Register of the Ludwig E. Frank papers

Finding aid prepared by Theresa Berger
Hoover Institution Archives
434 Galvez Mall
Stanford University
Stanford, CA, 94305-6010
(650) 723-3563
© 2008, 2016

Title: Ludwig E. Frank papers
Date (inclusive): 1912-1996
Collection Number: 96054
Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Archives
Language of Material: English
Physical Description: 2 manuscript boxes, 2 oversize boxes (4.2 linear feet)
Abstract: Writings, interview transcript, correspondence, reports, identification documents, printed matter, photographs, and videocassette relating to the persecution of Jews in Japan during World War II.
Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives
Creator: Frank, Ludwig E., 1917-


Collection is open for research.
The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival. We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible.

Publication Rights

For copyright status, please contact the Hoover Institution Archives.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Ludwig E. Frank papers, [Box number], Hoover Institution Archives.

Acquisition Information

Acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives in 1996.


Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. To determine if this has occurred, find the collection in Stanford University's online catalog at . Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the online catalog is larger than the number of boxes listed in this finding aid.

Biographical Note

Louis Hugo Frank was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1886. After receiving his PhD in Germany, Dr. Frank and his wife moved to Japan for Dr. Frank to pursue a career in teaching. The Franks lived comfortably in Japan with their two sons, Hugo C. Frank and Ludwig (Lou) E. Frank until the early 1940s, when racial and ethnic persecution from Nazi Germany made its way into Japan. In 1943 April, after 17 years of teaching, Dr. Frank was discharged from his teaching position at Yamanashi Technical College on the grounds of being a German Jew. In 1944 May, Hugo C. Frank, Hugo's new wife, and their young daughter were interned in Gora, Hakone, while the rest of the Frank family was interned in Karuizawa. Despite the release of his family, Hugo was arrested by the Yakohama Military Police on charges of espionage in 1944 July. On 1945 June 30, Hugo died in prison of malnutrition. Following the end of the war, the Frank family immigrated to the United States, where Dr. Frank obtained a teaching position at Arkansas Technical University. Dr. Frank died in San Francisco, California in 1973. In 1986 August, a memorial was dedicated to Dr. Frank at the Faculty of Engineering at Yamanashi University in Japan, with Lou Frank speaking at the memorial's dedication. From 1987-1989, the Frank family and one Makoto Honobe (profession unknown) participated in the process of clarification of the false charges against Hugo C. Frank. The process ultimately ended with a letter of apology to the Frank family, and in 1993 May, a centenary book of Dr. Louis Hugo Frank, detailing the Frank family's life in Japan, as well as the investigation into the death of Hugo C. Frank, was distributed. Lou E. Frank died in San Francisco in 2007.

Scope and Content of Collection

The Ludwig E. Frank papers consist of writings, an interview transcript, correspondence, reports, identification documents, printed matter, photographs, and a VHS relating to the persecution of Jews in Japan during World War II. The Frank family lived in Japan from 1913 to approximately 1947. In early 1944, Hugo C. Frank, eldest son of Dr. Louis Hugo Frank and brother of Ludwig (Lou) E. Frank, was accused of being an Allied spy and imprisoned. Hugo C. Frank died in prison in Yokohama in 1945. Much of the collection chronicles an investigation of and subsequent report on Hugo's death by either an acquaintance or investigator hired by Ludwig Frank named Makoto Honobe. A general history of the Frank family in Japan, followed by their move to the United States in the post-World War II period is also included.

Subjects and Indexing Terms

World War, 1939-1945--Japan.
World War, 1939-1945--Jews.


Biographical File, 1912-1954, undated

Box/Folder 1 : 1-2

Yearbooks, journals, records, and paystubs belonging to the Frank family, 1912-1954, undated


Correspondence, 1945-1993

Scope and Contents note

Includes correspondence between Ludwig Frank and his family, as well as letters and investigation materials from Makoto Honobe.
Box/Folder 1 : 3

General, 1945, 1946, undated

Box/Folder 1 : 4

Frank, Louis C., 1956-1958

Box/Folder 1 : 5

Makoto Honobe, 1992-1993


Speeches and Writings, 1986, 1994, 1996, undated

Box/Folder 1 : 6

"Speech at Unveiling Ceremony of Dr. Hugo C. Frank's Monument," Kofu, Japan, 1986 August 8

Box/Folder 1 : 7

"Interview of Lou Frank by Judith Antelman," 1994 November 1

Box/Folder 1 : 8

"Living Conditions in Wartime Japan," Points East, 1996 November


Writings by Others, 1916, 1993, undated


Frank, Louis Hugo, 1916, undated

Box/Folder 1 : 9

"Algebraic Relations for Property-Composition Curves of Binary Mixture," dissertation, Arkansas Academy of Science, undated

Box/Folder 1 : 9

"Experiments," notebook, in German, 1916


Makoto Honobe, 1993

Box/Folder 2 : 1-5, Box 3

The Centenary Book of Dr. Louis Hugo Frank, in English, German, and Japanese, 1993 May

Scope and Contents note

The centenary book chronicles the life of the Frank family in Japan and an investigation into the death of Hugo C. Frank in 1945. A chapter on the dedication of a memorial to Dr. Frank in Japan as well as copies of testimony, photographs, and other records used by Makoto Honobe can be found in both the book's appendices and in an oversized box (Box 3).

Photographs, 1913-1933, undated

Box/Folder 2 : 6

Louis C. Frank and wife, 2 photographic prints, undated

Box/Folder 4

Photograph album of the Frank family in Japan during WWI and the pre-WWII period, 1913-1922

Box/Folder 4

Photograph album of the Frank family in Japan during WWI and the pre-WWII period, 1918-1933

Box/Folder 2 : 7

Videorecordings, undated

Scope and Contents note

Features a brief series of clips from the dedication of a memorial to Dr. Louis C. Frank in Japan, as well as interview clips. The interview clips are mostly in Japanese, with some English.


Use copy reference number: 96054_v_0008569

Printed Matter, 1957, 1959

Box/Folder 2 : 8

Newspaper clippings, 1957, 1959