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Guide to the David C. Tambo Nigerian History Collection Bernath Mss 383
Bernath Mss 383  
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Peace Corps 1968 August - 1970 December

Scope and Content

Material collected in Nigeria while in the Peace Corps in Bauchi, 1968-1970. Training was in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands and Zaria, Nigeria, with posting to Bauchi in Dec. 1968, and teaching there Jan. 1969 to Dec. 1970. David Tambo taught at Bauchi Government Secondary School (1969) and Teacher Training College (1970). Shirley Tambo (wife of David Tambo) taught at Government Girls Secondary School, Bauchi (1969-1970). Some items are filed in the Artifacts series. Some books, esp. African Writers Series, have been cataloged separately.
Box 1

General 1969-1970

Scope and Content

Includes information about the Bauchi schools where David Tambo and wife Shirley Tambo taught, 1969-1970, as well as Peace Corps files, and files relating more generally to Nigeria.
 

Bauchi Government Secondary School [where David Tambo taught, 1969] 1968-1969

Other Descriptive Information

Includes issues of the student newspaper, The Gate, and the 1968 and 1969 School List with names of staff and students (includes aggregate data about their home areas and religious affiliation)
 

Bauchi Teacher Training College [where David Tambo taught 1970]

Other Descriptive Information

b/w photos of staff
 

Government Girls Secondary School, Bauchi [across the road from the Bauchi Government Secondary School]

Other Descriptive Information

Issues of the student newspaper Over the Fence; b/w photo of S. Tambo and her students
 

Nigeria Tourist Guide – 2nd impression 1969

 

Nigerian Newspapers and Clippings 1969 March 10 - 1969 March 11

Other Descriptive Information

Issues of the New Nigerian, and clippings of articles and op eds, some re attitudes toward Peace Corps volunteers in Nigeria, mainly from the New Nigerian, 1969
 

Peace Corps Handbook – 5th edition 1967 July 14

 

Peace Corps Reader 1967 September

 

Peace Corps Training Manuals

Other Descriptive Information

Includes titles such as “Functions of a Secondary School Teacher and a View of a Typical School” and “Guideline for Staying in a Hausa Community”
 

Peace Corps – Virgin Islands Training Center, St. Thomas, Nigeria 1968 September

Other Descriptive Information

With photos and biographical sketches of trainees [in Nigeria Group 31]
 

Welcome to Nigeria late 1960s

Other Descriptive Information

Mimeographed guide created by Peace Corps volunteers in Nigeria, for other volunteers, including those visiting from other countries, with maps, lists of places to eat and stay, background history, attractions, ways to get around [ca. latter 1960s]
 

Miscellany

Other Descriptive Information

Includes Peace Corps Disease Identity Card, with list of diseases that were prevalent in the area that volunteers served
 

Correspondence 1968-1970

Language of Material: English

Scope and Content

Correspondence from D. Tambo to parents (Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Tambo).
 

Photographs

Access Restrictions

35mm Color Slides. Originals in box. These have been digitized and uploaded to Google Picasa. See Special Collections staff for details on access.
 

Dissertation research 1975 March - 1976 December

Scope and Content

David Tambo did dissertation fieldwork for a degree in African history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (ABD – dissertation not finished), funded by a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship and with a Research Associateship from the Department of History, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The stated topic of research was “Iron Working on the Jos Plateau in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,” but a good deal of other material also was collected as background information. Photographs, archaeological/geological specimens, files from the Jos Museum, the National Archives in Kaduna, the Public Record Office London, the archives of various missionary societies, as well as written materials, all supplement the field research notes and tapes. During most of the period of research, David and his wife, Shirley Tambo, lived in teachers’ housing at St. Joseph’s College, Vom [near Jos], Nigeria, where Shirley taught English. Also included are files relating to research and writing after returning from the fieldwork.
Box 2

General

 

Adeku, Segun 1975 May 1 - 1975 May 4

Other Descriptive Information

Poster of art exhibit at Department of Fine Art, Ahmadu Bello University.
 

Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana University

Other Descriptive Information

Agreement and correspondence re deposit of tapes at ATM.
 

Bibliography

Other Descriptive Information

Printed sources, dissertations, theses, and unpublished papers – mainly relating to Jos Plateau and its inhabitants; neighboring areas including Bauchi emirate; ironworking in Nigeria, Africa and other parts of the world; mining and iron ore; forestry, deforestation, charcoal making; archaeology, archaeometallurgy and analysis of ore, slag, and smelted iron; economic history, trade and exchange, slavery, and slave trade; ethnography; geography; geology; historiography and oral history; linguistics. See Appendix A for the latest version of the bibliography.
 

Blacksmiths

 

Charcoal - Lists undated

 

Correspondence

 

In (mostly) 1974 - 1990

Other Descriptive Information

Correspondents include Philip D. Curtin, Mark Duffill, Candice Goucher, Paul E. Lovejoy, Peter Schmidt, Jan Vansina, and others, mainly about African history research.
 

Out 1973 - 1984

Other Descriptive Information

Correspondence, mainly about African history research.
 

Curtin, Philip D.

Other Descriptive Information

my advisor at UW; includes copy of his autobiography On the Fringes of History, 2005
 

Documents (includes Nigerian driver's license)

 

Early Iron Working in Africa

 

Fulbright-Hays Fellowship

 

Gunn [Harold D.] Consultancy 1980-1981, 1990

Other Descriptive Information

Correspondence and report by D. Tambo on the contents of Gunn’s files, most of which were copies of files surveyed in northern Nigeria government offices, the bulk accumulated during the 1950s as part of his work for the International African Institute, in preparation for the Ethnographic Survey of Africa. In 1990 his widow, Virginia Gunn, began sending the files to Moore Crossey, Curator of the African Collection at Yale University Library. The Harold D. Gunn Collection (MS 1586) presently is housed in the Manuscripts and Archives section of the Sterling Memorial Library at Yale.
 

Historiography

 

Ironworking Linguistic Evidence

 

Ironworking Terms

 

Key to Color Code

 

Maps

Other Descriptive Information

Sketch maps of communities, linguistic and ethnographic groups of the Jos Plateau sketch map of Mwahavul communities and iron mining sites.
 

Museum Collections (as primary sources for African history)

 

Mwahavul Smelting Apparatus (sketch)

 

Ngas Terms

 

Nigeria Airways - Passenger and Tourist Guide 1976

 

Nigerian Newspapers and Magazines 1975 - 1976

Other Descriptive Information

Scattered issues from Drum, the New Nigerian, and The Nigeria Standard.
 

Notebooks/Diaries (includes calendars for interview)

 

Oral History Methodology

Related Material

See also bibliography for additional sources.
 

Origins of Iron Working

Related Material

See also bibliography for additional sources.
 

Outlines / Chapters

Other Descriptive Information

Various drafts, includes acknowledgements, overview, and main arguments and questions to be answered.
 

Pankshin Notes

Other Descriptive Information

Includes information about some photos.
Box 3

Photographs / Photographic Evidence (articles about)

 

Preservation / Digitization (especially oral sources)

 

Primary Sources

Other Descriptive Information

See especially Jan Vansina article (2009) calling for products of fieldwork to be made accessible to all scholars, e.g. put in public repositories.
 

Research Notes

 

Research Questions

 

Shammas, M.

Other Descriptive Information

“An Investigation into Smelting Products from a Primitive Iron-Smelting Region of Nigeria,” Third Year Long Project, Department of Metallurgy, Imperial College of Science and Technology (London), 1977. Analysis of samples collected by Tambo and provided to Shammas’ advisor, Judith Todd.
 

Shammas – Stubs of samples, used for analysis.

 

Slag and Slag Analysis

Related Material

See also bibliography for additional sources.
 

Smelting and Smiths

 

Smelting Technology

 

Smelting Technology (essay)

Related Material

See also “The ‘Hill Refuges” of the Jos Plateau…” Article by D. Tambo.
 

Timeline of Historical Events on the Plateau 1900 - 1961

 

Archival/Primary sources

 

Nigeria

 

Jos museum

Scope and Content

Holdings include a number of iron items from the Jos Plateau, which are listed in accession lists. For images of iron and related items, see photos 4/15-21, 4/31-38, 5/1-25, and 10/18-32. Written materials at Jos Museum include such things as J. G. Davies, The Birom (typescript) and Oku Blacksmith Papers.
 

National Archives Kaduna (NAK)

Scope and Content

Articles and other about NAK organization and holdings. Includes Adelberger and Heap articles; also National Archives of Nigeria entry from ArchivesWiki. Files – typewritten summaries from two NAK files; the remainder have not been located. Lists – handwritten and typewritten versions, compiled by D. Tambo from registers and other lists at NAK, with check marks indicating files seen. Appendix B contains the file-level list. Holdings related to the Jos Plateau include files from the following record groups: Arabic Manuscripts, Bauchi Native Authority, Bauchiprof [Bauchi Province], Josprof – First Collection [Jos Province], Josprof – Second Collection, Josprof – Third Collection, Josprof – Fourth Collection, Kadminagric [Kaduna, Ministry of Agriculture] Makprof – First Collection [Makurdi Province], Makprof – Second Collection, Pankshin N.A. – First Collection, [Pankshin Native Authority], Secretariat Northern Provinces (SNP)
 

Great Britain

 

Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) Archives, London

Scope and Content

Holdings include G. T. Fox Diaries and Photograph Collection, and A. Meeson Photograph Collection.
 

London School of Economics (LSE)

Scope and Content

Holdings include A. B. Mathews Papers, African Mail (newspaper), E. D. Morel Photograph Collection, Nigerian Intelligence Reports, Northern Nigeria Lands Committee Report.
 

Public Record Office

Scope and Content

Kew (now National Archives). Holdings include Colonial Office Records for Nigeria and West Africa.
 

Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford

Scope and Content

Holdings include R. A. Archbold “Early Memories of the Nigerian Plateau,” H. S. W. Edwardes Informal Diaries, J. G. Davies ‘Report on a Farm Survey …Gyel Community of the BiRom Tribe …,” H. W. Laws Nigerian Tin Mining Expedition Papers, Sir Gordon Letham Papers, F. D. Lugard Papers.
 

Royal Anthropological Institute, London

Scope and Content

Holdings include Reports from Residents, Northern Nigeria.
 

Royal Commonwealth Society, London

Scope and Content

Holdings include W. F. Gowers “42 Vocabularies of Languages Spoken in Bauchi Province…”
 

United States

 

Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

Scope and Content

The Allen Bassing Collection and the Frederick H. Rawson – Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to W. Africa Collection contain Jos Plateau-related items. Includes 14 color slides, not digitized.
 

Yale University

Scope and Content

Sterling Memorial Library, Manuscripts and Archives. The Harold D. Gunn Collection (MS 1586) contains copies of government files from Bauchi and Plateau Provinces, 1910s-1950s.
Box 4

Artifacts

 

Lists (arranged chronologically)

 

Samples

Scope and Content

Iron ore, charcoal, slag, furnace tuyeres and wall fragments, smelted iron, and finished iron objects collected at various sites on the Jos Plateau. Arranged by date, then number. Small bags with numbers taped on are ones given to J. Todd for analysis by M. Shammas. Numbers are indicated in parentheses after description of sample.

Related Material

See also: photos and descriptions of artifacts at Jos Museum and Field Museum
 

Birom, at Nar. 1975 August 18

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere? Found at furnace site 1. Film 0, Photo 5 shows the site. Families using this site not known.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of furnace wall? Found loose by furnace, at furnace site 1.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Fragments of clay pot. Nar smelters used clay pots, inverted, with bottom of pot broken out, as top of furnace.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Fragment of furnace wall at furnace site 1.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Slag found about 20 feet from grinding holes, which were about ¼ mile from furnace site 1. Nar smelters would grind the iron from first smelting into powdery form and then reheat. [47].

Related Material

See Film 0, Photos 10-12.
 

Ngas at Ner. 1975 September 22

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with some iron adhering. All samples in this group came from the same site. It is not possible to associate with a particular furnace due to present farming in the area and dislocation of samples. [51].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with pieces of iron adhering. Considered waste by the smelters.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Slag. [50].
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere which extends into furnace.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere inserted in furnace, apparently not as close to the end of the tuyere as Sample 4; note thicker wall.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere. Samples 4-6 all found on surface, not in furnaces themselves.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag.
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Slag. [52].
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with bits of iron adhering. Considered waste by smelters.
 

Ngas, at Pankshin 1975 September 22

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Samples 4-6

Other Descriptive Information

Missing.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag.
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Slag.
 

Pyem, at Langai 1976 May 18

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, given to me by Ahmadu Zelkat. See Usman Umaru interviews for further information.
 

Mwahavul/Sura, at Vodni 1976 May 28

Related Material

See Stephen Niyang and Leo Kumben interviews for iron working in the Vodni area.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from furnace site 1A., perhaps ½ mile north of the old site of Vodni (e.g. the settlement where the informant Niyang Glongshik lives). My assistant, Stephen Niyang and I collected these samples but no informants were available to tell us about the history of the particular furnace. This piece of iron was found within a few feet of the furnace and is unlike the general rocks in the vicinity of the furnace, so presumable was used in the smelting process. [9] and [22].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace 1A.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace 1A. [33].
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace 1A, with iron adhering. [30].
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace 1A. [35].
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Slag and unreduced iron (?) from furnace 1A.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag and clay (?) from furnace 1A. Part of furnace wall?
 

Mwahavul/Sura, at Mangun 1976 June 17

Scope and Content

Slag from site 1, near road to Yemdung. One furnace at the site, used by Yemdung family.

Related Material

See 20 Sept. 1976 list for further samples from site 1.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

One furnace at the site, used by Yemdung family. See 20 Sept. 1976 list for further samples from site 1.
 

Ngas, at Cwill-Kapor 1976 June 30

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (type used in smaller quantities, as ‘chemical’/flux). Brought by informant Mangai Fàlá.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag.
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Potsherd found among slag at furnace sites. There were numerous pieces of pots. Ngas put inverted pots (hole in bottom) over furnace hole, but this piece looks as though it was from a pot too small for that purpose. Also no marks from heat of furnace. So, what was its use?
 

Ron/Challa, at Manguna 1976 June 30

Other Descriptive Information

The following samples were brought by informants Mangai Fala and Tonga Kating, to illustrate the mining and smelting processes. They were extremely vague as to where they had obtained the samples, but it was in the Manguna area. I was not particularly impressed with the information of the two above informants since they tended to confuse the smelting process at several points. Also, since I did not see where they got the supposed samples of iron ore, this makes me a bit wary, and since the type of rock, from one sample to the next, seems to vary so much.

Related Material

See Francis Adams and David Bwai Manguna interviews for further information.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore. [4].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Missing.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag. [49].
 

Ron/Challa, at Manguna 1976 July 21

Other Descriptive Information

The following samples were collected by David Bwai and me from Liu, one of the mining sites of Manguna smelters. No informants were available. They type of rock identified as iron ore is not plentiful on Liu hill, and only scattered fragments were found on the surface. Liu hill is perhaps 1 mile east of Manguna. Liu hill is in the midst of a number of abandoned and presently worked tin mines; about the most southeasterly of the tin mines on the Jos Plateau. For further information, see Francis Adams and David Bwai Manguna interviews.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from Liu hill. Missing.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from Liu hill.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from Liu hill. Missing.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore? Two pieces from Liu hill, smaller looks like slag, with some iron adhering.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (?) from Liu hill. Missing.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from Liu hill. Only a few scattered bits are evident. Missing.
 

Ron/Challa, at Manguna 1976 July 28

Other Descriptive Information

The samples were collected by David Bwai and me; no informant was available but we took the samples down to Manguna afterwards, where they were identified by several people. See David Bwai collection for further information.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere (?) from Liu Hill.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from Liu Hill. [3].
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from Liu. [48].
 

Ngas, at Cwill-Kapor 1976 September 18

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from grinding stone, a few yards away from furnaces.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, same location as sample 1. [2].
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, same location as samples 1-3. [25].
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore. [1].
 

Sample 5-6

Other Descriptive Information

Missing.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment, same site as sample 6.
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment.
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with charcoal. Yangkukka Kapor said this was a sign that smelting had failed.
 

Sample 10-11

Other Descriptive Information

Missing.
 

Sample 12

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, same site.
Box 5

Mwahavul/Sura, near Mangun 1976 September 20

Other Descriptive Information

Film 4, Photos 2 and 3 show site 1; Photos 4-7 show site 2, including the tuyere entering the furnace and the clay section put over the mouth of the furnace; Photos 9 and 10 show shakahal/iron bloom at R. Miduhur’s compound; Photos 11 show “gyrik”, the iron plates which were the last step before pounding into hoes. See Dakon Cishak interviews for iron working in the Manguna area.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (kurci), from about 3 miles north of Mangun, about 200 yards east of the road leading to Ampang. R. Miduhur (see interviews at Mangun) identified this as iron ore; said they made no distinction between colours in the rock nor did they break it apart to separate one colour from the other, or discard some. They used whole chunks. I collected this and samples 2 and 3 by myself, since no informant was available, so I am not sure if this was an actual mining site, but I was in the area/hills that informants had previously indicated were the sites where Mangun people got iron ore. [21] [10].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, about 10 yards from site 1. This ore is not the only type or even the predominant type of rock in the area. Scattered specimens (originally located in seams?). [20].
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, about ten yards from samples 1 and 2; all these samples on the surface. [8] [13].
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

From site 1. R. Miduhur said this was mainly clay, probably used as part of the wall of a furnace or to plaster a crack. The glaze, he said, is from the heat of the fire (similar to glazing pottery, which Mangun people otherwise didn’t do). What “chemicals” needed for such a glaze?
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site #1, about 2 yards from the Mangun-Yemdung path. The path itself is strewn with slag – in fact you find slag almost all the way up to Yemdung on the short-cut path, even far from the three furnaces I was shown. This furnace was located alone and was used by one family in Yemdung. It was located on a hill, as were the other furnaces, the usual practice being for the bellowers to be standing on the higher side of the hill, with the furnaces below them. [43].
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 1. A few yards from the furnace itself.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 2, about 100 yards from site 1 and 50 yards from site 3, near the main path from Mangun (new town) to Yemdung-Mangun (road leads south). [46].
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3, but with bits of iron apparently adhering. Found in heap covering where people at site said there had been a furnace, now collapsed. All three furnaces used by Yemdung people. [29].
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3, apparently containing more iron than usual. Maybe next to actual iron bloom extracted. People at the site referred to this piece as iron rather than slag but said they would show me a better example, which they did, the mass of iron (shakahal) itself. It also had the brownish cellular appearance in places and was much larger, maybe one foot in diameter and two feet high.
 

Sample 10

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3. [31].
 

Sample 11

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3. [31].
 

Mwahavul/Sura, at Chindom-Ampang 1976 September 25

 

Sample 1: “Kashal”

Other Descriptive Information

“Kashal” – fragment of the large iron bloom that comes out of the furnace. This particular bloom came from Mangun. The owner, Met Daslong, had bought it in the 1940s in connection with payment for a legal case. Normally, Mangun people didn’t sell iron in this form, but this was a period after they had ceased smelting and switched over to imported iron, and this may have been left over. Note charcoal adhering. [40].
 

Sample 2: “Kashal”

Other Descriptive Information

“Kashal” – same source as Sample 1. [41].
 

Mwahavul/Sura, at Vodni 1976 October 11

 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Slag at furnace site 1. Detailed list says: Iron ore, all found within a few yards of one another, on the southern side of Per Hill, some two miles north of Vodni. There were only a few pieces of ore evident; most other was whitish rock, in small fragments. The sample was identified as ore by Niyang Glongshik at Vodni. Per Hill was the chief source of iron ore for Vodni smelters. [37].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, found towards bottom of Per Hill on n.w. side. [15].
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore, found almost at the bottom of Per Hill, on s.e. side. As with samples 1 and 2, found amidst unrelated rocks. [No. 23]
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

The kinds of rock that predominate on Per Hill – not considered iron ore.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore found about half-way up s. side of Per Hill.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore in small pieces, found about half-way up n.e. side of Per Hill. There seems to be more ore on this side and the remains of several holes (at least 20), where miners formerly dug for ore. Informants speak of picking up ore in small pieces from the surface sometimes and Niyang Glongshik says this is an example of what they picked up. [12].
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from n.e. side of Per Hill, about halfway up. [14].
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from n.e. side of Per Hill, about halfway up. See Film 8, Photos 25 and 26, for view of Per Hill.
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Slag at furnace site 1, about 200 yards from Niyang Glongshik’s compound, although the furnace was not used by that compound. Each furnace is separate, and stands alone. See Film 8, Photos 27-28 for view of furnace and surrounding area. Most of the slag is found a few yards from the furnace, downhill, by rocks used to break off the waste from the good iron after smelting.
 

Sample 10

Other Descriptive Information

Iron and slag cast away by smelters as waste, at furnace site 1.
 

Sample 11

Other Descriptive Information

Slag at furnace site 1.
 

Sample 12

Other Descriptive Information

Iron and slag cast away as waste at furnace site 1.
 

Sample 13

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 1.
 

Sample 14

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 1.
 

Sample 15

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 1.
 

Sample 16

Other Descriptive Information

Slag with bits of charcoal still adhering, from furnace site 1.
 

Sample 17

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 1. Note: samples 9-17 all found within a few feet of one another but from separate pieces of material. [42].
 

Sample 18

Other Descriptive Information

Bits of inner lining of furnace at site 1. This comes from the upper part of the furnace, near the top or ground level.
 

Sample 19

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with charcoal and iron adhering, from furnace site 2, about 100 yards e. of site 1. Slag for both sites in separate locations. Both on side of hill, facing south. Site 1 and 2 were used by different families. S. Glongshik said these were small families and didn’t need to do extensive smelting, so there is relatively slag around. He didn’t know for what period of time the sites might have been used.
 

Sample 20

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 2.
 

Sample 21

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 2. Note: Film 8, Photos 29-30 show the furnace and surrounding area.
 

Sample 22

Other Descriptive Information

Slag and iron cast off as waste at furnace site 2. All pieces at site 2 came from downhill of furnace, near rocks about 20 feet from the furnace, where waste was broken off from good iron.
 

Sample 23

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from furnace site 2. Missing.
 

Sample 24

Other Descriptive Information

Furnace lining from site 2. There is only one furnace at this site. The same is true for site 1. Note: both furnace site 1 and 2 are s.e. of the informant’s compound on the south side of the hill; the site of the furnace used by the informant’s own family is by another to the west.
 

Mwahavul/Sura, at Kombun 1976 October 18

Other Descriptive Information

The following samples were collected in the company of Bwan Dushu and Wakili Nayowo, of Kombun, and an ongoing interview was conducted at the various sites.

Related Material

See Leo Kumben interview 3.
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (kurti) from site 1, Kwakas Wuriya, about 1.5 miles s. of Kombun. Collected at the top of the hill. Bwan Dushu said that all ore used by Kombun smelters was of this type. There was one other mining site, about two miles south of Kwakas Wuriya, also used by Kombun people. This site, Kwakas Wuriya, is about about 1-1/2 miles south of Kombun itself. [11].
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 1.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 1. The rock is found loose on the surface, and is rounded in appearance, with yellowish coating, as still seen on parts. This type of iron ore was preferred since it is easy to break into smaller pieces.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 1. [18].
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 1. Bwan Dushu said that this was about the size used in the furnaces, and larger chunks were broken down to this size.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 1. I picked out this piece (informants picked samples 1-4 as good examples of kurti they would have used) but they were less pleased with it. They said this one was too hard and would have been difficult to break. They also didn’t like rocks with a high content of the darkish material seen in this sample, which they said was the reason for its hardness. Instead they preferred the softer rocks, of the reddish variety. Note: all samples taken from the top of Kwakas Wuriya were maybe ten yards from one another, near the mining hole the informants pointed out. See Film 8, Photos 31-32, of the hill and mining hole.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 2, Kwakas Buhol, a hill about 200 yards south of Kwakas Wuriya. See Film 8, Photo 32, which is taken from the top of Kwakas Wuriya and looking over towards Kwakas Buhol. The rocks on both hills were identical in appearance. Both sites were used by Kombun miners, neither one preferred over the other. I was shown another indentation at Kwakas Buhol, which informants claimed was another mining hole, although they stressed that digging holes was not really necessary, since plenty could be found on the surface. [19].
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 2.
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 2. [17].
 

Sample 10

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 2. [16].
 

Sample 11

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore from site 2 (samples 7-11 chosen by informants, all found within about 10 yards of another at the top of Kwakas Buhol).
 

Sample 12

Other Descriptive Information

Pieces of lining from furnace wall at smelting site 2, located in the center of town, with women selling goods literally on top of it. It was the family of Dabel Dasan (see Leonard Kumben interview 2) that used this particular furnace. This was also a smithing family.
 

Sample 13

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 2. Since this was in the center of town, it was difficult to find any sizeable pieces. A road passes over most of slag heap here, so only very small fragments are visible. [32].
 

Sample 14

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 2. [45].
 

Sample 15

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment (?) from smelting site 2. Note the glazed appearance on one side.
 

Sample 16

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment (?) from smelting site 2. Note: samples 13-16 were picked from the surface. Sample 12 from the lip of the furnace, which protruded maybe ½-1 inch above the surface. Samples 13-16 were all from within about 20 yards of the furnace; no other furnaces in the area, so presumably from this furnace.
 

Sample 17

Other Descriptive Information

Lining from furnace site 3. Each site contains only one furnace. See Film 8, Photo 35 for image of the furnace.
 

Sample 18

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 3. All slag was found in midst of guinea corn fields and only smaller pieces seem to remain. There are bits scattered over a couple of hundred square yards, but cultivation makes it difficult to determine the true extent of the slag. The family of [?], a smelter but not a smith, used this furnace (see Leonard Kumben interview 3).
 

Sample 19

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 3.
 

Sample 20

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3. Informant Bwan Dushu said this had a fair amount of iron and might have been used and broken down for reheating (the next stage in the smelting process). [34].
 

Sample 21

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 3. [38].
 

Sample 22

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3, some iron adhering. [44].
 

Sample 23

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 3.
 

Sample 24

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from smelting site 3.
 

Sample 25

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment from smelting site 3.
 

Sample 26

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment from smelting site 3
 

Sample 27

Other Descriptive Information

Tuyere fragment from smelting site 3. Samples 18-27 all within about 15 yards of each other, to the north of furnace 3, which itself is about 100 yards from the nearest compound.
Box 6

Mwahavul/Sura, at Vodni 1976 November 6

Other Descriptive Information

The following samples were collected by research assistant Stephen J. Niyang and me; no informant was along. Collected at site 3 (see former dates for sites 1A, 1 and 2
 

Sample 1

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere at site 3, location 1. Furnace not evident anymore. The area has been farmed over so, in the farmed places, smalls pieces of slag are scattered around and larger pieces have been piled up at intervals. See Film 9, Photos 12- 13. The samples from location 1 were picked from the surface at the northern part of site 3.
 

Sample 2

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere from location 1.
 

Sample 3

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 1.
 

Sample 4

Other Descriptive Information

Slag (porous) from location 1.
 

Sample 5

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 1.
 

Sample 6

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of furnace wall (?), with slag adhering.
 

Sample 7

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from site 3, location 2. Site 3, location 2 was about 20 feet from location 1, at the eastern part of the site. The whole site was about 20-25 yards in diameter.
 

Sample 8

Other Descriptive Information

Slag, with porous iron fragments, from location 2.
 

Sample 9

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 2.
 

Sample 10

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 2.
 

Sample 11

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 2.
 

Sample 12

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 2.
 

Sample 13

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of hoe (?) from location 2. Small bit cut from one edge for Shammas analysis.
 

Sample 14

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 3. Site 3, location 3 was on the western side of the site, maybe 20 yards west of location 2. Samples were picked from a slag pile apparently stacked up by farmers.
 

Sample 15

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 3.
 

Sample 16

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 3.
 

Sample 17

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (?) from location 3. This type of rock is not indigenous to the area, which contains boulders that look like granite. Missing.
 

Sample 18

Other Descriptive Information

Piece of tuyere from location 3.
 

Sample 19

Other Descriptive Information

Slag from location 4. Site 3, location 4 was about 10 feet south of location 3.
 

Sample 20

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ore (?) from location 4. Note: after collecting samples at site 3, we went to see Stephen Niyang’s grandfather (father’s father), who told us that the site was used by one very large compound. There were two separate families in that compound, one headed by Shik Mi and the other by Kahlip. Niyang Glongshik (Stephen’s grandfather) said that these two men were not related and it is unclear why they shared a compound, but they assisted each other in smelting. There apparently were two furnaces at the site, which have disappeared. I saw the cactus surrounding the area where the compound had been, but is now abandoned. The compound was about 150 yards from the smelting site, the smelting site being to the south of the compound. [24].
 

Sample 21

Other Descriptive Information

Iron ring from a dancing instrument called “ndol”. See Film 9, Photo 15 for picture of the ndol. Presently owned byJoro and made by his father Fwangkut, who was a smith. Estimated to be over 40 years old, but this is very speculative. Said to be made of locally smelted iron. Fwangkut lived in Vodni, very close to the compound of Niyang Glongshik, I think west or northwest of Niyang Glongshik’s compound. Tip of one end cut off for Shammas analysis.
 

Sample 22

Other Descriptive Information

Axe (sep), small one, owned by Niyang Glongshik and made by Fwangkut of locally smelted iron. In this case the smelted iron would have come from Niyang Glongshik’s compound and then would have been taken to Fwangkut, who would have fashiond the axe. Once again, estimated at over 40 years old (pre-1930s), but very speculative. Small chunk cut from back end for Shammas analysis.
 

Sample 23

Other Descriptive Information

Hoe (chan der) owned by Niyang Glongshik and made by Muldughur of Vodni, whose compounds are very close to each other. The smelted iron would have been taken by Niyang Glongshik’s compound to Muldughur, to fashion into the hoe. Age not remembered (but smelting ceased before World War II for the most part in this area).
Box 7

Currency

 

Coins

 

Biafra 1 shilling (1969)

 

British West Africa

Other Descriptive Information

1/10 d (pence): 1910, 1936-1952. 1/2d: 1914, 1934, 1942-1952. 1d: 1935, 1952. 3d: 1920, 1934, 1943-1947. 1s (shilling): 1938, 1948.
 

Nigeria

Other Descriptive Information

1/2d (pence): 1959. 1d: 1959. 3d: 1959. 1s (shilling): 1959, 1961. 1/2k (kobo): 1973. 1k: 1973. 10k: 1973.
 

Other Africa

Other Descriptive Information

incl. AOF (French West Africa), Belgian Congo, Cameroun, Congo, French Equatorial Africa, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, 1926-1970
 

Paper Currency

 

Biafra

Other Descriptive Information

Biafra – 5 shilling, 10 shilling, 1 pound (two types), all circulated, ca. 1967-1970
 

Cowry strand

Other Descriptive Information

with two brass bell rings – popular form of currency in the 19th century
 

Manillas

Other Descriptive Information

bronze horseshoe shaped armlets, widely used as currency in the 19th century
 

Leather circa 1969

Other Descriptive Information

“Peace Corps” bag and purse with Northern Knot
 

Stamps 1960s-1980s

Other Descriptive Information

Cameroon, Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe – mainly stamps from friends’ and colleagues’ correspondence.
 

Interviews

 

Audiocassettes

Scope and Content

Interviews in each case were conducted in the first language of the informant, with questions and answers recorded on tape. The tapes have been grouped by ethnic group, name of the research assistant working with me at the time, and tape number. The name of the informant, location, and date are included for each tape. Summaries of interview topics and other information such as birthplace of informants, approximate age, and notes about who was present at interviews are included in the related transcript descriptions and as front matter with the transcripts themselves. Several Sanyo TRC1100 cassette recorders were used for the interviews. In all cases the internal microphones of the recorders were used. The recorders proved difficult to maintain, the result being that later tapes tend to contain varying levels of motor noise, lessening their sound quality.
During the course of an interview, the research assistant handled the tape recorder, since he usually was seated closest to the informant. After each question and answer, he would give me (D. Tambo) a rough English translation, to use as a basis for further questions. After the conclusion of the interview, he would prepare a handwritten translation (notebooks included in this collection), which conformed as closely as possible to the original wording in the interview. I then checked this written transcript with him and a typed transcript (copies also included in this collection) was prepared by another assistant.
Additional copies of the tapes and English translations have been deposited and are available for research on an unrestricted basis at the Northern History Research Scheme, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and the Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
The earliest interviews (ca. July-Sept. 1975) were conducted by Ahmadu Bello University students Jonah Madugu, Ezekiel Okuboye, and Anthony Dimlong during the 1975 summer break. They were part of a larger economic oral history project organized by Paul Lovejoy (York University) and Jan Hogendorn (Colby College), who were visiting faculty at Ahmadu Bello University at that time. The research assistants were given sets of questions/topics which they pursued with informants that they selected. Supervisors (in this case me, D. Tambo) visited and worked with the research assistants, but the assistants did the interviews on their own.
Later , for the remainder of the research project, through the end of 1976, I (D. Tambo) developed the research topics and conducted the interviews, with research assistants acting as translators. After the summer of 1975 I employed a number of additional research assistants, oftentimes local school teachers who were located in the areas where they were born and grew up, knew the local language, were known to and had entre to knowledgeable local informants, and were available for longer periods of time not dependent on university breaks. The research assistants were paid a set amount for interviewing/transcribing, based on lengths of the tapes – 10 Naira for 60 minute tapes and 15 Naira for 90 minute tapes. This rate was established during the early Ahmadu Bello University research phase and continued through the remainder of the research period. Informants usually were given a gratuity in the form of cash, tobacco, or beer, based on the research assistants’ knowledge of what was appropriate for the area.

Access Restrictions

See Special Collections staff for details on access.

Related Material

The subject matter covered in the interviews is listed in the interview translation/transcript section. These tapes have been digitized and digital files are located on UCSB Library servers.
 

Birom - Jonah Madugu Collection

Item A23015/CS

1A - Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 14 July 1975. 1B - Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 15 July 1975; Tajan Jang at Kuzen, 16 July 1975.

Item A23016/CS

2A - Sambo Hwei at Kurra Birom, 20 July 1975; Jakawa Kash at Kurra Birom, 22 July 1975. 2B - Jakawa Kash (cont.); Macif Magit at Kuzen, 22 July 1975.

Item A23017/CS

3A - Dagul Gyong at Kakuruk, 22 July 1975. 3B - Mangat Horo at Kakuruk, 26 July 1975.

Item A23018/CS

4A - Jok Dagut at Ex Lands, 8 Aug. 1975. 4B - Dagul Dayong at Kakuruk, 9 Aug. 1975; Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 10 Aug. 1975.

Item A23019/CS

5A - Mafulal Datong at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975; Macif Man at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975. 5B - Mabas Mandau and Macif Man at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975; Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 13 Aug. 1975.

Item A23020/CS

6A - Makob Mayal at Nar, 20 Aug. 1975. 6B - Makob Mayal (cont.)

Item A23021/CS

7A - Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975. 7B - Alamba Badung (cont.)

Item A23022/CS

8A - Alamba Badung (cont.) 8B - Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975; Tajan Jang at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975.

Item  A23023/CS

9A - Ndo Mbok at Riyom, 15 Sept. 1975. 9B - (Blank).

Item A23024/CS

10A - Dalyop Chung at Gyel, 23 Sept. 1975. 10B - Dalyop Chung (cont.)

Item  A23025/CS

11A - Dalyop Chung at Gyel, 18 Dec. 1975. 11B - Dalyop Chung (cont.)

Item  A23026/CS

12A - Alamba Badung at Yelwa, 20 Dec. 1975. 12B - Alamba Badung (cont.); Badung Dagul Danbwang Bachit at Bachit, 24 Dec. 1975.

Item  A23027/CS

13A - Alamba Badung at Gindi Akwati, 20 [?] Dec. 1975. 13B - D. A. Mangut (not transcribed).

 

Challa - Francis Adams Collection

Item A23028/CS

1A - Magit Mangai at Daffo, 24 May 1976. 1B - Magit Mangai (cont.)

Item A23029/CS

2A - Maren Machen at Daffo, 24 May 1976. 3B - Malo Mukan (cont.)

Item A23030/CS

3A - Malo Mukan at Daffo, 2 June 1976. 3B - Malo Mukan (cont.)

Item  A23031/CS

4A - Maren Machen at Daffo, 14 June 1976. 4B - Maren Machen (cont.); Mafwulal Malweshesh at Mbar, 21 June 1976.

Item  A23032/CS

5A - Mafwulal Malweshesh (cont.); Mabwas Maran at Mbar, 21 June 1976. 5B - Mabwas Maran (cont.); Diyong Matek at Mbar, 21 June 1976.

Item A23033/CS

6A - Mayat Yayi at Manguna, 30 June 1976; Mangai Fala at Manguna, 30 June 1976. 6B - Mangai Fala (cont.); Mabas Pwal at Manguna, 30 June 1976.

Item A23034/CS

7A - Mabas Pwal (cont.); Tonga Kating at Manguna, 30 June 1976; Matur Magwan at Daffo, 8 July 1976. 7B - Matur Magwan (cont.)

Item A23035/CS

8A - Maren Machen at Daffo, 8 July 1976. 8B - Maren Machen (cont.); Uren Mandash at Daffo, 14 July 1976.

Item  A23036/CS

9A - Uren Mandash (cont.) 9B - Uren Mandash (cont.); Uren Mandash at Daffo, 28 July 1976.

Item  A23037/CS

10A Uren Mandash (cont.); Magit Mangai at Daffo, 4 Aug. 1976. 10B - Magit Mangai (cont.)

 

Challa - David Bwai Collection

Item A23038/CS

1A - Mabas Pwal at Manguna, 21 July 1976. 1B - Malo Maren at Manguna, 21 July 1976.

Item  A23039/CS

2A - Malo Maren at Manguna, 28 July 1976. 2A - Malo Maren at Manguna, 28 July 1976.

 

Chip - Emmanuel Dabis Collection

Item  A23040/CS

1A - Daen Yadok at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. 1A - Daen Yadok at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975.

Item A23041/CS

2A - J. D. Damang (cont.); Nangunam Longkam at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. 2B - Nangunam Longkam (cont.); Dasim Taldang at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975.

Item A23042/CS

3A - Dasim Taldang (cont.); Dashe Kopyikhil at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. 3A - Dasim Taldang (cont.); Dashe Kopyikhil at Kwallah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975.

Item A23043/CS

4A – Dasuhun (cont.) 4B - (Blank).

 

Chip - Stephen Satlong Collection

Item  A23044/CS

1A - Kuklong Longkam at Longkat Chip, 26 June 1976. 1B - Dagwor Schwarkop at Kopkuleng Chip, 12 July 1976.

Item A23045/CS

2A - Tangkop Dashe at Jepmidiyel Chip, 12 July 1976; Dakup Danan at Bakwar Chip, 20 July 1976. 2B - (Blank).

Item A23046/CS

3A - Dakan Dapam at Khidugum Chip, 20 July 1976. 3B - Dakan Dapam (cont.); Daen Yadok at Kopkuleng Chip, 27 July 1976.

Item A23047/CS

4A - Daen Yadok, (cont.); Tepsim Dyelti at Minting Chip, 27 July 1976; Dakam Dadiye at Minting Chip, 27 July 1976. 4B - Dakam Dadiye (cont.)

 

Hausa - Ezekiel Okuboye Collection

Other Descriptive Information

Some interviews conducted by Okuboye, in consultation with D. Tambo, but without him present, as part of ABU summer oral history project.
Item A23048/CS

1A - Sarkin Pawa at Naraguta, 17 July 1975; Alhaji Garba Naraguta at Naraguta,17 July 1975; Garba Mohammadu at Naraguta, 21 July 1975.1B - Alhaji Garba Dan Imamu at Bukuru, 27 July 1975; Alhaji Abubakar Sarkin Gurum at Gurum, 26 July 1975.

Item A23049/CS

2A - Garba Mohammadu at Naraguta, 14 Aug. 1975; Sarkin Pawa at Naraguta, 15 Aug. 1975. 2B - (Blank).

Item A23050/CS

3A - Bunu (Sarkin Station), Sarki Abubakar, Baba Ciroma and others at Tilden Fulani, 28 Aug. 1975; Madaki at Liruien Delma, 6 Sept. 1975. 3B - Madaki (cont.)

Item  A23051/CS

4A - Ciroma at Tilden Fulani, 9 Sept. 1975; Interview at Badikko, 10 Sept. 1975 (not transcribed as informants proved uncooperative). 4B - Madaki at Liruien Delma, 11 Sept. 1975.

Item A23052/CS

5A – Madaki (cont.) 5B – Madaki (cont.); Ahmadu at Liruien Delma, 11 Sept. 1975 (not transcribed as informant was not lucid).

 

Mushere - Jwan Mathew Collection

Item A23053/CS

1A - Gupat Rindum at Mushere, 23 June 1976. 1B - Ngukat Remkes at Mushere, 23 June 1976.

Item A23054/CS

2A - Brengshak Jwan at Mushere, 14 July 1976. 2B - (Blank).

 

Mwahavul/Sura - Thomas Anpe Collection

Item A23055/CS

1A - Audu Yahaya at Panyam, 4 Sept. 1975; Gongci Jwakyes at Lakopal Panyam, 9 Sept. 1975. 1B - Gongci Jwakyes (cont.); Panle Dirchop at Jwak Panyam, 16 Sept. 1976.

Item A23056/CS

2A - Panle Dirchop (cont.); Panle Dirchop at Jwak Panyam, 21 Sept. 1976. 2B - Panle Dirchop (cont.)

Item A23057/CS

3A - Panle Dirchop (cont.); Met Daslong at Chendom Ampang, 25 Sept. 1976. 3B - Met Daslong (cont.); Dakwel Manglek at Kopshu Ampang, 25 Sept. 1976.

 

Mwahavul/Sura - Dakon Cishak Collection

Item A23058/CS

1A - Damwesh Rinba at Mangun, 8 June 1976. 1B - Damwesh Rinba (cont.); Ringjwat Miduhur at Yemdung Mangun, 17 June 1976.

Item A23059/CS

2A - Ringjwat Miduhur (cont.); Citwas Diyekyes Lihit at Lihit Mangun, 24 June 1976. 2B - Citwas Diyekyes (cont.)

Item A23060/CS

3A - Ringjwat Miduhur at Yemdung Mangun, 29 June 1976. 3B - Cishak Vwambereng at Bilar Kereng, 7 July 1976.

Item A23061/CS

4A - Cishak Vwambereng (cont.). 4B - Cishak Vwambereng (cont.); Dabwan Dawel at Bilar Kereng, 30 July 1976.

Item A23062/CS

5A - Dabwan Dawel (cont.); Ringjwat Miduhur at Mangun, 6 Sept. 1976. 5B - Ringjwat Miduhur (cont.); Ringjwat Miduhur at Yemdung Mangun, 20 Sept. 1976.

 

Mwahavul/Sura - Leo Kumben Collection

Item A23063/CS

1A - Panle Dirchop at Jwak Pianiya (Pan yam), 9 Oct. 1976; Dabel Dasan at Kombun, 14 Oct. 1976. 1B - Bwan Dushu at Kombun, 18 Oct. 1976; Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 26 Oct. 1976.

Item A23064/CS

2A - Tokgol Makmang (cont.); Shaibu Dashal at Kombun, 30 Oct. 1976; Gol Guzan at Vodni, 8 Nov. 1976. 2B - Gol Guzan (cont.); Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 15 Nov. 1976

 

Mwahavul/Sura - Monday Mangvwat Collection

Item A23065/CS

1A - Met Daslong at Ampang, 23 Dec. 1975. 1B - Met Daslong (cont.)

 

Mwahavul/Sura - Stephen Niyang Collection

Item A23066/CS

1A - Niyang Glongshik at Vodni, 28 May 1976. 1B - Niyang Glongshik (cont.); Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 28 May 1976.

Item A23067/CS

2A - Yusufu Dakahap at Sabon Kerang, 29 May 1976. 2B - Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 2 Aug. 1976.

Item A23068/CS

3A - Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 11 Oct. 1976. 3B - Tokgol Makmang (cont.); Niyang Glongshik at Vodni, 11 Oct. 1976.

 

Ngas - Anthony Dimlong Collection

Other Descriptive Information

Early interviews conducted by Dimlong, in consultation with D. Tambo, but without him present, as part of ABU summer oral history project.
Item A23069/CS

1A - Wakdok Polit at Vel Pangchen (Pankshin), 8 July 1975; Polit Kikop at Vel Pangchen, 9 July 1975. 1B - Nendir Dafol Midim at Kor Pangchen, 14 July 1975.

Item A23070/CS

2A - Chinji Jimin at Jimin Wokkos, 15 July 1975. 2B - Gokum Gosep at Jimin Wokkos, 15 July 1975.

Item A23071/CS

3A - Gokum Gosep (cont.); Sonjiyit Longshikka at Gille Wokkos, 22 July 1975. 3B - Sonjiyit Longshikka (cont.)

Item A23072/CS

4A - Sonjiyit Longshikka (cont.); Chorka Bwirkop at Gille Wokkos, 22 July 1975. 4B - Yonkukka Majinga Kapor at Kapor Mulok Pangchen, 22 Aug. 1975.

Item A23073/CS

5A - Yongkukka Majinga Kapor (cont.); Ranshak Kirdiya at Cwill Mulor, 22 Aug. 1975. 5B - Ranshak Kirdiya (cont.)

Item A23074/CS

6A - Sedima Kishakka at Chor Ner Pangchen, 2 Sept. 1975. 6B - Sedima Kishakka (cont.).

Item A23075/CS

7A - Sedima Kishakka (cont.) 7B - (Blank).

Item A23076/CS

8A - Goldima Gotom at Ner Pangchen, 16 Sept. 1975. 8B - Goldima Gotom (cont.)

Item A23077/CS

9A - Gakwatshik Nde at Ner Pangchen, 17 and 22 Sept. 1975. 9B - Gakwatshik Nde (cont.)

Item  A23078/CS

10A - Koptam Dechi at Amper, 20 Sept. 1975. 10B - Koptam Dechi (cont.)

Item A23079/CS

11A - Koptam Dechi (cont.); Gonding Tongchin at Amper, 20 Sept. 1975. 11B - Gonding Tongchin (cont.)

Item A23080/CS

12A - Gonding Tongchin (cont.); Gowong Dimka at Kabwir, 22 Sept. 1975. 12B - Gowong Dimka (cont.)

Item A23081/CS

13A - Gowong Dimka (cont.); Gotan Hakime at Kabwir, 22 Sept. 1975; Balar Kurama at Pwel, 22 Sept. 1975. 13B - Balar Kurama (cont.); Gombwir Goyer at Pwel, 22 Sept. 1975.

Item A23082/CS

14A - Gombwir Goyer (cont.) 14A - Gombwir Goyer (cont.)

Item A23083/CS

15A - Yongkukka Majinga at Kapor Pangchen, 16 Dec. 1975. 15B - Yongkukka Majinga ( cont.); Yongkukka Majinga at Kapor Pangchen, 20 Dec. 1975.

Item A23084/CS

16A - Diga Goshit at Cwill, 23 Dec. 1975; 16B - Diga Goshit (cont.); Yilwuka Yiljur at Cwill, 23 Dec. 1975.

Item A23085/CS

17A - Yongkukka Majinga at Kapor Pangchen, 18 Sept. 1976. 17B - (Blank).

 

Pyem - Yusuf Iliya Collection

Item A23086/CS

1A - Ali Roko, Habu Ajiya, and Umar Sambo at Kasuwan Ali, 18 Dec. 1975; Gaya Musa and Juwan Mangai at Gindiri, 18 Dec. 1975. 1B - Gaya Musa (cont.)

Item A23087/CS

2A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kasuwan Ali, 9 Feb. 1976. 2B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23088/CS

3A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kasuwan Ali, 1 Mar. 1976. 3B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23089/CS

4A - Ali Roko and Jeltu BaSambo at Kasuwan Ali, 25 Mar. 1976. 4B - Ali Roko and Jeltu BaSambo (cont.)

Item A23090/CS

5A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 6 Apr. 1976. 5B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23091/CS

6A - Kaktu Sodan at Kwer Goro, 13 Apr. 1976. 6B - Kaktu Sodan (cont.)

Item A23092/CS

7A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro, 28 Apr. 1976. 7B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23093/CS

8A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro, 4 May 1976. 8B - Habur Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23094/CS

9A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro, 15 May 1976. 9B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

Item A23095/CS

10A - Kemu Jer at Chanso, 20 May 1976. 10B - Kaktu Sodan at Kwer Goro, 14 June 1976.

Item A23096/CS

11A - Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro, 26 June 1976. 11B - Habu Ajiya Mangai (cont.)

 

Pyem - Usman Umaru Collection

Biography

Born ca. 1954 near Gindiri. Ethnic group: Pyem. A primary school teacher at Gindiri during the period of research.
Item A23097/CS

1A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 16 Feb. 1976. 1B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23098/CS

2A - Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 2 Mar. 1976. 2B - Yarima Pate (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 10 Mar. 1976.

Item A23099/CS

3A - Salihu Wallah (cont.) 3B - Salihu Wallah (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 22 Mar. 1976.

Item A23100/CS

4A - Salihu Wallah (cont.) 4B - Salihu Wallah (cont.); Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 29 Mar. 1976.

Item A23101/CS

5A - Yarima Pate (cont.) 5B - Yarima Pate (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 5 Apr. 1976.

Item A23102/CS

6A - Salihu Wallah (cont.) 6B - Salihu Wallah (cont.); Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 1 May 1976.

Item A23103/CS

7A - Yarima Pate (cont.) 7B - Yarima Pate (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 8 May 1976.

Item A23104/CS

8A - Salihu Wallah (cont.) 8B - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 10 May 1976.

Item A23105/CS

9A - Salihu Wallah (cont.) 9B - Ahmadu Zelkat at Langai, 18 May 1976.

Item A23106/CS

10A - Ahmadu Zelkat (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 26 May 1976. 10B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23107/CS

11A - Salihu Wallah (cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 2 June 1976. 11B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23108/CS

12A - Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 3 June 1976. 12B - Yarima Pate (cont.)

Item A23109/CS

13A - Sangmi Yakse at Bakin Kogi (near Gindiri, 15 June 1976) 13B - Sangmi Yakse (cont.)

Item A23110/CS

14A - Sangmi Yakse(cont.); Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 26 June 1976. 14B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23113/CS

17A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 17 Oct. 1976. 17B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23114/CS

18A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 19 Oct. 1976. 18B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23115/CS

19A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 6 Nov. 1976. 19B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23116/CS

20A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 7 Nov. 1976. 20B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

Item A23117/CS

21A - Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 27 Nov. 1976. 21B - (Blank).

Item A23118/CS

22A - Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 27 Nov. 1976. 22B - Salihu Wallah (cont.)

 

Rumada (in Hausa) – Usman Umaru Collection

Item A23111/CS

15A - Maji Mohammadu at Rinjin Butu, 22 July 1976. 15B - Jibir Yari Baka at Rinjin Butu, 22 July 1976.

Item A23112/CS

16A - Jibir Yari Baka at Rinjin Butu, 13 Aug. 1976. 16B - Jibir Yari Baka (cont.)

 

Translations/Transcripts

Box 8

Original Notebooks

Other Descriptive Information

Handwritten, by research assistants/translators.
 

Microfilm of Typescripts

 

Typescripts

 

Birom - Jonah Madugu Collection

Other Descriptive Information

Also includes genealogical information about the informants.
 

1: Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 14 July 1975. Blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 1.

 

2: Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 15 July 1975. Blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 1.

 

3: Tajan Jang at Kuzen, 16 July 1975. Iron mining and blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 1.

 

4: Sambo Hwei at Kurra Birom, 20 July 1975. Iron mining and smelting in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 2. See 18 Aug. 1975, Photos 0/26. 27 for images of Sambo Hwei.

 

5: Jakawa Kash at Kurra Birom, 22 July 1975. Iron mining and smelting in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 2.

 

6: Macif Magit at Kuzen, 22 July 1975. Iron mining and smelting in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 3.

 

7: Dagul Dagyong at Kakuruk, 22 July 1975. Blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 3.

 

8: Mangat Horo at Kakuruk, 26 July 1975. Iron mining, smelting, and blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 3.

 

9:Jok Dagut at Ex Lands, 8 Aug. 1975. Iron smelting and blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 4.

 

10: Dagul Dayong at Kakuruk, 9 Aug. 1975. Blacksmithing in Birom area s.e. of Jos. Madugu Tape 4.

 

11: Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 10 Aug. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, and blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 4. See 18 Aug. 1975, Photos 0/17-19 for associated photos of workshop of Mangai Mahwet.

 

12: Mafulal Datong at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, and blacksmithing in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tape 5.

 

13: Macif Man at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975. Iron mining and smelting in Birom area s.e. of Jos. Madugu Tape 5.

 

14: Mabas Mandau and Macif Man at Nar, 13 Aug. 1975. Blacksmithing. Madugu Tape 5.

 

15: Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 13 Aug. 1975. Blacksmithing, cost and distribution of iron items. Madugu Tape 5.

 

16: Makob Mayal at Nar, 20 Aug. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, and blacksmithing in the Nar area (partly Birom and partly Afusare). Tape 6. See related 18 Aug. 1975: Samples 1-5. Also, see related photos 0/4-0/11.

 

17: Alamba Badung at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975. Apprenticeship for blacksmiths; blacksmithing ceremonies; production and distribution of items, Gashish area s.e. of Jos. Madugu Tapes 7 and 8.

 

18: Mangai Mahwet at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975. Smelting, preparation of charcoal in Birom area s.e. of Jos. Madugu Tape 8. See related photos 0/17-0/19.

 

19: Tajan Jang at Kuzen, 22 Aug. 1975. Mining, slave labour in Gashish area of Birom. Madugu Tapes 8 and 9.

 

20: Ndo Mbok at Riyom, 15 Sept. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, smithing, important festivals in area s.w. of Jos. Madugu Tape 9.

 

21: Dalyop Chung at Gyel, 23 Sept. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, blacksmithing in Gyel area of Birom. Madugu Tape 10.

 

22: Dalyop Chung at Gyel, 18 Dec. 1975. Economic organization and trade in Jos area. Madugu Tape 11.

 

23: Alamba Badung at Yelwa, 20 Dec. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, smithing. Madugu Tape 12.

 

24: Badung Dagul Danbwang Bachit at Bachit, 24 Dec. 1975. Economic organization and trade among the Birom. Madugu Tape 12.

 

25: Alamba Badung at Gindi Akwati, 20 Dec.1975. General economic questions; agriculture, hunging, fishing, Birom traders called ‘jik’ in southern Birom area. Madugu Tape 13.

 

Challa – Francis Adams

Biography

Born ca. 1950 at Daffo but spent most of his youth at a mission away from Daffo. A student at Northern Nigeria Theological College, Bukuru, during the period of research

Other Descriptive Information

Also includes sketch map by Adams, of Daffo, showing the various clans.
 

1: Magit Mangai at Daffo, 24 May 1976. Founding of Daffo area, warfare and peace settlement, trade. Adams Tape 1.

 

2: Maren Machen at Daffo, 24 May 1976. Founding of Daffo, trade, religious functions, dispute settlement. Adams Tape 2.

 

3: Musa Wàláng at Daffo, 2 June 1976. Founding of Mayi, religious functions, trade. Adams Tape 2 (Side B)

 

4: Màló Mùkàn at Daffo, 2 June 1976. Founding of Hurum, religious functions, agricultural production, and trade. Adams Tape 3 (Side A).

 

5: Maren Machen at Daffo. 14 June 1976. Religious leaders and duties, other religious figures, crimes and dispute settlement, slavery and slave trade. Adams Tape 4.

 

6: Mafwulal Malweshesh at Mbar, 21 June 1976. Origins, settlement patterns, dispute settlement, circumcision, connection with Bokkos. Adams Tapes 4 and 5.

 

7: Mbwas Maram at Mbar, 21 June 1976. Origins, trade in slaves, palm oil, horses, muturu, salt, and iron items. Adams Tape 5.

 

8: Diyong Matek at Mbar, 21 June 1976. Origins, agricultural production, trade in iron, salt, palm oil, itili oil, pots, calabashes, local occupations. Adams Tape 5.

 

9: Mayatg Yayi at Manguna, 30 June 1976. Origins,dispute settlement, leaders, trade. Adams Tape 6.

 

10: Mangai Fala at Manguna, 30 June 1976. Iron working. Adams Tape 6. See also: Film 1, Photos 1-4. See also 30 June 1976: Samples 1-7

 

11: Mabas Pwal at Manguna, 30 June 1976. Origins, clans, iron working. Adams Tapes 6 and 7.

 

12: Tonga Kating at Manguna, 30 June 1976. Material culture and trade, distribution of iron items. Adams Tape 7.

 

13: Matur Mangwan at Daffo, 8 July 1976. Daffo sections, marriage and brideprice, circumcision, death and burial, membership into Nyorong. Adams Tape 7.

 

14: Maren Machen at Daffo, 8 July 1976. Religious experts and practices, slavery and slave trade. Adams Tape 8. See also: Photos 1/14-26.

 

15: Uren Mandash at Daffo, 14 July 1976. Clothing, pregnancy, birth, marriage, women’s tasks, ownership of goods, story-telling. Adams Tapes 8 and 9.

 

16: Uren Mandash (female), 28 July 1976. Cooking, foods, utensils, dance. Adams Tapes 9 and 10.

 

17: Magit Mangai at Daffo, 4 Aug. 1976. Origins, clans, circumcision, marriage. Adams Tape 10.

 

Challa – David Bwai

Biography

Born ca. 1952 at Daffo. Previously a teacher at Manguna. Completed degree at Advanced Teachers’ College, Kano, and awaiting assignment for National Youth Service during the period of research.
 

1: Mabas Pwal at Manguna, 21 July 1976. Clan organization, iron working. Bwai Tape 1. See also 21 July 1976: Samples 1-6.

 

2: Malo Maren at Manguna, 21 July 1976. Iron working, mostly mining and smelting phases. Bwai Tape 1.

 

3: Malo Maren at Manguna, 28 July 1976. Ironworking, especially mining and smelting phases. Bwai Tape 2. See also 28 July 1976: Samples 1-3.

 

4: Tonga Kating at Manguna, 28 July 1976. Iron working, primarily smithing (informant’s father was a smith and informant helped in smithing later in his life). Bwai Tape 2.

 

Chip – Emmanuel Dabis

Biography

Born ca. 1954 at Chip. A student at Advanced Teachers’ College, Zaria, during the period of research.

Other Descriptive Information

Includes archival sources, Ames Plateau Gazetteer extract, and Agi excerpt on Chip. Also, chart on kinship terms. Also, sets of questions to be used in interviews, specifically relating to Chip.
 

1: Daen Yadok at Kwalah-Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Structure of authority, selection of chief and his duties. Dabis Tape 1.

 

2: J. D. Damang at Kwalah-Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Dispute settlement, succession, festivals, ceremonies, dance. Dabis Tapes 1 and 2.

 

3: Nangwam Longkam at Kwalah Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Origins of Chip, relations with neighbouring peoples, importance of top-knot (sung), chieftaincy, warfare. Dabis Tape 2.

 

4: Dasim Taldang at Jepmidiyel-Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Trade with Ngas, Mupun, and Merniyang, slave trade, cowries. Dabis Tapes 2 and 3.

 

5: Dashe Kopyikhil at Kwalah-Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Origins of Chip, relations with neighbours, warfare, marriage, chieftaincy, dispute settlement. Dabis Tape 3.

 

6: Dasuhun at Kapil-Chip, 19 Dec. 1975. Agricultural production, seasons, trade, warfare, hunting. Dabis Tapes 3 and 4.

 

Chip – Stephen Satlong

Biography

Born ca. 1953 at Chip. A primary school teacher at Kwallah-Chip during the period of research.
 

1: Kuklong Longkam at Longkat, 26 June 1976. Origins of Jepnikahal, settlement, agricultural production, iron production and trade; trade in salt and palm oil. Satlong Tape 1.

 

2: Dagwor Shwarkop at Kopkuleng-Chip, 12 July 1976. Origins, chieftaincy at Piyabor, village head at Kopkuleng, Chip-Ngas relations (including trade), other trade. Satlong Tape 1 (Side B).

 

3: Tangkop Dashe at Jepmidiyel-Chip, 12 July 1976. Origins; chieftaincy at Piyabor, then Jepnikahal; circumcision; trade in iron, foodstuffs, oil, salt; crafts. Satlong Tape 2 (Side A).

 

4: Dakup Danan at Bakwar-Chip, 20 July 1976. Origins, wars and weaponry, salt trade, iron trade. Satlong Tape 2.

 

5: Dakan Dapam at Khidugum-Chip, 20 July 1976. Origins of Khidugum people; trade in salt, slaves, iron; trade with Ngas, Lankan, Merniyang, Jipal; material culture. Satlong Tape 3.

 

6: Daen Yadok at Kopkuleng-Chip, 27 July 1976. Origins, chieftaincy, trade with neighbouring groups. Satlong Tapes 3 and 4.

 

7: Tepsim Dyelti at Mhinting-Chip, 27 July 1976. Chieftaincy and related matters, salt trade, warfare, kidnapping. Satlong Tape 4.

 

8: Dakam Dadiye at Mhinting-Chip, 27 July 1976. Blacksmithing, salt trade. Satlong Tape 4. See also: Photos 1/27-34.

 

Hausa – Ezekiel Okuboye

Language of Material: Hausa

Biography

Born ca. 1955 at Jos. Ethnic group: Yoruba. Fluent in Hausa. A student at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria during the period of research. Father was one of the earliest tin miners [colonial era] in Jos Area

Other Descriptive Information

File also includes sets of questions. Early interviews conducted by Okuboye, in consultation with D. Tambo, but without him present.
 

1: Alhaji Sarkin Pawa at Naraguta (n. of Jos), 17 July 1975. Settling of Naraguta, local economy, relations with neighbouring groups. Okuboye Tape 1.

 

2: Alhaji Garba Naraguta at Naraguta, 17 July 1975. Origins of Naraguta settlers. Okuboye tape 1.

 

3: Garba Mahammadu at Naraguta, 21 July 1975. Origin and occupation of early settlers in Naraguta. Okuboye Tape 1.

 

4: Alhaji Abubakar, Sarkin Gurum, at Gurum, 26 July 1975. Hausa settlement on the Plateau. Okuboye Tape 1.

 

5: Alhaji Garba Dan Imamu at Bukuru, 27 July 1975. Hausa settlement of the Plateau. Okuboye Tape 1.

 

6: Garba Mahammadu, Sarkin Naraguta, at Naraguta, 14 Aug. 1975. Hausa settlement at Naraguta, trade patterns between the Plateau and Bauchi around the turn of the century [ca. 1900]. Okuboye taoe 2.

 

7: Alhaji Sarkin Pawa, at Naraguta, 15 Aug. 1975. Hausa settlement at Naraguta; trade patterns between the Plateau and Bauchi around the turn of the century [ca. 1900]. Okuboye Tape 2.

 

8: Bunu (Sarkin Station), Sarki Abubakar (Village Head), Baba Ciroma, and two others who arrived in the middle of the interview, at Tilden Fulani, 28 Aug. 1975.. Tin mining; smelting; slave labour. Okuboye Tape 3.

 

9: Madaki, Liruen Delma, at Liruen Delma, 6 Sept. 1975. Tin smelting. Okuboye Tape 3.

 

10: [Baba] Ciroma at Tilden Fulani, 9 Sept. 1975. Tin mining and use of slave labour; exchange of ore with smelters. Okuboye Tape 4

 

11: Madaki, Liruien Delma, at Liruien Delma, 11 Sept. 1975. Tin smelting processes; distribution of smelted tin; relations with surrounding population. Okuboye Tapes 4 and 5.

 

Mushere – Jwan Mathew

Biography

Born ca. 1953 at Mushere. Ethnic group: Mushere. A primary school teacher at Mushere during the period of research

Other Descriptive Information

Includes notes and questions.
 

1: Gupat Rindum at Mushere, 23 June 1976. Origins, settlement patterns, trade, iron working, dances. Mathew tape 1.

 

2: Ngukat Remkes at Mushere, 23 June 1976. Iron working and trade, origins, agricultural production. Mathew Tape 1

 

3: Brengshak Jwan at Mushere, 14 July 1976. Iron working. [No transcript, some notes].

 

Mwahavul/Sura – Thomas Anpe

Biography

Born ca.1955 at Panyam. Ethnic group: Mwahavul/Sura. A student at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, during the period of research

Other Descriptive Information

Includes notes and questions.
 

1: Audu Yahaya at Panyam, 4 Sept. 1976. Iron working, collecting iron ore, smelting, and smithing. Anpe Tape 1.

 

2: Gongci Jwakyes at Lakopal-Panyam, 9 Sept. 1976. Crops, livestock, horses, salt, oil, grass and palm leaf items; importance of ironworking at Panyam; tobacco. Anpe Tape 1.

 

3: Panle Dirchop at Jwak-Pianiya (Panyam), 16 Sept. 1976. Salt and palm oil trade; iron working, esp. mining and smelting. Anpe Tapes 1 and 2.

 

4: Panle Dirchop at Jwak-Pianiya (Panyam), 21 Sept. 1976. Iron working, especially mining and smelting. Anpe Tapes 2 and 3.

 

5: Met Daslong at Chindom-Ampang, 25 Sept. 1976. Iron working, especially mining and smelting; exchange of iron goods. Anpe Tape 3. See also: Film 4, Photos 22-25 and 25 Sept 1976 Artifacts, Samples 1-2.

 

6: Dakwel Manglek at Kopshu-Ampang, 25 Sept. 1976. Middlemen and trade in salt and oil; ironworking. Anpe Tape 3.

 

Mwahavul/Sura – Dakon Cishak

Biography

Born ca. 1956 at Kerang. Ethnic group: Mwahavul/Sura. A secondary school teacher at Mangun during the period of research
 

1: Damwesh Rinba at Mangun, 8 June 1976. Founding of Mangun; agricultural production and crops; iron working and iron items. Cishak Tape 1.

 

2: Ringjwat Miduhur at Yemdung-Mangun, 17 June 1976. Origins of Mangun; trade; iron working. Cishak tapes 1 and 2. See also 17 June 1976: Sample 1.

 

3: Citwas Diyelkyes Lihit at Lihit-Mangun, 24 June 1976. Origins, agricultural production, ceremonies for producing rain, disputes, ceremonies for ancestors, interrelation with neighbours. Cishak Tape 2.

 

4: Ringjwat Miduhur at Yemdung-Mangun, 29 June 1976. Origins, Nshu section of Mangun, religious leaders, diviners, ceremony for ancestors, circumcision, marriage. Cishak Tape 3.

 

5: Cishak Vwambereng at Bilar-Kerang, 7 July 1976. Iron working, esp. mining and smelting. Informant is father of Dakon Cishak. Cishak Tapes 3 and 4. See also: Film 1, Photos 5-13.

 

6: Dabwan Dawel at Bilar-Kerang, 30 July 1976. Settlement patterns, relations with neighbouring groups, warfare, trade in items like salt, oil, iron; meaning of Mwahavul. Cishak Tape 4.

 

7: Ringjwat Miduhur at Mangun, 6 Sept. 1976. Types of iron items and blacksmithing. Cishak Tape 5. See also: Film 2, Photo 24.

 

8: Ringjwat Miduhur and Dabet Fut at Mangun, 20 Sept. 1976. No transcript. See related Photos 4/2-14 and 5/26. See also 20 Sept. 1976 Artifacts, Samples 1-11.

 

9: Bahwet Bilang at Yemdung-Mangun, 27 Sept. 1976. No transcript. See also: Photos 5/26-38 and 6/1-2.

 

Mwahavul/Sura – Leo Kumben

Biography

Born ca. 1957 at Panyam. Ethnic group: Mwahavul/Sura. A primary school teacher at Panyam during the period of research
 

1: Panle Dirchop at Jwak-Pianiya (Panyam), 9 Oct.1976. Origins, relations with neighbouring groups, smiths. Kumben Tape 1.

 

2: Dabel Dasan at Kombun, 14 Oct. 1976. Mining, smelting and distribution of iron goods. Kumben Tape 1.

 

3: Bwan Dushu at Kombun, 18 Oct. 1976. Mining and smelting. Kumben Tape 1. See related Photos 8/31-35. See also 18 Oct. 1976, Samples 1-27.

 

4: Tokgal Makmang at Lamor, 26 Oct. 1976. Blacksmithing. Kumben Tapes 1 and 2.

 

5: Shaibu Dashal at Kombun, 30 Oct. 1976. Blacksmithing. Kumben Tape 2.

 

6. Gol Guzan at Bilad-Vodni, 8 Nov. 1976. Mining and smelting. Kumben Tape 2. See also: Photos 9/8-15.

 

7: Tokgal Makmang at Lamor, 15 Nov. 1976. Blacksmithing. Kumben Tape 2.

 

Mwahavul/Sura – Monday Mangvwat

Biography

Born ca. 1950 at Panyam. Ethnic group: Mwahavul/Sura. A student at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, during the period of research. A member of the ruling family at Panyam; brother to the chief at the time.
 

1: Met Daslong at Ampang-West, 23 Dec. 1975. Iron working, salt trade. Mangvwat Tape 1.

 

Mwahavul/Sura – Stephen Niyang

Biography

Born ca. 1955 at Vodni. Ethnic group: Mwahavul/Sura. A student at the Northern Nigeria Theological College, Bukuru, during the period of research.

Other Descriptive Information

Includes sketch map of Vodni and surrounding areas, as described by Stephen Niyang.
 

1: Niyang Glongshik at Vodni, 28 May 1976. Origins of Vodni people, chieftaincy, dispute settlement, iron working, trade. Niyang Tape 1. See also 28 May 1976: Samples 1-7.

 

2: Tokgol Makmang at Lamor (5 km. north of Vodni), 28 May 1976. Iron working, primarily mining. Niyang Tape 1.

 

3: Yusufu Dakahap at Sabon Kerang, 29 May 1976. Origins of Kerang people, chieftaincy, dispute settlement, ceremonies and festivals, iron working, trade. Niyang Tape 2.

 

4: Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 2 Aug. 1976. Iron working, esp. mining and smelting. Niyang Tape 2. See also: Photos 1/35-38 and 2/1-5.

 

5: Tokgol Makmang at Lamor, 11 Oct. 1976. Smelting (later stages) and smithing. Niyang Tape 3.

 

6: Niyang Glongshik at Vodni, 11 Oct. 1976. Follow-up questions on smelting and smithing. Niyang Tape 3. See related Photos 8/25-30 and 9/16-20. See also 11 Oct 1976 Artifacts, Samples 1-24.

 

Ngas – Anthony Dimlong

Biography

Born ca. 1949 at Ner-Pankshin Palace. A student at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, during the period of research.

Other Descriptive Information

Early interviews conducted by Dimlong, in consultation with D. Tambo, but without him present. Includes extensive set of notes and interview topics/questions.
 

1: Wakdok Polit at Vel-Pangchen (Pankshin), 8 July 1975. Blacksmithing and trading of iron products. Dimlong Tape 1.

 

2: Polit Kikop at Vel-Pankshin, 9 July 1975. Blacksmithing in Ngas area and trading of iron products. Dimlong Tape 1.

 

3: Nendir Dafol Midim at Kor-Pankshin, 14 July 1975. Blacksmithing in Nga area and trading of iron goods. Dimlong Tape 1.

 

4: Chinji Jimin at Jimin-Wokkos District, 15 July 1975. Methods and processes of iron mining in Ngas area, esp. Wokkos area. Dimlong Tape 2.

 

5: Gokum Gosep at Jimin-Wokkos District, 15 July 1975. Iron smelting in the Ngas area and how finished products were distributed. Dimlong Tapes 2 and 3.

 

6: Suji Longshik at Wokkos, 16 July 1975. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron products. Dimlong Tape 3.

 

7: Sonjiyat Longshikka at Gille-Wokkos, 22 July 1975. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron products. Dimlong Tapes 3and 4.

 

8: Chorka Bwirkop at Gille-Wokkos, 22 July 1975. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron products. Dimlong Tape 4.

 

9: Yongkukka Majinga Kapor at Kapor-Mulok-Panghcen, 22 Aug. 1975. Iron smelting, smithing, and distribution of iron goods. Dimlong Tapes 4 and 5.

 

10: Ranshak Kirdyia at Cwill-Mulok (Pankshin Dist.), 22 Aug. 1975. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron goods. Dimlong Tape 5.

 

11: Sedima Kishakka at Chor-Ner Pangchen, 2 Sept. 1975. Iron mining, smelting, and trading of iron goods. Dimlong Tapes 6 and 7.

 

12: Goldima Gotom at Ner Pangchen Palace, 16 Sept. 1975. Iron mining,smelting, smithing, distribution of iron goods; origins (history) of the Ngas people. Dimlong Tape 8.

 

13: Gakwatshik Ned-Jos at Ner Pangchen Palace, 17 Sept. 1975. Origins (history) of Ngas people; iron mining, smelting, smithing and distribution of iron goods. Dimlong Tape 9.

 

14: Koptam Dechi at Amper, 20 Sept. 1975. Ngas origins, chieftaincy, religion, trade. Dimlong Tapes 10 and 11.

 

15: Gonding Tongchin at Amper, 20 Sept. 1975. Ngas origins and pre-colonial trade in Ngas area. Dimlong Tapes 11 and 12.

 

16: Gowong Dimka at Kabwir, 22 Sept. 1975. Origins, migrations, chieftaincy, trade. Dimlong Tapes 12 and 13.

 

17: Gotan Hakime at Kabwir, 22 Sept. 1975. Origins, religion, chieftaincy, trade. Dimlong Tape 13.

 

18: Balar Kurama at Dawaki (Pwel), 22 Sept. 1975. Origins of Ngas and pre-colonial trade. Dimlong Tape 13.

 

19: Gombwir Goyer at Lugwa-Pwel (Dawaki), 22 Sept. 1975. Origins of Ngas and pre-colonial trade. Not transcribed. Dimlong Tapes 13 and 14.

 

20: Yonkukka Majinga at Kapor-Pangchen, 16 Dec. 1975. Iron working. Dimlong Tape 15.

 

21: Yongkukka Majinga, et al atKapor-Pangchen, 20 Dec. 1975. Hunting, fishing, problems of reviving iron smelting. Dimlong Tape 15.

 

22: Diga Goshit, et al at Cwill, 23 Dec. 1975. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron goods. Dimlong Tape 16.

 

23: Yilwuk’a Yiljur at Cwill, 23 Dec. 1975. Blacksmithing. Dimlong Tape 16.

 

24: Yongkukka Majinga at Kapor, 18 Sept. 1976. Blacksmithing and distribution of iron goods. Dimlong Tape 17. See also: Photos 2/25-38 3/ 1-21. See also: 18 Sept. 1976 Artifacts, Samples 1-12.

 

Pyem – Yusuf Iliya

Biography

Born c. 1953 near Chemso (or Chanso?). Ethnic Group: Pyem. A primary school teacher at Kasuwan Ali during the period of research.
 

1: Ali Roko, Habu Ajiya, and Umaru Samba at Kasuwan Ali, 18 Dec. 1975.

 

2: Gaya Musa and Juwan Mangai at Gindiri, 18 Dec. 1975. Economic organization, trade, settlement of disputes. Iliya Tape 1.

 

3: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kasuwan Ali, 9 Feb. 1976. Iron working, mat making, slavery. Iliya Tape 2.

 

4: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kasuwan Ali, 1 Mar. 1976. Occupations and crafts. Iliya Tape 3.

 

5: Ali Roko and Jeltu Basambo at Kasuwan Ali, 25 Mar. 1976. Chieftaincy, disputes, relations with Bauchi, Kwanka neighbours. Iliya Tape 4.

 

6: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 6 Apr. 1976. Iron and slave trade. Iliya Tape 5.

 

7: Kaktu Sodan at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 13 Apr. 1976. Mat production, trade with neighbouring peoples. Iliya Tape 6.

 

8: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 28 Apr. 1976. Clan affiliations, inter-ethnic settlement, systems of weights and measures, trade in iron items. Iliya Tape 7.

 

9: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 4 May 1976. Slavery and slave trade. Iliya Tape 8.

 

10: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 15 May 1976. Mat production, epidemics and other natural disasters, trade languages, slavery and slave trade – mostly Fulani. Iliya Tape 9.

 

11: Kemu Jer at Chanso, 20 May 1976. Founding of Chanso, trade in salt, kanwa, iron, oil, mats, chieftaincy, Bauchi, warfare, hunting. Iliya Tape 10 (side A).

 

12: Kaktu Sodan at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 14 June 1976. Mats, trade with Ron, Hausa, and Kwanka, types of oil, salt, kanwa, dogs. Iliya Tape 10.

 

13: Habu Ajiya Mangai at Kwer Goro (near Gindiri), 26 June 1976. Chieftaincy, tribute, ungwa, Sura and iron items, trade and war with Sura, other relations with Sura. Iliya Tape 11.

 

14: Kaktu Sodan at Kwer-Goro (near Gindiri), 18 July 1976. Occupations and crafts. Iliya Tape 12.

 

Pyem – Usman Umaru

Biography

Born ca. 1954 near Gindiri. Ethnic group: Pyem. A primary school teacher at Gindiri during the period of research
 

1: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 16 Feb. 1976. Trade, salt, horses, mats, settlement, agricultural production. Umaru Tape 1.

 

2: Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 2 Mar. 1976. Origins, migrations, marriage patterns, relatives and kin, authority patterns, disputes, iron items. Umaru Tape 2.

 

3: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 10 Mar. 1976. Iron items, smithing, bee-keeping, domestic animals, dyes for mats. Umaru Tapes 2 and 3.

 

4: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 22 Mar. 1976. Relations with Bauchi, Pyem settlers in non-Pyem areas, inter-group marriage, Kwanka smiths, inheritance, chieftancy, clans. Umaru Tapes 3 and 4.

 

5: Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 29 Mar. 1976. Religious officials, festivals, chieftaincy, clans. Umaru Tapes 4 and 5.

 

6: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 5 Apr. 1976. Relations with Bauchi, Kwanka blacksmiths in Gindiri. Umaru Tapes 5 and 6.

 

7: Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 1 May 1976. Religious officials and their duties; settlement of disputes. Umaru Tapes 6 and 7.

 

8: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 8 May 1976. Trade in slaves, mats, local raincoats, dogs, and grain, types of mats, poisons, relations with the Fulani. Umaru Tapes 7 and 8.

 

9: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 10 May 1976. Slavery and the slave trade, including Fulani rinji. Umaru Tapes 8 and 9.

 

10: Ahmadu Zelkat at Langai, 18 May 1976. Trade, iron working, founding of Langai, relations with Bauchi, chieftaincy. Umaru Tapes 9 and 10. See also 18 May 1976:Sample 1.

 

11: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 26 May 1976. Clan activities, intra-Pyem exchange, cooperative activities. Umaru Tapes 10 and 11.

 

12: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 2 June 1976. Trade with Fulani, kanwa, settlement patterns, compound organization, raids, clan activities, circumcision. Umaru Tape 11.

 

13: Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 3 June 1976. Circumcision, leadership at Gindiri and Pyemgiji, ownership and inheritance. Umaru Tape 12.

 

14: Sangmi Yakse at Bakin Kogi (Gesin village, about one mile north of Gindiri), 15 June 1976. Founding of Bakin Kogi, Gertem people, trade, officials, dispute settlement, circumcision procedures, slavery. Umaru Tapes 13 and 14.

 

15: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 26 June 1976. Relations with Fulani, compound organization, house building, founding of Mangu, Gertem people. Umaru Tape 14.

 

16-18 listed under Rumada – Usman Umaru

 

19: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 17 Oct. 1976. Pyem people’s source of iron goods. Umaru Tape 17.

 

20: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 19 Oct. 1976. Mats and various types of oil; production and trade. Umaru Tape 18.

 

21: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 6 Nov. 1976. Trade organization, esp. of informant’s father’s father. Umaru Tape 19.

 

22: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 7 Nov. 1976. Kwanka blacksmiths, iron trade with neighbours of Pyem. Umaru Tape 20.

 

23: Yarima Pate at Gindiri, 27 Nov. 1976. Trade organization. Umaru Tape 21.

 

24: Salihu Wallah at Gindiri, 27 Nov. 1976. Trade in iron with Kantana, Kwanka, and Ron; traders. Umaru Tape 22.

 

Rumada (Hausa language) – Usman Umaru

Language of Material: Hausa
 

16: Maji Mohammadu at Rinijin Butu (ca. 3 miles north of Gindiri), 22 July 1976. Origins, settlement organization, relations with Bauchi and Gindiri, Rumada-Fulani relations, agricultural production, trade, smithing. Umaru Tape 15.

 

17: Jibir Yari (Baka) at Rinjin Butu, 26 July 1976. Political structure; relation of Rumada and Fulani; trade in items like salt, kanwa, meat; agricultural production. Umaru Tape 15.

 

18: Jibir Yari (Baka) at Rinjin Butu, 13 Aug. 1976. Econom ic organization and trade at Rinjin Butu. Umaru Tape 16.

 

Photographs

Scope and Content

Includes images of ironworking sites, iron and other locally produced items, local inhabitants, and terrain.
 

Black and White

Other Descriptive Information

35 mm
 

Lists

Other Descriptive Information

Typescript, by film number, with descriptions.
 

Original

Other Descriptive Information

Negatives and prints (contact sheets), with corresponding numbered lists. 272 images. These images have been digitized and have been uploaded to Google Picasa.

Access Restrictions

See Special Collections staff for further details re access.
 

Birom, [prob. near Gindin Akwati] circa 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photos 1-2: River, flooding

 

Film 0, Photos 1-2: River, flooding

 

Birom, at Nar, near Gindin Akwati 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photo 4: Furnace, with clay lining

 

Film 0, Photos 5-6: Same.

 

Film 0, Photo 7: Background – terrain, about 100 yards from nearest settlement.

 

Film 0, Photo 8: Smelting hole/furnace – walls about 5” thick. At least six of these furnaces within 10 yards of each other.

 

Birom, at Gindi Akwati – Exlands 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photos 12-13: Clay figure, at house of Gombe Mangut, owner of the figure, inherited from his grandpartents.

 

Film 0, Photo 14: Pot (kakarang), the neck of which put over hole of the furnace.

 

Film 0, Photo 15: close-up of decoration on same pot

 

Film 0, Photo 15: close-up of decoration on same pot

 

Birom, at Kuzen, workshop of Mangai Mahwet 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photo 17: Skins bellows, firewall, tuyeres, and hearth.

 

Film 0, Photo 18: Closeup of same.

 

Film 0, Photo 19: Rock anvil and smithing tools (hammer, tongs, file, chisel) used today; anvil same as before modern tools.

 

Birom, [at Kuzen?] circa 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photo 20: Smelting furnaces. Jonah Madugu holding tape measure.

 

Film 0, Photo 21: Smelting site, five furnaces in all.

 

Film 0, Photo 22: Inside of furnace.

 

Film 0, Photo 23: Side shot of furnace, showing height.

 

Film 0, Photo 24: Piece of wall, with pieces of slag adhering to inside of wall at bottom of picture; walls about 5-6” thick (for the two layers).

 

Film 0, Photo 25: Ground level hole (furnace wall eroded), showing two layers of wall. This wall thinner – about 1” per layer. These holes used by inhabitants of the village over the hill, maybe 200 yards away.

 

Birom, at Kurra Birom 1975 August 18

 

Film 0, Photos 26-27: Sambo Hwei.

 

Film 0, Photo 28: Basket of ‘acha’ (hungry rice) on left; basket of ‘uprap’ (grain?) on right.

 

Film 0, Photo 29: container for salt (gyem), about 9” long and 5 ¾” wide, which was given to the smith. Salt was rougher, in chunks.

 

Film 0, Photo 30: Basket (kokomo), 21” diameter, 65” circumference, 12” high, for ore, maize, etc.

 

Film 0, Photo 31: Knife for grain (ukwot) on left; knife for meat (iston) on right. These were made from European iron.

 

Film 0, Photo 32: Leg greave (atsarak), about 7” high, also of European iron.

 

Film 0, Photo 33: Sword (wall), usually fixed in wooden scabbard, covered with a goat skin, likewise made of European iron.

 

Film 0, Photo 34: Bit for horse (note barbs on underside), this of locally smelted iron. Age unknown, as old as the old man himself, so he said – possibly late 19c to early 20c.

 

Film 0, Photo 35: ‘Nanarang’, armlet (similar to manila currency), worn on wrist by women, and forearm, by elbow, by men. [Similar in style to those of Sura/Mwahavul?].

 

Challa, at Manguna (near Daffo) 1976 June 30

 

Film 1, Photo 1: Three spears made from local (smelted) iron. Informant, Mangai Fala, made the two spears (not the flat-edged one) before he grew a beard. The flat-edged one is older and he doesn’t know who made it.

 

Film 1, Photo 2: Same as Photo 1.

 

Film 1, Photo 3: Heads of same spears.

 

Film 1, Photo 4: Two tons and a chisel, the blacksmithing tools of the informant, Mangai Fala.

 

Mwahavul, at Kerang 1976 July 7

 

Film 1, Photo 5: “Sheng” – a type of net used by women

 

Film 1, Photo 6: Smaller “sheng “– a type of net used as women’s handbag.

 

Film 1, Photo 7: “Tip” – bag for grain.

 

Film 1, Photo 8: “Kichik” – basket for iron ore, etc. (various sizes).

 

Film 1, Photo 9: “Chan” – hoe, made from more recent European iron.

 

Film 1, Photo 10: Same as Photo 9.

 

Film 1, Photo 11: “Sep” – axe for cutting wood/logs, made from smelted iron.

 

Film 1, Photo 12: Spears, made from local smelted iron. The right one was made at Kerang, and the left from Mangun. The Kerang one has no barbs (“hos”), while the Mangun one with barbs, is called “yer”.

 

Film 1, Photo 13: Close-up of same spear heads.

 

Challa, at Daffo 1976 July 8

 

Film 1, Photo 14: “Shir mburai”, medicine for divination.

 

Film 1, Photo 15: Medicine, pounded into powder.

 

Film 1, Photo 16: Spreading same around mat.

 

Film 1, Photo 17: Shaking the powder on tree/bush, then shaking bush until small spider fell on it – this called “U”.

 

Film 1, Photo 18: “Zarash” – leg greaves of smelted iron, from Manguna, bought by the informant when he was married and a young man.

 

Film 1, Photo 19: “Shitam mapuri” – horse bits from Manguna, made of smelted iron, more than 20 years old.

 

Film 1, Photo 20: “Ndu” – gourd for measuring and carrying oil.

 

Film 1, Photo 21: Two spears.

 

Film 1, Photo 22: Close-up of same. One spear head with barbs (uging), of local iron from Manguna, more than 20 years old, with handle of same length. The other spear head without barbs, also of smelted iron from Manguna, more than 20 years old.

 

Film 1, Photo 23: New type of hoe (shita) of modern iron, made by Daffo blacksmiths.

 

Film 1, Photo 24: Hoe of local iron (shita marangul) from Manguna, more than 20 years old.

 

Film 1, Photo 25: Same as Photo 24.

 

Film 1, Photo 26: “Gwir” – drum for Wur and Nyrong mats and circumcision and death of official member [?] – all at Maren Machen’s house and property of Maren Machen.

 

Chip 1976 July 27

 

Film 1, Photo 27: Two hoes, new, but same design as before.

 

Film 1, Photo 28: “Shahal Shi” for dancing.

 

Film 1, Photo 29: “Songval” (on left), with two barbs on same side.

 

Film 1, Photo 30: “Akahas Yakar” (on right), with two barbs on alternate sides. Both of these are arrows. Now made in Chip, but of Ngas type.

 

Film 1, Photo 31: Spear (song akahas) of Ngas type.

 

Film 1, Photo 32: same as Photo 31.

 

Film 1, Photo 33: Axe (sep) of Ngas type.

 

Film 1, Photo 34: Knife (Shuk Bwon) of Ngas type, but now made in Chip, with wooden handle and hairy skin sheath. This type recent.

 

Mwahavul, at Lamor (near Vodni) 1976 August 2

 

Film 1, Photo 35: Hammer (pron. sigep; tongs (giyap) – both out of local iron and belonged to informant’s father at one time.

 

Film 1, Photo 36: Arrows (pas), one-barbed type is called “Song min dong” and three-barbed type is called “song kun”. Made by the informant but out of European iron, eight years old.

 

Film 1, Photo 37: Same as Photo 36.

 

Film 1, Photo 38: Large hoe (ngang) – this type with ribs, made out of local iron by informant’s father.

 

Film 2, Photo 1: Spear (kop) with metal handle to balance – this type called “riyep kop” (girl spear). The iron shaft part of the spear is called “shahal ter kop” which roughly translates, I think, as iron part of the spear.

 

Film 2, Photo 2: Leg greave (z?ré or zere) – father of the informant made these after his (informant’s) birth; father also was smith at Wuhamp.

 

Film 2, Photo 3: Knife (chuk) – this type called “kip”, worn at the waist with groove.

 

Film 2, Photo 4: Digger/adze (gujigr or similar spelling) – this made from European type metal.

 

Film 2, Photo 5: Clouds coming in over the hills, just of Birnin Ladi.

 

Mwahavul/Ngas 1976 September 6

 

Film 2, Photo 24: Kerang Hill (volcano) and Pankshin hills, looking north, with storm moving in.

 

Ngas, at Cwill-Kapor 1976 September 18

 

Film 2, Photo 25: the Itili tree (pet) from which oil, fruit, and charcoal all were made/extracted, near Pankshin.

 

Film 2, Photo 26: “Sur” tree, for best quality charcoal and roofing.

 

Film 2, Photo 27: Locust bean – in Pankshin more itili than locust bean, but vice versa when descending to the plains.

 

Film 2, Photo 28: Type of pot put on furnace; about two feet high, hole is about one foot in diameter, circumference at the widest spot was 5”2”.

 

Film 2, Photo 29: Charcoal on inside of pot.

 

Film 2, Photo 30: Slag heaps with potsherds. Now used for terracing, late millet planted. Probably the site for the recent smelting for BPTV.

 

Film 2, Photo 31: Same as Photo 30.

 

Film 2, Photo 32: Cylinder (tuyere probably) or the part for inside the furnace. Inside diameter about 4 ½”.

 

Film 2, Photo 33: Site of many tuyeres.

 

Film 2, Photo 34: Left tuyere 5 ½” hole; right 5”; each about 10” long.

 

Film 2, Photo 35: tuyeres, also at Cwill-Kapor; there must be at least ten altogether her, piled in one spot.

 

Film 2, Photo 36: Same as Photo 35.

 

Film 2, Photo 37: Possible covered furnaces, built against stone walls for terracing on hill side; hole dug below surface apparently, so still might be in good shape.

 

Film 3, Photo 1: Iron ore (kurti) and grinding stones, different sizes, smaller ones for children.

 

Film 3, Photo 2: Same as Photo 1.

 

Film 3, Photo 3: Same as Photo 1.

 

Film 3, Photo 4. Compound and hills by Kapor, facing towards Wokkos.

Other Descriptive Information

These heaps of slag are all over the hillsides; seem to be large areas of several furnaces each, separate by maybe 30 yards between the sites. All the slag and furnaces are on the lower part of the hill, only a few yards up, a mile or less from Kapor (but nearer iron ore). However, at the time of smelting, it appears that the Kapor settlement was closer, at the top of the same hill, maybe 100 yards or so from the smelting sites (and this conforms better with distances in other cases)
 

Film 3, Photo 5: More “sur” trees, cut regularly for firewood; not that this is a quite heavily wooded area, even today (note proximity of wood and smelting sites re location theory).

 

Film 3, Photo 6: At compound of Yongkukka Majinga at Kapor. Spear.

 

Film 3, Photo 7: Same as Photo 4.

 

Film 3, Photo 8: Arrows – barbs on each side (3-0; 3-3; 2-0).

 

Film 3, Photo 9: Same as Photo 8, but closeup.

 

Film 3, Photo 10: Hoe (nang).

 

Film 3, Photo 11: Large hoe-shaped iron (chenkom), from bottom to tip 2’8 ½” and about 2’ across.

 

Film 3, Photo 12: Bracelets and arm bands, some smooth and some twisted.

 

Film 3, Photo 13: Same as Photo 10.

 

Film 3, Photo 14: Hammer (sup).

 

Film 3, Photo 15: “Kamwus”.

 

Film 3, Photo 16: Tongs (gwop).

 

Film 3, Photo 17: Broken sickle (jim).

 

Film 3, Photo 18: Strips of cloth (bat) made at Kapor.

 

Film 3, Photo 19: Quiver.

 

Film 3, Photo 20: Closeup of rocks [?].

 

Film 3, Photo 21: Same rocks.

 

Pyem, at Chemso circa 1976 September 19

Other Descriptive Information

Research assistant: Usman Umaru. No related interviews found.
 

Film 3, Photo 23: Entry to compound of Dan Zamo

 

Film 3, Photo 24: Inside compound of Dan Zamo, mat strips drying.

 

Film 3, Photo 25: Compound, inside compound.

 

Film 3, Photo 26: Granaries (same compound).

 

Film 3, Photo 27: Collapsed room, same compound.

 

Film 3, Photo 28: Grinding stones.

 

Film 3, Photo 29: Pot and fireplace.

 

Film 3, Photo 30: Table and pot.

 

Film 3, Photo 31: Pot (yila bofo) for cooking meat and to give to spirit.

 

Film 3, Photo 32: Same.

 

Film 3, Photo 33: Ritual pot (zang bafash), e.g. pot with two mouths.

 

Film 3, Photo 34: Man cleaning/trimming mat strip.

 

Film 3, Photo 35: Drum (ritual) in zaure, same compound.

 

Film 3, Photo 36: Mosque at Chemso.

 

Film 3, Photo 37: Lamuna, near Chemso – hoe, about 4’ long.

 

Film 3, Photo 38: Ajia Musa Yilmut, cutting grass for mats.

 

Film 4, Photo 1: Wife of Ajia, preparing tuwo (Hausa term for a kind of thick dough or porridge).

 

Mwahavul, at Mongun 1976 September 20

 

Film 4, Photo 2: Furnace, approx. one mile s. of present Mangun, just off the path to Yemdung. 2’5” diameter, with 3-4” walls, depth unclear, partially filled.

 

Film 4, Photo 3: Hillside.

 

Film 4, Photo 4: Furnace #2. 2’5” wide and 3” deep, partially filled though.

 

Film 4, Photo 5: Hillside of furnace.

 

Film 4, Photo 6: Tuyere entering furnace, 6” wide.

 

Film 4, Photo 7: Furnace.

 

Film 4, Photo 8: Clay section put as wall over furnace.

 

Film 4, Photo 9: At R. Miduhur’s compound. The “zuk wus” (sitting place for meetings and evenings – “wus” is fire, so fire place); cloth stip in background. See also: Film 3, Photo 18 for another cloth strip.

 

Film 4, Photo 10: “Shahal” (iron bloom, with smelted iron, slag, and charcoal adhering) from furnace – not the whole piece. Film 4, Photo 11: Close-up of same.

 

Film 4, Photo 12: “Gyrik” 5 ½ in. wide and about ¼ in. thick.

 

Film 4, Photo 13: Large hoe-shaped iron.

 

Film 4, Photo 14: [Grinding holes?].

 

Jos Museum 1976 September 22

Related Material

See typed list for descriptions of items at the Jos Museum, with additional drawings and measurement of items.
 

Film 4, Photo 15: Arrow, 1’11 ½”. Accession No. 56/59.

 

Film 4, Photo 16: [Spear head?], 10 ¾” long and 2” wide. Acc. No. 63/J6.

 

Film 4, Photo 17: Two knives with handles. (1) 8” blade, tip-to-handle and 11 ½ “ with handle, (2) 7 ¾ blade tip-to-handle and 11 ¼” with handle. Acc. No. 62J.49.1.

 

Film 4, Photo 18: Two leg greaves/spurs. Left: 11 ¼” circumf. top and 17” circumf. bottom. 7 ¾” long, with 1 ¾ “ spurs (5 spurs) tied with rawhide; [soldered?] in back to attach to the greave, looks like brass – must be more recent. Right: 11 ¼” circumf. top and 17” bottom. 7 ¾” long, with 1 ¾” spurs. 5 spurs with rawhide. Acc. No. 58/16/4.

 

Film 4, Photo 19: Leg greaves. Acc. No. 63J5.

 

Film 4, Photo 20: Closeup.

 

Film 4, Photo 21: Closeup. Right: rusted. 17” top and 11” bottom. 8 ¼ “ long with 2” spurs (6 spurs attached with flat piece of metal bent over in back to attach. Left: polished by Museum. Note the rivet-like bits on the back near the slit at the top. 8 ¼ “ long, with 2” spurs (7 spurs). Not brass or copper accretion (later?) and from the attachment to the greaves, looks as though they are nails.

 

Mwahavul, at Chendom, Ampang West 1976 September 25

 

Film 4, Photo 22: Leg greaves (zere) from the Challa people, maybe 1940s.

 

Film 4, Photo 23: Spear (pang) at Ampang, Chendom Dashuwar, early 20c.

 

Film 4, Photo 24: Arm ring (kim) made at Chendom, early 20c. Women wore them from the wrist to the elbow and men from the elbow up.

 

Film 4, Photo 25: Hoe made at Chendom – existed when a small boy (who was? Met Daslong?). “Ears” to hold the soil, called “kom”, hence “chan kom” (same as Ngas).

 

[untitled] circa 1976 September 26

 

Film 4, Photos 26-30: Vom area, where Tambo family lived, at St. Joseph’s College, during research period.

 

Jos Museum circa 1976 September 26

Other Descriptive Information

Measurements on typed list.
 

Film 4, Photo 31: Hoe. Acc. No. 58/16/24.

 

Film 4, Photos 32-33: Same hoe - closeup.

 

Film 4, Photo 34: Hoe. Acc. No. 57-95.

 

Film 4, Photo 35: Same hoe – closeup.

 

Film 4, Photo 36: Hoe. Acc. No. 62J.19.3.

 

Film 4, Photos 37-38: Same hoe – closeup.

 

Film 5, Photo 1: Hoe. Acc. No. 58.16.23.

 

Film 5, Photos 2-4: Same.

 

Film 5, Photo 5: New spear. Angas. Acc. No. 59.6.29.

 

Film 5, Photo 6. Same.

 

Film 5, Photo 7: Axe (sep). Acc. No. 62J.19.2.

 

Film 5, Photo 8: Sword (wal). The ‘pamp’ are brass discs. Acc. No. 54.6.2.

 

Film 5, Photos 9-11: Same.

 

Film 5, Photo 12: Leg greaves. Acc. No.54.6.4.

 

Film 5, Photos 13-14. Sword. Sura (Mwahavul). Acc. No. 58.16.10.

 

Film 5, Photo 15: Sword/knife from Ropp. Rawhide over handle – woven/knotted. Acc. No. 58.81.2.

 

Film 5, Photo 16: Large tongs. One arm longer. Rivet-like part to attach the two (newer type?). Acc No. 58.80.3.

 

Film 5, Photo 17: Short tongs, made at Zawan. Rivet to hold together. Note curled ends at handle. Incised decorations. Acc. No. 58.80.2.

 

Film 5, Photo 18. Spear. 6 barbs. End is broken where attached to handle. Acc. No. 63J.7.

 

Film 5, Photos 19-20: Pipe. Acc. No. 58.81.1.

 

Film 5, Photo 21: Pipe cleaner. Bronze rings, copper wire wound around. Note cartridge at top. Obviously fairly recent.

 

Film 5, Photo 22: Wooden and iron spurs (tied around leg). 9 spurs, apparently fixed into holes, tied together with rawhide. Acc. No. 58.77.1.

 

Film 5, Photos 23-24: Bridle. Forum. Acc. No. 58.76.7.

 

Film 5, Photo 25: Bridle. Acc. No. 58.77.2.

 

Mwahavul, at Yemdung, Mangun 1976 September 27

 

Film 5, Photo 26: at at Ringjwat Miduhur’s compound. Foreground is meeting place and top background areas is for drying grain.

 

Film 5, Photo 27: Smiths’ workshop at Yemdung. – open air construction to dissipate heat from the process.

 

Film 5, Photo 28: Same.

 

Film 5, Photo 29: Tuyeres (three of them) – note groove near mouth, for tying on the skin. 3’1” tip-to-end, 8” outside circumf. and about 6 ½ “ inside circumf. at large end and 1 ½” circumf. at small end.

 

Film 5, Photo 30: Tuyeres, with attachment to fire (piyak?).

 

Film 5, Photo 31: Bellows sticks, 3 ½ to 4 ft. long. Note knob on one end for tying skin (diagram on typed list).

 

Film 5, Photo 32: Tuyeres and hearth. Hearth is aabout 2 ft. x 3 ft. and 1 ft. deep.

 

Film 5, Photo 33: Tying skins on sticks.

 

Film 5, Photo 34: Tying skins to tuyeres.

 

Film 5, Photo 35: Charcoal in calabash.

 

Film 5, Photo 36: Bellows fixed.

 

Film 5, Photo 37: Smith and bellowers in position.

 

Film 5, Photo 38: Bellowers.

 

Film 6, Photo 1: Hammer.

 

Film 6, Photo 2: Tongs.

 

Mwahavul at Panyam circa 1976 September 28 - 1976 September 29

 

Film 6, Photo 3: Smith’s workshop in Panyam.

 

Film 6, Photo 4: Smith’s workshop – these are Hausa-style bellows and setup; old type workshop no longer in use at Panyam. In general, more Hausa influence in Panyam.

 

Film 6, Photo 5: Smith’s workshop.

 

Film 6, Photo 6: Smith’s workshop.

 

Jos Museum 1976 September 30

Related Material

Measurements on typed list.
 

Film 6, Photo 7: Horse bell. Acc. No. 59.14.6.

 

Film 6, Photo 8: Same horse bell.

 

Film 6, Photo 9: Spoon, from iron smelted at Mangun by Sura (Mwahavul). Acc. No. 56.57.1.

 

Film 6, Photo 10: Small hoe. Acc. No. 59.13.4.

 

Film 6, Photo 11: Archer’s thumb ring, leather charm severed. Birom. Acc. No. 65J.105.

 

Film 6, Photo 12: Spears. Right (Acc. No. 65J.117.1) 14 barbs on each side. Left (Acc. No. 65J.117.3) 12 or 13 barbs on each side near tip; note 6 rings of iron, purpose apparently to provide balance for throwing.

 

Film 6, Photo 13: Same.

 

Film 6, Photo 14: Hammer. Acc. No. 60J.109.2.

 

Film 6, Photo 15: Hammer. Acc. No. 58.81.6.

 

Film 6, Photo 16: Iron currency disc, ‘tyere’ in Birom, or ‘unfinished hoe’. Approx. 30 equal one wife. Value one pound or one sheep. From Korot, made by Don. Acc. No. 63J.239.

 

Film 6, Photo 17: Stirrups. Acc. No. 60J.157.1.

 

Film 6, Photo 18: Same. Note riveted sections. All one piece but overlay with decoration riveted on.

 

Film 6, Photo 19: Knife. Birom. Note holes as decoration in the blade. Acc. No. 58.81.9.

 

Film 6, Photo 20: Same. Shows how blade and handle are one piece and hilt is another piece.

 

Film 6, Photo 21: Knife and wooden handle. Blade with some sort of writing or figures on blade, similar to 58.81.9. Acc. No. 58.92.6.

 

Film 6, Photo 22: same knife.

 

Trip to Abuja circa 1976 October 1

 

Film 6, Photo 23 – waterfalls off road going south from Jos.

 

Mwahavul, at Per, near Vodni 1976 October 11

 

Film 8, Photo 25: Site of mining, apparently in seams; mined ravines which seem to be overgrown today. S. Niyang notes several hills all in a lone, with this whitish rock, in small pieces, predominating. At least two of the hills mine for iron ore (see Int. 1 with Niyang Glongshik).

 

Film 8, Photo 26: Per Hill from s.e. side; most holes evident today are on the n.e. side, maybe 1/3 to ½ way up.

 

Mwahavul, at Vodni, Jwak Gumpal 1976 October 11

 

Film 8, Photo 27: Furnace site.

 

Film 8, Photo 28: Furnace #1, at base of hill; hole about 2 ft. wide, wall about 3in. thick, not very much slag evident.

 

Film 8, Photo 29: Furnace #2, about 100 yds. Away, almost obliterated, but about 2 ft. in diameter.

 

Film 8, Photo 30: Rocks behind, to support wall.

 

Mwahavul, at Kombun 1976 October 18

 

Film 8, Photo 31: Hole at Kombun. Deri site for mining. Kwakas Wuriya. About 3 ft. x 7 ft. hole, perhaps 2-3 ft. deep.

 

Film 8, Photo 32: Site of hills 1 and 2. 1 is Kwakas Wuriya and 2 is Kwakas Buhol.

 

Film 8, Photo 33: Fulani on trek south to Gboko.

 

Film 8, Photo 34: Same.

 

Film 8, Photo 35: Furnace site 3 – in the midst of a guinea corn field, so slag is spread all over and broken into small pieces.

 

Trip to south edge of the Plateau circa 1976 November 1

 

Film 8, Photo 36: Shirley Tambo on stone causeway near Ambar, south of Richa.

 

Film 8, Photo 37: Same stone causeway.

 

Film 9, Photo 1: Same stone causeway.

 

Film 9, Photo 2: Shirley Tambo and British volunteers, near Kamwai, looking south onto the plains.

 

Film 9, Photos 3-5: Near Kamwai, looking south onto plains.

 

Film 9, Photo 6: Bicycling down water-covered road.

 

Film 9, Photo 7: Storm in the distance?

 

Mwahavul, at Vodni, compound of Gol Guzan 1976 November 8

 

Film 9, Photo 8: Old style bellows, three used at a time. The cone (putukhul) is broken; maybe 7” longer if it wasn’t.

 

Film 9, Photo 9: Closeup of bellows.

 

Film 9, Photo 10: Informant and bellows (7” diameter).

 

Film 9, Photo 11: Bellows, wooden end normally covered with mud.

 

Film 9, Photo 12; Inside of bellows. Sketch diagram with dimensions of bellows, included with list.

 

Film 9, Photo 13: Smelting site, used by Shikmi and Kahlip (separate families – not related? Same compounds. Farming altered the site).

 

Film 9, Photo 14: Smelting site.

 

Film 9, Photo 15: Part of Vodni. Hills in distance are original site of Vodni.

 

Mwahavul, at Vodni, compound of Nigyang Glongshik 1976 November 8

 

Film 9, Photo 16: ‘Ndol’ for dancing.

 

Film 9, Photo 17: ‘Zere’ (leg greave) belonging to Jorto. Probably older than other objects. Jorto not sure who made it; perhaps father of Fwangkat.

 

Mwahavul, at Vodni 1976 November 8

 

Film 9, Photo 18: at furnace site (see transcripts) used for more than ten years. Estimates about 1 ½ feet deeper originally, but now partially filled in.

Related Material

See list for dimensions.
 

Film 9, Photo 19: same furnace, interior view.

 

Film 9, Photo 20: same furnace, different view.

 

Jos Museum 1976 November 30

Related Material

Measurements on typed list.
 

Film 10, Photo 18: Iron plate, about 6 ½” x 4 ½” x about ¼” thick, irregular shape but mostly regular thickness, perhaps a bit thicker in middle. 650g. Acquired 2 Nov. 1976 by Dr. Njoku. Origin: Birom, from Forom. Not yet cataloged.

 

Film 10, Photo 19: Sword and scabbard. Acquired July 29,1976. Origin: Birom, from Du village. No. 763.21.4.

 

Film 10, Photo 20: Another view of same sword and scabbard.

 

Film 10, Photo 21: Sword, without scabbard. Length 1’11”.

 

Film 10, Photo 22: Sword (iwal) and scabbard. Length 2’ 1 ½”, blade 2” wide. 59.80.2

 

Film 10, Photo 23: Closeup of handle of same sword and scabbard.

 

Film 10, Photos 24-27: Missing.

 

Film 10, Photo 28: Spur (tariya), made by Norkurunu ca. 40 years ago (so maybe mid 1930s). “Nkas” (Ngas?). 63J.162.3.

 

Film 10, Photo 29: Spurs. 8” long and 3 ½” wide. Acquired from Pam Gwon. Origin: Birom, from Forom. Est. to be ca. 121 years old (which would be around 1850s – very early). 50.80.9.

 

Film 10, Photo 30: Spurs (zawan). 7 ½” long and 4” wide. 63J.151.1 and 63J.151.2.

 

Film 10, Photo 31: Iron rattle for dancing. 1’11” long and 2 ¼” wide. Acquired 29 Oct. 1976 by Dr. Njoku. Origin: Birom, from Forom. Cat. No. T.E.4.

 

Film 10, Photo 32: Bracelet (kupiring) worn by women. Outer diameter 4” x ½” thick. Origin: Birom. Est. to be 131 years old (which would be around 1840s – very early). 59/70/5.

 

Color Slides

Other Descriptive Information

35 mm ca. 10/1976: 3 slides - Gindiri mats. n.d. – 4 slides from book, about Dimi ironworking.
Box 9

Printed Materials

 

Dissertations

 

de Barros, Philip Lynton. “The Bassar: Large Scale Iron Producers of the West African Savanna.” UCLA, 1985.

 

Childs, Susan Terry. “Style in Technology: A View of African Early Age Iron Smelting through Its Refractory Ceramics.” Vols. I and II. Boston University, 1986.

 

Conant, Francis Paine. “Dodo of Dass: A Study of a Pagan Religion in Northern Nigeria.” Columbia University, 1960.

 

Goucher, Candice Lee. “The Iron Industry of Bassar, Togo: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of African Technological History.” UCLA, 1984.

 

Killick, David. “Technology in Its Social Setting: Bloomery Iron-Smelting at Kasungu, Malawi, 1860-1940.” Yale University, 1990.

 

Hausa Dictionaries and Grammars

Other Descriptive Information

Includes ironworking and other related terms.
 

Abraham, R. C. Dictionary of the Hausa Language. London: University of London Press, 1962.

 

Kraft, C. H., and A. H. M. Kirk-Greene. Hausa. London: English Universities Press, 1973.

 

Skinner, Neil. Hausa Language Course. Madison, WI: Department of African Languages and Literature, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1971.

 

__________. Kamus na Turanci da Hausa: English-Hausa Dictionary. Zaria: Northern Nigeria Publishing Ltd., 1970.

 

Jos Oral History and Literature Texts: One Harmattan 1981. Jos, Nigeria: Department of History, University of Jos, 1981.

 

Jos Oral History and Literature Texts: Two Early Rains 1981. Jos, Nigeria: Department of History, University of Jos, 1981.

Box 10

Writings

 

“African Historical Dictionaries in Perspective, African Studies Association, Annual Review of Books (1980): 199-208.

 

African Oral History Collections” – unpublished.

 

The ‘Hill Refuges’ of the Jos Plateau: A Historiographical Examination,” History in Africa 5 (1978): 201-222.

 

“Pre-Colonial Iron Working on the Jos Plateau,” Fourth Seminar on the Economic History of the Central Savanna of West Africa, Abdullahi Bayero College, ABU, Kano, Nigeria, 5th-10th Jan. 1976.

 

The Sokoto Caliphate Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century (M.A. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1974).

 

“Trade and Exchange Mechanisms in the Daffo Area of the Jos Plateau,” Jos Oral History and Literature Texts 2 (1981): 32-84