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Overview of the Zhongguo Guo Min Dang Records
2006C29  
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Collection Details
 
Table of contents What's This?
  • Collection Summary
  • Administrative Information
  • Historical Note
  • Scope and Content of Collection
  • Arrangement
  • Indexing Terms

  • Collection Summary

    Title: Zhongguo guo min dang records
    Dates: 1894-1987
    Collection Number: 2006C29
    Creator: Zhongguo guo min dang
    Collection Size: 1747 microfilm reels (262 linear feet)
    Repository: Hoover Institution Archives
    Stanford, California 94305-6010
    Abstract: Relates to political conditions in and government of China and Taiwan. Many of the microfilmed collections of the KMT listed in this finding aid are described in a searchable database (Chinese language only) at http://hoohila.stanford.edu/kmt/index.php .
    Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives
    Languages: Chinese

    Administrative Information

    Access

    Collection is open for research.
    The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

    Publication Rights

    May not be copied.
    For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

    Preferred Citation

    [Identification of item], [Reel number], Zhongguo guo min dang records, Hoover Institution Archives. Originals in Kuomintang archives (Taipei, Taiwan), series [number, title], file [number].

    Acquisition Information

    The microfilm was acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives from 2003 to 2010.

    Accruals

    Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find the collection in Stanford University's online catalog at http://searchworks.stanford.edu/ . Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the online catalog is larger than the number of boxes listed in this finding aid.

    Alternative Forms of Material Available

    Records of the Central Reform Committee (series numbers 6.41, 6.42, and 6.43) are digitized and may also be viewed on a workstation in the Archives reading room.

    Location of Originals

    Originals at Kuomintang archives, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Related Material

    Chiang Kai-shek diaries, Hoover Institution Archives

    Historical Note

    Sun Yat-sen and other overseas Chinese concerned about the situation in China founded the Hsing Chung Hui in Hawaii on 24 November 1894. This organization was superseded by the Tung Meng Hui, formed by Sun and other Chinese in Tokyo on 20 August 1905. The headquarters of the Tung Meng Hui moved to Nanjing after the Republic of China was established in January 1912. Later that year it merged with other groups to form the Kuomintang (Zhongguo guo min dang or Nationalist Party of the Republic of China), with Sun as chairman.
    The organization of the Kuomintang (KMT) expanded rapidly. At the First National Party Congress in January 1924 a party constitution was adopted. The congress elected a Central Executive Committee (CEC) to handle party affairs when the congress was not in session, and established a Central Control Committee to oversee party affairs. The CEC was headed by the director of the party, who had final decision-making power over the resolutions passed by the CEC. Sun Yat-sen, who died on 12 March 1925, was the first director. He set up a Political Committee in 1924 to handle party-government relations. At first the Political Committee met by itself, but in 1927 it began meeting with the CEC. The CEC elected a Standing Committee to handle party affairs when the full CEC was not in session. Various departments were established under the CEC, with departmental reorganizations occurring occasionally. This structure remained largely unchanged until 1950.
    In 1938, after the war with Japan began, a National Supreme Defense Commission was founded with KMT director general Chiang Kai-shek as its head. All CEC departments, the entire national government, and all military affairs fell under the jurisdiction of this new unit.
    The Kuomintang (KMT) was defeated in 1949 by Chinese Communist Party forces and forced to relocate in Taiwan. Following the removal, the KMT entered a period of reorientation and reformation. A Central Reform Committee (CRC) was established in August 1949 to determine the most effective way to revitalize the party. It drafted a new party platform and studied organizational changes, among other activities.
    The recommendations of the CRC were subsequently adopted by the Seventh National Party Congress (October 10-20, 1952), and the former Central Executive Committee and the Central Control Committee were replaced by a single Central Committee (CC). The CC elected a Central Standing Committee (CSC), chaired by the director general, with a secretary general to oversee the work of the party departments and committees. Initially the CSC had six sections concerning party affairs in Taiwan, party affairs in mainland China, party affairs overseas, propaganda, handling social organizations, and social and economic research and planning strategies against the enemy. The CSC also had four committees for evaluation, discipline, finance, and party history. A Secretariat for the CSC handled documents, accounting, personnel, and party member welfare.
    Another part of the KMT's self-reformation movement in the early 1950s involved intensification of training and indoctrination of cadres working with various mass organizations, like the Chinese Federal of Labor, Chinese Women's Anti-Aggression League, and National Association of Youth Organizations, formed. A system of "basic party cadres" was established to revitalize the party and ensure thorough implementation of party policies and programs at the local level. The cadres worked closely with youth, farmers, laborers, and other groups.
    For the two decades after the 1952 reform, the KMT presided over an increasingly repressive political system, followed in the 1970s by cycles of loosening and tightening of controls. Facilitated by party members in critical government positions at all levels, the KMT was able to activate its policies through the legislative and executive yuan (branches) of the government.
    The basic structure of the party remained fairly constant during this period. Its organization formed a pyramid paralleling the organization of the government. Local units of up to 15 members formed the base, with the subdistrict, district, county, and provincial organizations above it. At the top was the central unit, the Central Committee. Each level of organization maintained a central committee and an advisory committee. The committees at the base were elected directly by party members, and the congresses (known as assemblies at district and lower levels) at each higher level elected the central and advisory committees for their respective levels.
    Going down the pyramid, the Provincial Congress met every two years. It decided on the methods for implementing the KMT's programs and elected the Central Committee. The County Congress met annually to elect its committee members and to formulate policy at its level of authority. The district and subdistrict assemblies were comprised of all party members in the area concerned. The basic unit of 3 to 15 members was responsible for carrying the party's message to the people and recruiting members. Members with no fixed residence, such as railroad workers, seamen, other vocational groups, and Overseas Chinese, had special organizations under the direct control of the central party headquarters.
    At the national level, the National Congress, scheduled to meet every few years, continued to be the highest unit of the party. Its chief duties were to amend the party constitution, determine the party platform and policies, review the work of the Central Committee, train and guide party cadres, elect the president, and elect members of the Central Committee.
    The Central Committee met annually. Its functions were to execute resolutions of the National Congress and represent the party in its external relations, discuss and administer party and political affairs, organize and direct party branches at various levels, train and guide party cadres, enforce party discipline, and raise funds and administer the party budget.
    Because of the large membership of the Central Committee (CC), the real power was vested in its Central Standing Committee (CSC), whose members were elected by the CC. The CSC functioned during the recess of the plenary session of the CC. It could issue orders, make appointments, and call an extraordinary plenary session of the CC when necessary. The CSC initially held unlimited authority because the director general of the party was its chairman, and the ultimate source of power in the party resided with the director general. The director general was elected by the National Congress and possessed absolute veto authority over the decisions of the CC. Chiang Kai-shek was director general from 1938 until his death on 5 April 1975. After his death the position was retired, and Chiang Ching-kuo became party chairman.
    A Central Advisory Committee was added in 1969, and the number of seats in the CSC was gradually increased to 21 members.

    Scope and Content of Collection

    Some of the microfilmed collections of the KMT listed below are described in a searchable database (Chinese language only) at http://hoohila.stanford.edu/kmt/index.php . More collections will eventually be added to the database. The database is a guide to files on the microfilm. When visiting the Archives reading room to view the microfilm, please be ready to provide (1) the particular collection identifier, for example 5.1, Hankou, or TE 2, and (2) the microfilm reel numbers.
    Since 2003 the Hoover Institution has been working with the KMT to preserve the historical records held in the party's archives in Taipei. The official party records are microfilmed in Taipei, with a use copy of the microfilm deposited at the Hoover Institution.

    Arrangement

    The collection is organized into groups of records created by subunits of the KMT, such as the Central Reform Committee and Seventh Central Standing Committee, or papers of prominent officials, such as the archive of Wu Zhihui.

    Indexing Terms

    The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
    China--Politics and government--1912-1949.
    Taiwan--Politics and government--1945-1975.