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Guide to the Okhrana records
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Index XXIVc, Folder 2q

Activities of Bakai's revolutionary police in Paris

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2r

Burtsev's and Bakai's claims that they have access to the police department of St. Petersburg 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2s

Burtsev's man Segal as an Okhrana agent 1909-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2t

Report on Burtsev's attempts to penetrate the Okhrana 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 2u

Reports on Burtsev's exposure of agent Mass through a St. Petersburg source 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVc, Folder 3

Reference: See the notes in double agent Berg's folder in XIa, folder 2d

Box: 212

d. Documentation of revolutionary agents

Scope and Contents Note

The documents in this file consist of incoming and outgoing dispatches and raw agent reports covering the period from 1894 to 1916. The Russian revolutionaries abroad were in constant need of documents and passports in order to maintain contact with their co-conspirators in Russia.
Passports were either stolen from Russian consulates abroad or purchased illegally from minor consular officials. Passports and other official documents and stamps were also produced in revolutionary printing shops. Another method of obtaining passports for illegal use was for one to be reported missing to consular officials in order to receive a new passport while the "lost" document then became ''available" after some alterations. A factor that helped the revolutionaries greatly in their forging operations was that no photograph of the legal owner was contained in the Russian domestic or foreign passports of that period. During the war there was a brisk trade in forged military service exemption certificates abroad.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to the documentation of revolutionary agents 1894-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2a

Circulars pertaining to the theft of passport blanks and government stamps by revolutionaries in Russia 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2b

Request for instructions on how to handle possible fraudulent requests for new passports 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2c

Illegal use of a passport by a London anarchist 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2d

Geneva Russian consulate employee Lilin stole a large supply of passport blanks 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2e

Basel as the center for false Russian passports 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2f

Dispatches from the Russian consulate in Berlin about the use of passport blanks by the revolutionaries 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 2g

Sale of false passports blanks in revolutionary circles in Paris 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVd, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVd, Folder 4

Reference: For a list of passports, seals, and personal documents, see circular no. 145031/382, November 18, 1916, in XIIId(2), folder 61

Box: 212

e. Propaganda outlets

Scope and Contents Note

Revolutionary propaganda outlets involved the smuggling of propaganda materials into Russia, their storage and distribution both in Russia and abroad, public lectures and rallies, and the planting of anti-government articles in the foreign press. During the war, revolutionary propaganda was distributed among Russian prisoners of war in Germany and Austria. All of these aspects of propaganda are reflected in the documents under this classification. Also see Index Numbers VIIIb, XVIIt, and XXIVh for further source materials.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 392-393
Index XXIVe, Folder 1

Dispatches and other papers pertaining to revolutionary propaganda outlets 1886-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 392
Index XXIVe, Folder 2a

Placard in French calling for a protest meeting of behalf of Burtsev 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2b

Organization of an "Information Bureau" in Berlin for keeping the socialist press abroad informed on happenings in Russia 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2c

Report on Social Democratic propaganda outlets in St. Petersburg 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2d

Obituaries for three revolutionary martyrs 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2e

Report on the editor of an anti-militarist newspaper in Genoa 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2f

Clippings from French and British press containing articles on behalf of the revolutionaries 1908-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2g

Smuggling of propaganda into Russia from London 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2h

Russian teachers' excursions into Europe and their exposure to revolutionary propaganda 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2i

Opening of the Université Populaire Russe à Paris 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2j

Report on attempts by revolutionaries to propagandize the crew of the Russian battleship "Slava" in Toulon 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2k

Zurich Socialist Revolutionary group dispatching propaganda to Russia 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2l

Publication of Bakai's brochure in New York 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2m

Socialist Revolutionaries in Constantinople engaged in smuggling illegal literature into Russia 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2n

Publication of special material in Brussels for propaganda among Russian army officers 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2o

Report that Burtsev is to be sued for slander in Paris 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2p

Report on shipment of illegal literature into Russia 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2q

Article in Belgian newspaper La peuple, with a Russian translation, exposing 29 names of Okhrana agents 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2r

Burtsev's exposure of Bint and Sambain and the Feuger blackmail case 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2s

Leftist press against the Okhrana and Krasil'nikov's survey 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2t

Leaflets on the Zimmerwald Conference in French and Russian 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2u

Article on the Russian occupation of Galicia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2v

Report on the transportation of political contraband across the Prussian border

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 2w

"Vers la dissolution de la Douma," article for the French press

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVe, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 212

f. Liaison with European leftist groups

Scope and Contents Note

The dispatches and raw reports included in this file, covering the period between 1902 and 1916, indicate that the Russian revolutionary movement abroad did involve liaison with German Social Democrats, Italian, anarchists, and French socialists. Liaison was maintained for purposes of influencing foreign governments in favor of the Russian revolutionary cause and to obtain material support for the revolutionaries. Parliamentary representatives of leftist foreign political groups were engaged for interpellations and to prod the governments against the Okhrana. The Russian revolutionary movement gained some influential friends among foreign leftist writers and politicians: Anatole France, Rebel, Jean Jaure`s, and others.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1a

Papers pertaining to intelligence and other underground liaison with French, German, and Italian socialist and anarchist groups 1902-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1b

Agent Woltz's surveillance reports on Benito Mussolini and various French, Bulgarian, and Serbian revolutionaries 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1c

Exclusion of police agents from Masonic lodges 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 1d

Minutes of the meeting of the French Socialist Committee of Action 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVf, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 212

g. Early types of communist front organizations among Russian émigrés

Scope and Contents Note

Revolutionaries, particularly the Social Democrats, developed the practices of joining non-political associations of the émigrés for the purpose of converting them to their own political orientation and aims. A score of professional, cultural, and other societies started by the Russians abroad thus became tools and convenient spokesmen of the Marxists, i. e. the prototypes of the subsequent communist front organizations. This collection is fairly representative of the category. Some such organizations were founded by the revolutionaries with the outright purpose of supporting their aims, but under such names as "Committee for Russian Prisoners and Exiles," "Fund for Free Press," and other headings appealing for support on humane or democratic grounds. Organizations such as "Mutual Assistance Funds," "Student Unions," "International Women's Conferences," the "Peace Movement," etc., all patterns for subsequent communist fronts, had among the prime movers such agitators as Lenin's wife Krupskaya and Alexandra Kollontai. The Council of Russian Seamen's Unions, with the secretariat in England, was under communist control from the very beginning of its existence.
The folders contain documents referring to still other organizations that started out or gradually became communist fronts, as for instance the "Union of Professional Russian Writers," the "Bibliotheque," or wartime organizations to help prisoners of war in Germany.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to organizations established by revolutionaries among émigrés for allegedly non-political purposes but serving Marxist or other revolutionary ends 1905-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 2

Dispatches and other materials 1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes a book of receipts, by-laws of the Union of Professional Writers from Russia, resolution on Aleksinskii, invitation forms, records of a collection for a sick comrade, correspondence, etc.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3a

Headquarters circular concerning the "London Fund for Free Press in Russia" 1894

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3b

The Peace League and Konni Zilliacus's trip to London 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3c

Subscribers' list of the Bibliothèque (international) 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3d

English language publication of the Committee to Help Political Prisoners 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3e

Dispatches and leaflets published by the Seamen's Union 1911-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3f

Russian students at Karlsruhe: meetings and resolutions 1910-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3g

Mutual assistance fund in Paris, the "Émigré Treasury" 1912-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3h

Circular on the International Women's Conference and delegate Krupskaya 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 3i

Society to Aid Prisoners of War in Germany and Austria 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 393
Index XXIVg, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 213

h. Smuggling to Russia of arms, publications, and revolutionaries

Scope and Contents Note

Arms smuggling into Russia, according to this collection of documents, was at its peak during the Russo-Japanese War and the upheavals at its aftermath, in 1905-1907. The bulk of this collection thus originated in that period. Chief Garting in Paris spread the network of agents against revolutionary smugglers to many European countries, concentrating particularly in northern and Italian ports. His liaison with security agencies and port authorities in various countries brought some good results. The revolutionaries who engaged in smuggling during the peak period were the Social Democrats (Bolsheviks) and the Bundists.
The first two folders of the collection, with chronological arrangement of the documents, from 1894 to 1915 contain various dispatches, raw reports, revolutionary agents, arms, and propaganda. Documents on smuggling illegal literature are at the end of the second folder.
Folder No. 3 has a complete record of Okhrana surveillance over gunrunning from Antwerp, one of the favorite ports for the revolutionaries in 1905 and 1906. In Folders Nos. 4 and 5, specific reports of the same period illustrate the efforts of Garting and his agents in various other European centers and include individual agents' and liaison reports in 1910.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 394-395
Index XXIVh, Folder 1

Dispatches, raw reports, and intelligence notes on smuggling agents, arms, etc. into Russia 1894-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 394
Index XXIVh, Folder 2

Dispatches, raw reports, and intelligence notes on smuggling agents, arms, etc. into Russia (contd.) 1907-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 394
Index XXIVh, Folder 3

Complete record of Okhrana surveillance over gunrunning from Antwerp 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reels 394-395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4a

Garting's report to Rataev regarding the organization of surveillance over illegal gunrunning in Berlin 1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4b

Berlin Okhrana office investigation of the production of hand grenades in Berlin 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4c

Garting's report on the Bund's funds for arms purchases, current methods and routes used by revolutionaries for smuggling arms and political propaganda into Russia, and proposals to control such contraband 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4d

Okhrana reports on gunrunning (arms trafficking) from Copenhagen 1905-1906

Index XXIVh, Folder 4e

Revolutionary arms shipments from various European ports 1905-1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4f

Arms shipments from Sweden 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4g

Garting reports on gunrunning (arms trafficking) in Germany, France, Belgium and attempts to enlist British customs service in control of revolutionary arms shipments 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4h

Sofronskii and Wallach (Litvinov) engaged in purchasing arms in Europe 1906

Scope and Contents note

Includes intercepted letters from Sofronskii

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4i

Garting's trip to Denmark and Sweden to investigate arms smuggling 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4j

Arms shipments from Hamburg 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4k

Krause's information about an alleged ring of terrorists in Dresden 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4l

Police Captain Grünweller of Lübeck, Germany, on arms smuggling 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 4m

Arms shipments from England 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5a

De Groot's reports on arms shipments from Rotterdam 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5b

Arms shipments from Italy

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5c

Arms shipments from Amsterdam 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5d

Wallach (Litvinov) in Berlin to engage in smuggling machine guns into Russia 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5e

Smuggling of arms through Mannheim 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5f

Surveillance over arms smuggling from Denmark and Sweden 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5g

Headquarters' comments on the uselessness of Garting's agents in discovering arms smuggling 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5h

Agent Sambain's reports on surveillance of smugglers in Stockholm 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5i

Agent Neuhaus's reports from Memel (Klaipeda) on ships suspected of smuggling arms 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5j

Agent Fontaine's reports from the German-Russian border 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5k

Agent Durin's reports on arms traffickers from Wirballen (Virbalis) 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5l

Movement of ships in Kiel suspected of arms trafficking 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5m

Engineer Buckland in London offers information on revolutionary arms smuggling 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 5n

Report on arms smuggling into Russia

Note

Available on microfilm reel 395
Index XXIVh, Folder 6

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 214

i. Terrorist techniques: bomb construction, deliveries, planning attacks, liberation of prisoners

Scope and Contents Note

Many revolutionary groups adopted terrorism as their principal strategy and tactic. They resorted to violence to the degree that terrorism became practically synonymous with revolution. A statistical table among the survey in this collection shows that in the period from October 1907 to May 1910, revolutionary bands in Russia perpetrated 23,044 terrorist acts, in which the number of officials and other persons killed was 4,322 and wounded 4, 465. These acts, particularly against important officials, were inspired or actually committed by the conspirators coming from abroad with arms. The purpose of assassination was not to exterminate officials known as oppressors of the people or tyrannical in their methods; there is evidence rather that the revolutionaries were more concerned about killing off the more competent and popular high officials in order to bring chaos in orderly government and confusion in the public.
The collection of dispatches and various other documents in Folder No. 1, arranged chronologically from 1887 to 1916, gives many specific cases; but taken as a whole, it shows the general trend of the conspiracies. The life of the Tsar was threatened more frequently than any other; he was spared before the revolution, but not so some of the members of his immediate family and members of his cabinet. The dispatches, raw reports, and newspaper clippings describe the planning of assassinations, plots, construction of bombs and work on explosives in the laboratories of the revolutionaries. The role of such important terrorist leaders as Gershuni, Savinkov, Chernov, Sazonov, Barthold, and Gots is described.
Folders Nos. 2 and 3 are listed in the inventory by specific documents. The role of Vera Figner's campaign to execute prison breaks in Russia is referred to in several documents. On the technique of bomb construction by Russian terrorists, see Volume I of the Prefecture de Police in Vb, Folder No. 6. For the role of terrorist leaders, see also the folders under Index Numbers XVIId, XVIIg, XVIIh, and XVIIi.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 396-400
Index XXIVi, Folder 1

Dispatches, notes, and newspaper clippings pertaining to revolutionary terrorist techniques 1887-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2a

Report on a plot to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) formulated in Geneva by Afanasiev and members of the Polish Socialist Revolutionary Party 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2b

Individuals intending to go to Russia to engage in terrorism 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2c

Petr Rutenberg accused of murdering Georgii Gapon 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2d

School for training terrorists in Krakow operated by the Polish Socialist Party 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2e

Newspaper clippings in German on bomb deposits of Russian terrorists in Berlin 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2f

Averted attempt on the life of the Dowager Empress Mariia Feodorovna 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2g

Assassins of General von Launitz 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2h

Newspaper clippings on terrorist acts and anarchists 1908-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2i

Rips's motives for attempting to assassinate Colonel von Kotten 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2j

Plot to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) in Poltava and a request to watch suspicious movements abroad 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2k

Report on the possible use of aircraft by revolutionaries to commit acts of terror in Russia 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2l

Formation of a Socialist Revolutionary strong arm unit in Sweden with the participation of Savinkov and Sletov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2m

Statistics on Russian government officials killed between 1907 and 1910 by Russian revolutionaries 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2n

Report on terrorist Boris Barthold 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2o

Formation of a Socialist Revolutionary strong arm detachment abroad 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 2p

Preparations for the murder of Stolypin and Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 396
Index XXIVi, Folder 3a

The governor general of Warsaw received an anonymous letter from Cologne exposing a plot against Tsar Nicholas II (Nikolai II) 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3b

A Paris group collaborates with the Socialist Revolutionary Party 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3c

Announcement of terrorists about an attempt on the life of a prison official in Russia 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3d

Storage place for bombs in Chita 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3e

Bomb explosion in a Liege theater 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3f

Case of Widmann in Berlin offering information about a planned act of terrorism 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3g

Formation of a Society for Active Assistance to Political Prisoners and Exiles in Paris, which is to help organize prison breaks 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3h

Bylaws of the Society for Struggle against Imprisonment and Exile for Political Activities 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3i

Boris Bathold planning to go to Russia on a terrorist mission 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3j

Appeal of the Krakow Union to Aid Political Prisoners for funds to organize prison breaks 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3k

Terrorist group for the murder of Kasso 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3l

Reaction of the German press to the assassination attempt on the Dowager Empress in Rostock 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3m

Attempt on the life of former Turkish minister Sherif Pasha (Serif Pasa) in Paris 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3n

Formation of leagues to support political prisoners in Russia by raising funds to organize prison breaks 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3o

Statement of Snezhkov on a plot to assassinate the tsar 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3p

The case of Kirishek and six other Russians accused of espionage, bomb construction, etc. 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3q

Hearings before the French tribunal in the case of Kirishek and four other Russian terrorists 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3r

List of documents found in the possession of Kirishek and other Russian anarchists on trial 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3s

A brief on Russian revolutionaries in France

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3t

Drawings for bomb construction with directions

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 3u

Revolutionary plan to assassinate Tsarina Mariia Feodorovna in London

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVi, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVi, Folder 5

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 71, 1904, on the assassination plot against Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XXIVi, Folder 6

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 94, 1904, on the assassination plot against Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(2), folder 4

Index XXIVi, Folder 7

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 1064, 1903, requesting information on the plans of the "Center" and the leaders of the Fighting Unit concerning the assassination of Minister Pleve, in XIIIc(3), folder 13

Index XXIVi, Folder 8

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 1085, 1903, ordering that Sazonov (the eventual assassin of Pleve) be kept under constant surveillance in Bern, in XIIIc(3), folder 13

Index XXIVi, Folder 9

Reference: See incoming telegram, June 17, 1904, on Finnish revolutionary sentiment and attitude toward the attempt on the life of Governor Bobrikov by a Finnish patient, in XIIIc(3), folder 16

Index XXIVi, Folder 10

Reference: See incoming telegram no. 329, 1904, announcing Pleve's assassination and a physical description of the assassin, in XIIIc(3), folder 17

Index XXIVi, Folder 10

Reference: For photographs of the types of bombs constructed by Russian revolutionaries, see Volume I of the books prepared by the French Sûreté, in Vb, folder 6

Box: 214

j. Training of terrorists and propagandists' schools

Scope and Contents Note

The documents included in this file cover the period from I906 to 1911 and pertain to Maksim Gorky's school on the island of Capri (1909), military training of revolutionaries in Paris (1907), the terrorist school in Paris (1910), the propagandists school organized by the Vpered (Leninist) group in Bologna (1910), the anarchist school in Paris (1911), and the first All-Party School of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party at Longjumeau (1911). Raw agent reports describe attempts to establish the whereabouts of Savinkov's terrorist training school (1911). Okhrana agent "Vladimirets," enrolled as a trainee in such a school describes the program of study and Lenin's participation in it. Several dispatches refer to the organization of military training by the revolutionaries in preparation of armed uprisings in Russia.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 1

Miscellaneous dispatches and raw reports on the indoctrination and training of terrorists and propagandists 1908-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2a

Circular letter describing a revolutionary program of training 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2b

Report on a military training school for revolutionaries in Paris 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2c

Maksim Gorky's school for revolutionaries on the island of Capri, Italy 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2d

Break of Lunacharsky (Lunacharskii) and Bogdanov with Gorky, whose Capri school had completely disintegrated 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2e

Students from the Capri school listening to Lenin's lectures in Paris 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2f

Establishment of a terrorist school in Paris 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2g

Propagandists' school of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in Bologna 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2h

Polish Socialist training school in Liege 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2i

Anarchist school in Paris 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2j

First All-Party School of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in Longjumeau 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2k

Okhrana penetration agent Vladimirets attending revolutionary training school in France 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 2l

Agent Borisov-Dmitriev's reports from Liege, searching for Savinkov's training center for terrorists 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVj, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 214-215

k. Infiltration of the armed forces

Scope and Contents Note

This collection consists of incoming and outgoing dispatches, raw reports, and revolutionary propaganda leaflets. The material deals with revolutionary propaganda among Russian soldiers and sailors as well as officers, both abroad and in Russia. In the folders are dispatches, cables, and agent reports about the attempted mutiny on the Imperial cruiser Askold, detailed reports concerning the uprising of Russian soldiers at Gamp Delorme near Marseille (August 1916) and revolutionary infiltration of seamen's unions, along with samples of revolutionary propaganda disseminated among Russian prisoners of war in Germany and Austria. The file also contains reports on the revolutionary plan for a Russian officers congress abroad (1914), agent Weber's report on a revolutionary officers clique in the Russian Army (1915), and a report on the distribution of revolutionary propaganda on Russian ships docking at Hull, England.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 397-398
Index XXIVk, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to the penetration of the armed forces 1897-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 397
Index XXIVk, Folder 2a

Text of a revolutionary soldier's song and a revolutionary leaflet for officers 1903

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2b

Revolutionaries to distribute propaganda among Russian prisoners of war in Japan 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2c

Revolutionary propaganda among troops in Turkestan Military District 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2d

Viennese Koscicki offering his services to combat revolutionary penetration of the army 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2e

Revolutionary propaganda on the Baltic fleet 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2f

Revolutionary membership in the armed forces 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2g

Report on revolutionary propaganda on the battleship "Slava" 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2h

Reports on revolutionary penetration of the Baltic fleet 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2i

Reports on illegal trade union of seamen abroad, with Headquarters in Antwerp, and the Union of Black Sea Seaman 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2j

Bitner and Fomin engaged in the dissemination of propaganda among Russian soldiers; leaflets addressed to officers and soldiers 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2k

Revolutionary penetration of naval units 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2l

Revolutionary propaganda among Russian prisoners of war in Austria-Hungary 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2m

Reports on the Russian Seaman's Union 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2n

Revolutionary plan for a Russian officers congress abroad 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2o

Revolutionary exploitation of disaffection in the army; officers' clique 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2p

Cables, reports, and other materials on the attempted mutiny on the Russian cruiser "Askold" at Toulon 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2q

Criticism of the administration of Russian army units in France 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2r

Illustrated supplement to Russkii vestnik, no. 2, February 1917 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2s

Appeal to the lower ranks in the theater of war from the All-Russian Peoples' Organization 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2t

Pamphlet V plenu, published in Bern for distribution among prisoners of war in Germany 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2u

Russkii vestnik, no. 26 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2v

Protocol drafts on an uprising of Russian soldiers at Camp Delorme near Marseille 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2w

Chicherin and the Jewish appeal against military service

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 2x

Okhrana circulars on revolutionary publications inciting the Russian armed forces 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVk, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVk, Folder 4

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 34, 1903, regarding revolutionary propaganda on the Navy ship "Kronstadt," in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Box: 215

l. Political action

Scope and Contents Note

The incoming and outgoing dispatches, raw reports, and pamphlets included in this file cover the period from 1894-1917 and pertain to the political action of Russian revolutionary groups abroad in influencing foreign governments and political organisations. Outstanding cases, such as Vladimir Burtsev's exploitation of the Leone-Fontana case to impress the French government with the existence and operations of the Russian secret political police in France and Burtsev's anti-Tsarist activities in Italy, are covered by documents in this file. There are also documents on revolutionary groups influencing Duma factions, political action of student groups, revolutionary newspaper campaigns, action through the International Socialist Bureau and the French and other foreign socialist parties. (Also see XVIId, XVIIt, XXVIIa, and XXVIIb. )

Note

Available on microfilm reels 398-399
Index XXIVl, Folder 1

Documents pertaining to attempts made by revolutionaries to exert political influence on foreign governments, the press, social groups and political groups in the Russian Duma 1894-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 398
Index XXIVl, Folder 2a

Text of a Bund appeal to the Russian people 1905

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2b

Speech delivered by Starodvorskii in Paris at a meeting attended by French dignitaries 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2c

Reaction of Russian student circles abroad to a new decree in Russia 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2d

Martov and Rappoport appeal to Jaurès and Dumas (Socialist deputies) protesting against the Russian political police in France 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2e

Burtsev's trips to Italy to bring up the question of the Russian political police in Italy to the Italian parliament 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2f

Meeting of Lenin, Kamenev, and Radomyslskii (Zinovyev) in Krakow on the eve of a new session of the Russian Duma 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2g

Protests of Russian émigrés against the passage of a new bill in the United States barring the entry of terrorists, anarchists, etc. into the country 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2h

Messages exchanged between Vanderwelde, a representative of the International Socialist Bureau, and members of the Social Democratic faction of the State Duma 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2i

Political campaign leaflets from Kiev 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2j

Report on the revolutionary newspapers and pressure on the Duma 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2k

Paris Russian revolutionaries in support of Germany in the war 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2l

Ex-Duma member Aleksinskii participating in the newspaper Russkaia volia 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2m

Revolutionary leaders in favor of defeating Russia 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2n

Roster of Russian revolutionary defeatists and their demands 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2o

Paris revolutionaries' appeal to the Duma for amnesty for political émigrés abroad 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 2p

Joint revolutionary manifesto on the occasion of the dissolution of the Duma

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXIVl, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXIVl, Folder 4

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 162, November 1905, on Social Democratic preparations for the Duma campaign, in XIIIc(2), folder 6

Box: 215-216

XXV. Financing of the revolutionaries

Box: 215

a. American support: immigrant groups

Scope and Contents Note

American financial support for the revolutionaries came from a few wealthy Americans who embraced the cause of freedom in Russia and contributions from a considerable number of workingmen's societies and lodges of the Russian, Jewish, Ukrainian, and other immigrants. A lively and popular campaign for liberalization of Russia was started with George Kennan's publications and lectures on his Siberian travels.
The documents collected in Folder No. 1 refer to the activities of Russian organizations in the United States and Canada for the collection of funds in support of the revolutionaries. In these papers, Headquarters and the Paris Office exchange information on leaders and movements in America. The papers in Folder No. 2 pertain to efforts of the leaders of the Jewish Bund, anarchists, Social Democrats, and Socialist Revolutionaries to channel financial help to European revolutionary groups through their respective organizations in the United States. This action gained momentum prior to and at the beginning of World War I but faded away in 1915, except for the Bund, backed by the American Federation of Jewish Workers. One report (February 1916) states that two anarchists in Chicago received $10, 000 from the Germans against their promise to blow up the offices of Russian military missions in the United States.

Note

Available on microfilm reels 399-400
Index XXVa, Folder 1

Dispatches and notes pertaining to American support of the Russian revolutionaries, immigrant groups, and organizations 1891-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 399
Index XXVa, Folder 2a

New York meeting of the Society to Aid Revolutionary Russia 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2b

Report from the Russian Embassy in Washington on activities of Russian revolutionaries in America 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2c

Letter of a Russian informer in Pennsylvania 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2d

Tasks of the revolutionaries in the United States 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2e

Goldfarb's Bundist trip to America 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2f

Mass meeting in memory of the Paris Commune in New York organized by the Russian section of the American Socialist Party 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2g

Federation of Russian Workers (anarchists) in America 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2h

Proposed congress of the Federation of Russian Workers in America 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2i

List of socialist newspapers published in New York 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2j

Resolution of the Boston Society to Aid Political Exiles and Prisoners 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2k

Financial report of the Anarchist Red Cross in New York 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2l

Russian Émigré Workers' House in New York 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2m

Pittsburgh Conference of Russian Workers' Unions 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2n

Conference of Federated Organizations of New York (Golos truda) 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2o

New York meetings of the Society to Aid Political Exiles in Siberia 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2p

Report on May 1 demonstration in New York 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2q

Congress of the Anarchist Red Cross in New York 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2r

Conference of Russian Social Democratic Groups in America held in New York 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2s

Report on revolutionary organization in Boston 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2t

Baltimore Congress of the Federation of Unions of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2u

Report on anarchists in New York and Chicago 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2v

Arrival of former Duma member in America to raise money for war victims and Lithuanian students 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2w

New Haven Conference of the Unions of Russian Workers in the United States and Canada 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2x

Oberuchev in New York to raise funds to aid Russian prisoners of war 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2y

New York meeting of the Society to Aid Political Exiles in Siberia 1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 2z

Correspondence between Russian revolutionaries abroad (France, Belgium, England) with Russian immigrants in the United States 1895

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVa, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 215

b. Russian domestic and foreign sources to aid the revolutionaries

Scope and Contents Note

Folder No. 1 contains a general collection of documents on the activities of the revolutionaries at home and abroad to secure funds for their cause. In Folders Nos. 2 and 3, the dispatches (titled individually in the inventory to each folder) refer to the results of the constant campaigns for funds. Money was collected from all and any sources available -- wealthy individuals, legacies, collections and meetings, lectures, sale of literature, membership dues, etc. Money was needed to maintain the revolutionary leaders and fighting terrorist unit for the purpose of arms and explosives, publications, and operational expenses of all sorts.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to Russian domestic and foreign sources to aid the revolutionaries 1895-1917

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2a

Account of a committee to help political prisoners in Russia 1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2b

A Czech offering information on revolutionaries counterfeiting money 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2c

Revolutionaries attempting to get a share of a large estate left by Nikolai Schmidt 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2d

Appeal of the International Committes to Aid Unemployed Workers in Russia 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2e

Fiscal support of the Paris Group for Collaboration with the Socialist Revolutionaries 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2f

Intercepted letter giving the financial statement of a revolutionary organization 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2g

Appeal of the Central Committee to a number of lecturers in order to raise funds; Burtsev's financial difficulties 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2h

Concerts and plays of the London anarchist club to aid the revolutionaries 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2i

Rich merchant Michael Treitner giving large sums to Socialist Revolutionaries 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2j

Vera Figner's Paris Committee to Aid Political Prisoners in Russia 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2k

Rumors that the Japanese government offered Russian revolutionaries large sums of money in 1905 for sabotage work in Russia 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2l

Organization of a Treasury to Aid Political Convicts and Prisoners in Liege 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2m

Financial report of the Paris Group for Collaboration wit the Socialist Revolutionary Party 1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2n

Rich merchant Semigradova in Kiev contributing large sums to revolutionaries 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2o

Financial reports of the Oblast' Committee of Socialist Revolutionary organizations abroad and of the Brussels Socialist Revolutionary group 1910-1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2p

Son of rich merchant Fedotov giving financial help to the revolutionaries 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2q

Financial statement of the Sazonov Library of the Paris Socialist Revolutionary Group 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2r

Lausanne meeting of the Committee to Aid Convicts; funds to be sent to Vera Figner 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2s

Offer of 150,000 francs made to Savinkov for terrorist acts 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2t

Lecture by Aleksinskii to raise funds for the Vpered group 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2u

Committee of the Zurich Émigré Treasury 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 2v

Report on an alleged offer of funds made to Savinkov for terrorist purposes 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3a

Funds received by Boris Savinkov for terrorist purposes 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3b

Financial report of the Paris Socialist Revolutionary Group 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3c

Arrival of Moscow millionaire Shakhov in Paris to help revolutionaries 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3d

Rich woman Sharzhinskaia and the interest of the revolutionaries in her money 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3e

Financial aid from Moscow tea merchants, the Vysotskii family 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3f

Indications that Nathanson received 30,000 rubles for terrorist purposes 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3g

Antwerp Union of Russian Sailors headed by Anichkin 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3h

Coupons to raise money for the Latvian Social Democratic Party 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3i

Fund-raising activities of the Latvian Social Democratic Party 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3j

Berlin students raising money to help political prisoners in Russia 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3k

Memo requesting identification of individual who donated 30,000 rubles to the Fighting Unit 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3l

Irregularities in the funds of the revolutionary treasury 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3m

Barthold to get a sum of money for terrorist purposes 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3n

Zurich and Basel societies to aid political prisoners in Russia 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3o

Basel meeting of the "Locan Union to Aid Exiles" 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3p

Fundraising lecture in Zurich 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3q

Appeal for funds of the "Union of Russian Seaman" in London 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3r

Vera Figner's Geneva "Group to Aid Political Exiles and Prisoners" 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3s

Donations by Moscow millionaires, the Morozovs 1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3t

Bern Conference of Émigré Treasuries in Switzerland 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 3u

Appeal of the Central Secretariat of Émigré Treasuries in Switzerland 1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 400
Index XXVb, Folder 4

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXVb, Folder 5

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 133, April 14, 1905, on the organization of a mutual insurance fund for members of Socialist Revolutionary and Social Democratic groups, in XIIIc(2), folder 6

Box: 215

c. Expropriation, counterfeiting, and banditries

Scope and Contents Note

"Expropriations," after the uprisings of 1905, became the policy, strategy, and tactics of the revolutionaries in general, particularly of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party. As a proletarian party, the latter was always in greater need of funds than the Socialist Revolutionaries, who had in their ranks a larger proportion of well-to-do members than Lenin's group. In essence, "expropriations" were nothing more than banditries serving as a source of funding the revolution and at the same time hurting the regime, creating chaos, and, with propaganda, serving as another slogan against capitalist oppression.
Folder No. 1 contains a number of dispatches exchanged between Headquarters and the Paris Office and pertaining to acts of expropriation and banditry committed by the Russian revolutionaries from 1893 to 1915. The documents in Folder No. 2 refer to specific banditries on a large scale, such as the Tiflis robbery (April 1907), Tashkent (1906) and Odessa (1907). There is also a brief (in German) prepared by the Munich police on Kamo-Mirskii's efforts to exchange Russian bank notes stolen at Tiflis (see XXVIIc), reports on the counterfeiting of bank notes (Leventhal), etc. A set of clippings from London newspapers on the attempted robbery at Houndsditch completes the file.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 1

Miscellaneous documents pertaining to expropriations by the revolutionaries 1893-1915

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2a

Popov affair and description of a swindle with Russian stocks 1893

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2b

Aleksandr Belentsov, participant of a Moscow bank holdup, in Zurich 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2c

Brothers Kereselidze and Nestor Magalov, who stole 315,000 rubles from a state treasury in Tiflis 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2d

Extradition of participants in the Tiflis holdup from Switzerland 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2e

Circular announcing rewards for the apprehension of individuals involved in stealing 544,000 rubles from Tashkent and Aulieatinsk finance offices 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2f

Revolutionary plans to commit a large-scale robbery in a Caucasian city 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2g

Bank robberies in Odessa 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2h

Attack on a train en route from Tiflis to Batumi 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2i

Kamo's role in the Tiflis holdup; his plans for other expropriations 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2j

Brief on the Tiflis robbery prepared in German by the Munich police 1908

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2k

Disposition of the money stolen in the Verkhnedneprovsk holdup 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2l

Litvinov's and Krassin's talks on counterfeiting bank notes following the Tiflis holdup 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2m

Disposition of the money from the Tiflis holdup 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2n

Agent Tsetlin and her suit against the revolutionaries for stealing her money 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2o

Robert Leventhal engaged in counterfeiting Russian currency in Paris 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2p

Dispatch of revolutionaries for an expropriation job 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2q

Reports on the suspected participants of the Tiflis holdup

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 2r

Eight clippings referring to the attempted Houndsditch robbery

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVc, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXVc, Folder 4

Reference: For a letter from Munich on the Tiflis robbery, see Vd, folder 1

Index XXVc, Folder 5

Reference: See outgoing telegram no. 145, 1910, regarding the proposed plan of the revolutionaries to destroy money from the Tiflis holdup, in XIIIb(2), folder 8

Box: 216

d. Extortion and blackmail

Scope and Contents Note

Contains various documents referring to acts of blackmail and extortion, perpetrated by the revolutionaries, or in their name. There is also a list of Russians arrested in Lausanne (April 1908) in connection with extortion letters sent to S. Shiro. Folder No. 2 has documents pertaining to various cases of blackmail and extortion, such as Persitz, Prince Trubetskoi, Ganeshin, Troitskii, Kokovashin, and Fontaine, and also samples of threatening letters (1902-1912).

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 1

Dispatches pertaining to extortion and blackmail 1906-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2a

Report on Agent Persitz, engaged in extortion from diplomats 1902

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2b

Revolutionary posing as Prince Trubetskoi 1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2c

The Ganeshin case (attempts of the revolutionaries to swindle him) 1906

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2d

Attempts of revolutionaries to swindle Aleksandra Chuksina in Moscow 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2e

Attempts of swindler Kokovashin to extort 350,000 rubles from the Russian government 1907

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2f

Blackmail in connection with former agent Paul Fontaine 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2g

Sample extortion letters sent by revolutionaries 1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 2h

Documents pertaining to former agent Louis Feuger 1914

Scope and Contents note

Includes his letter to the MVD minister requesting re-employment

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVd, Folder 3

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXVd, Folder 4

Reference: See notes on double agent Julieta, in XIa

Box: 216

XXVI. Communications of the revolutionaries

Box: 216

a. Code systems

Scope and Contents Note

The use of codes was not well developed by the revolutionaries. Intercepted mail often illustrates the use of code words and expressions, but full use of codes in digits was obviously rare. As some examples in the folders illustrate, they were of a simple, easily deciphered variety.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVIa, Folder 1a

Codes used in correspondence by the revolutionaries 1895-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVIa, Folder 1b

Decoded letters 1903-1904

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVIa, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXVIa, Folder 3

Reference: See intelligence summary no. 57, 1903, for a list of the codes of different revolutionary organizations not yet broken by the Okhrana, in XIIIc(2), folder 2

Index XXVIa, Folder 4

Reference: For the code system used by early Polish revolutionaries, see the papers on Rapoport and Savitski, in XIX

Box: 216

b. Secret writing

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVIb, Folder 1

Intercepted letters of the revolutionaries, written with invisible chemicals, which were later developed 1904-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 401
Index XXVIb, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 216

c. Couriers

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIc, Folder 1

Couriers of the revolutionaries 1903, 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Box: 216

d. General

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVId, Folder 1

Dispatch informing that the address of a Paris restaurant is being used by the revolutionaries for mail 1911

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Box: 216

XXVII. Methods of black propaganda, threats, poison pen letters

Box: 216

a. Burtsev's exploitation of the case of Francisco Leone

Scope and Contents Note

The year 1913 was a turning point in the history of the Paris Okhrana Office. Burtsev succeeded in completely exposing the Russian secret police network in that city, thereby forcing the Paris Okhrana to change its organizational structure and operational methods. One of the cases used by Burtsev in his anti-Okhrana campaign was that involving Francesco Leone, who was fired by the Paris Okhrana and went over to Burtsev, giving him the information he acquired as an agent. The documents in this file clearly reflect the great concern of Krasilnikov for the security of his organization against the Burtsev-Leone conspiracy.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIa, Folder 1

Dispatches discussing the repercussions of Leone's turning to Burtsev 1913-1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIa, Folder 2

Notes on the dismissal of postmaster Christiani of Fezzano, Italy, for aiding the Okhrana with mail interceptions 1914

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIa, Folder 3

Agents' reports on Leone's turning to Burtsev 1912-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIa, Folder 4

Newspaper clippings on the Russian police in Paris and Italy based on Leone's revelations 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIa, Folder 5

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 216

b. Burtsev's campaign against Garting

Scope and Contents Note

In early 1909 the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Burtsev succeeded in exposing the Chief of the Paris Okhrana Office, Baron Arkadii Mikhailovich Garting, as one Heckelman-Landesen who, in 1890, was convicted by a French court to five years imprisonment for illegal possession of explosives. The documents in this file cover the period from November 26, 1908, to February 10, 1910, and consist primarily of frantic dispatches from Garting to the home office in St. Petersburg about Burtsev's persecution.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIb, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning Burtsev's campaign against Garting of the Paris Okhrana 1908-1910

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIb, Folder 2

Cross-reference sheet

Index XXVIIb, Folder 3

Reference: See outgoing telegram, 1909, on the effect of Burtsev's exposure of Garting's position, in XIIIb(2), folder 7

Index XXVIIb, Folder 4

Reference: See outgoing telegram, 1909, with Garting's pleas for help against Burtsev's campaign against him, in XIIIb(2), folder 7

Index XXVIIb, Folder 5

Reference: See outgoing telegram, 1909, asking Headquarters to direct the Paris Embassy to advise the French press that Garting and Landesen are not the same person, in XIIIb(2), folder 7

Box: 216

c. Exploitation of Kamo's case against Russian and German security organs

Scope and Contents Note

The earliest document in this file on Semen Ter-Petrosian ("Kamo," "Dmitrii Mirskii") is an outgoing dispatch dated October 12, 1907, referring to "Kamo" as a young but highly active and daring revolutionary terrorist greatly valued by all Bolsheviks, including Lenin and "Nikitich." The report points out that "Kamo" was a key figure in the purchase of arms for revolutionaries in collaboration with Litvinov. Another report gives brief biographical sketch of that individual along with his career as a holdup artist of major proportions and a description of his great friendship with Lenin. When "Kamo" was arrested in Berlin in an apartment stocked with bombs and explosives, which he shared with a secret Okhrana agent, the Social Democratic circles succeeded in initiating a campaign accusing the Okhrana agent of planting the explosives in the apartment as an act of provocation, thereby causing considerable embarrassment to the Okhrana. "Kamo" successfully feigned insanity and was committed to a German asylum. The documents in this file also indicate that "Kamo" organized and participated in two holdups in Georgia, in Tiflis and on the Georgian Military Road. (See Index Numbers XXVb and XXVc for further information concerning the Georgian holdups. )

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIIc, Folder 1

Headquarters circular, dispatches, and other materials on Simon Ter-Petrosian (Kamo, Dmitrii Mirskii) 1907-1908

Scope and Contents note

Includes documents on his activities as a terrorist, his arrest in Berlin, and his commitment to a mental institution in Germany

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Box: 216

d. Threats upon the lives of security personnel, communist intimidation

Scope and Contents Note

The Russian revolutionaries abroad utilized intimidation and threats to extort funds and to control the activities or to do away with certain government leaders and police officials. (See XXIVi, XXVc, and XXVd for additional information.) The documents in this file pertain to the murder of agent "Iost"- Chizhikov, the alleged suicide of agent Lisovskii, Burtsev's action against Garting and the Paris Okhrana, the terrorist Emma, accounts of the attempted assassination of Okhrana Colonel von Kotten by Rips, and the assassination of Colonel Karpov.

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 1

Dispatches concerning the murder of Agent Chizhikov ("Yost," "Est") 1908-1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 2

Reports on the alleged suicide of Agent Lisovskii 1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 3

Burtsev's action against Garting and against the Paris Okhrana in general 1909-1912

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 4

Terrorist Emma and her access to a Riga prison 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 5

Accounts of the attempt on the life of staff agent von Kotten by Rips 1909-1913

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 6

Notes and telegrams referring to the assassination of Colonel Karpov 1909

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 7

Dispatches, notes, and reports on various matters 1905-1916

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXVIId, Folder 8

Cross-reference sheet

Box: 217-227

XXVIII. Miscellaneous

Scope and Contents note

An assembly of various items preserved as found in the shipment by Ambassador Maklakov. They remain with the collection as part of the original archive. Items include unused stationery, papers, pencils, and erasers, and other items found in the desk drawers of Okhrana Chief Krasil'nikov; stamps for office use and sealing wax, folders of maps and European city plans; telephone book, dictionaries, and a collection of calling cards

Note

This portion of the collection was not microfilmed
Index XXVIII, Box 217

Office stamps for classifying, dating, serializing of documents, etc.

Index XXVIII, Box 217

Thermostat

Index XXVIII, Box 217

Pencils, pens, and sealing wax

Index XXVIII, Box 217

Small change box

Index XXVIII, Box 218

Personal telephone directory (some entries), alphabetized portfolio (empty)

Index XXVIII, Box 218

Three printers' cuts of unidentified photographs

Index XXVIII, Box 218

Unused stationary of the Russian Embassy in Paris and the M.V.D. (Okhrana) office; official envelopes, one with the seal A.N.; unused scrap paper pad; loose paper

Index XXVIII, Box 218

Assortment of medical prescriptions for Chief Krasil'nikov

Index XXVIII, Box 218

Wooden tray for pencils

Index XXVIII, Box 219

Empty portfolio for Russian bank notes

Index XXVIII, Box 219

Four empty folders for filing incoming and outgoing dispatches

Index XXVIII, Box 220

Erasers, tape, thread, items from writing desk drawer

Index XXVIII, Box 220

Collection of calling cards

Index XXVIII, Box 220

Three desk blotters and a ruler

Index XXVIII, Boxes 221-225

Miscellaneous papers, pamphlets and publications

Scope and Contents note

Includes letters of credit from the Crédit Lyonnais, post card albums, travel guidebooks to various countries and cities, and foreign language grammar books
Index XXVIII, Box 225

Unassorted maps and city plans of Europe

Index XXVIII, Box 225

Miscellaneous pamphlets

Index XXVIII, Box 226

Panoramic photographs of Switzerland, Russian Red Cross in Stockholm pamphlet, and Monitore Italo-Russo, no. 6, 1917

Index XXVIII, Box 227

Index cards

Box: 228

XXIX. Inventories

Note

Available on microfilm reel 402
Index XXIX, Folder 1

Packing list for the contents of 17 boxes prepared for shipping on August 31, 1920

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