Indexes also include a list of chiropractors that were reinstated between 1967 and 1975.
R381.004(1-2) Two volumes list chiropractic licenses starting with number one issued in February 1923 through license number 11041 issued on November 8, 1973. The license registers list the name of the chiropractor, license number, date of examination, type of examination, and date of death. Volume 1 also contains the board's "History of Licenses" that includes examination statistics gathered by the board.
R381.004(3) One unbound, oversized "Register of Chiropractic Licenses" issued from 1923 to 1937. May also include the licensee's name, type of exam, school, exam state, reciprocal state, date revoked, date deceased, date delinquent, and date reinstated.
R381.004(4) "Reciprocity Data" contains names of chiropractors granted reciprocity from 1925 to 1970. The data is arranged by state.
R381.004(5) "Name Change Index" contains the original name, license number, and changed name of chiropractors that had name changes from 1923 to 1970.
R381.004(6) The first six pages of this volume contains the "Registry of Chiropractic Nurses" (1958-1959) and includes the name, address, date of birth, place of birth, school of graduation, and date of graduation. The remainder of the volume contains a "Chiropractor Examination Register, Applications Pending, Abandoned Applications, and Prior Grading System" (1948-1980).
R381.005, Box 7, folder 12 - Box 9, folder 11

Series 5. School Accreditation Files 1911-1970

Physical Description: 50 file folders

Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by school name.

Scope and Content Note

School accreditation files contain the records submitted by chiropractic colleges and universities to the California Board of Chiropractic Examiners in order to be reviewed and accredited by the board. The files can contain curriculum catalogs, pamphlets, correspondence, reports, newspaper clippings, photographs, and newsletters. In many instances the files contain copies of the university or college's articles of incorporation that were filed with the California Secretary of State. This series contains files for schools in California as well as other states; however, it does not have a file on every chiropractic school in California or the United States.
R381.006, Box 9, folders 12-17

Series 6. Administrative Files 1923-1992

Physical Description: 6 file folders and one volume

Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Scope and Content Note

Administrative files consist of annual reports (1923, 1978), Directory of Chiropractors (1985-1989), an accounting ledger (1923-1945), orientation manual from the Department of Consumer Affairs (1969), regulatory hearing file (1992), and sample forms (1964-1970). The newly created Department of Consumer Affairs gave the orientation manual to the Board of Chiropractic Examiners in 1969. The manual provides information on the historical background and administrative organization of the Department of Consumer Affairs as well as policies and procedures that the boards, bureaus, committees, and commissions should follow as regulatory bodies of professional licenses in California. The regulatory hearing file contains memoranda and correspondence regarding a hearing held on June 19, 1992 on unprofessional conduct. The sample forms contain procedural instructions in addition to copies of the forms that were used for various administrative activities including assembling applications, holding administrative hearings, issuing licenses, listing of approved textbooks, etc. The accounting ledger is in an oversized bound volume R381.006(1).
R381.007

Series 7.  Examinations 1930-1970

Physical Description: 6 volumes

Arrangement

Arranged chronologically by date of exam.

Access Information

Records in this series that are less than 75 years old are restricted under the California Public Records Act, Government Code section 6254(g) because they contain test questions and scoring keys used to administer a licensing examination.

Scope and Content Note

Questions and answers to the Board of Chiropractic Examiners examinations are bound into six volumes. Volumes contain the location and date of examination as well as all exam questions and answers for each section of the examination.
Volume 1, January 1930 - January 1940 R381.007(1)
Volume 2, July 1941 - July 1950 R381.007(2)
Volume 3, July 1951 - January 1958 R381.007(3)
Volume 4, July 1958 - January 1965 R381.007(4)
Volume 5, July 1965 - July 1965 R381.007(5)
Volume 6, November 1968 - March 1970 R381.007(6)
F2810

Series 8.  Applications 1923-1942

Physical Description: 4 file folders

Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by applicant's surname.

Access Information

This series is RESTRICTED because the files contain confidential personal information about the applicants, which is restricted per California Civil Code section 1798.
Those materials in this collection created more than 75 years ago are open without restriction; for access to other materials, please consult a reference archivist.

Scope and Content Note

Applications contain correspondence, photographs, applications, licenses, and diplomas. See License Files series, R381.003, for similar files.
F2810

Series 9.  Correspondence 1922-1954

Physical Description: 5 file folders

Arrangement

Arranged alphabetically by corresponding office.

Scope and Content Note

Correspondence series contains General Correspondence (2ff), Correspondence with the Governor's Office (1ff), and Correspondence with the Medical Board (2ff). Within the General Correspondence are numerous letters to and from the Council of Chiropractic Examining Boards of the U.S. and Canada and the International Chiropractic Congress. Also included are reports from the Council of Chiropractic Examining Boards and minutes from their 1939 meeting. Correspondence between the Board of Chiropractic Examiners and various chiropractors seeking advice or information from the board are also included in the general correspondence.
F2810

Series 10.  Investigative Reports 1956-1957

Physical Description: 1 file folder

Arrangement

Arranged in reverse chronological order by report date.

Access Information

This series is RESTRICTED because it contains records of complaints to, or investigations conducted and compiled by a state agency for licensing purposes and are restricted per California Government Code section 6254 (f).
Those materials in this collection created more than 75 years ago are open without restriction; for access to other materials, please consult a reference archivist.

Scope and Content Note

Weekly reports submitted to the board from special investigators investigating licensed and unlicensed chiropractors in California. Chiropractors under investigation have been accused of various illegal activities.