Willis M. Hawkins Papers, 1920-2009

Finding aid prepared by Brook Engebretson and Emily Wittenberg.
Manuscripts Department
The Huntington Library
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2203
Fax: (626) 449-5720
Email: manuscripts@huntington.org
URL: http://www.huntington.org
2011
The Huntington Library. All rights reserved.


Descriptive Summary

Title: Willis M. Hawkins Papers
Dates: 1920-2009
Bulk dates: 1949-1998
Collection Number: Consult repository.
Creator: Hawkins, Willis M.
Extent: 80 boxes
Repository: The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Manuscripts Department
The Huntington Library
1151 Oxford Road
San Marino, California 91108
Phone: (626) 405-2203
Fax: (626) 449-5720
Email: manuscripts@huntington.org
URL: http://www.huntington.org
Language of Material: The records are in English.

Administration Information

Access

Collection is open to qualified researchers by prior application through the Reader Services Department. For more information, please go to following http://www.huntington.org/huntingtonlibrary.aspx?id=554 .

Publication Rights

In order to quote from, publish, or reproduce any of the manuscripts or visual materials, researchers must obtain formal permission from the office of the Library Director. In most instances, permission is given by the Huntington as owner of the physical property rights only, and researchers must also obtain permission from the holder of the literary rights. In some instances, the Huntington owns the literary rights, as well as the physical property rights. Researchers may contact the appropriate curator for further information.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Willis M. Hawkins Papers, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California.

Acquisition Information

The collection was a gift from Nancy G. Bostick, Hawkins’s daughter and trustee, delivered to The Huntington Library on 1 October 2004.

Biography

Willis Moore Hawkins (1913-2004) was born in Kansas City, Missouri on 1 December 1913. As the only child of Willis Moore Hawkins, Sr. and Elizabeth Daniels, who divorced shortly after his birth, Willis was raised by his mother. He was one of five students in the first graduating class of Leelanau School, an experimental high school in Glen Harbor, Michigan that emphasized the outdoors and science. After earning his Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1937, he began a career that would span over 60 years at Lockheed Aircraft Company, starting as a junior detail engineering draftsman in Burbank, California.
Hawkins advanced through a number of key engineering positions at Lockheed, becoming engineering department manager in 1944 and chief preliminary design engineer in 1949. From 1953 to 1957 he was director of engineering at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC), a division he helped to found. He became Assistant General Manager in 1957, Corporate Vice President in 1960, and Vice President and General Manager of LMSC Space Systems Division in 1961. He served as Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s Vice President-Science and Engineering from 1962 to 1963 and 1966 to 1969, then advanced to Senior Vice President-Science and Engineering and was elected a member of the Board of Directors in 1972. Although he took early retirement in 1974, he remained with Lockheed as a senior advisor and board member and in 1976 returned as Senior Vice President and President of the Lockheed-California Company, a position he retained until 1979. From 1979 to early 1980 he served the corporation as Senior Vice President-Aircraft, from which he again retired but remained as Corporate Senior Advisor until his death in 2004.
During his long Lockheed career, Hawkins played a major role in the design and development of airplanes, missile systems, and space vehicles. He served as a structural component designer on the P-38 Lightning fighter, the Hudson bomber, and the Lodestar transport. He contributed significantly in the design of high-speed fighters such as the P-80 Shooting Star (first U.S jet fighter), F-104 Starfighter (supersonic interceptor aircraft), and transports such as the C-130 Hercules, Constitution, and Constellation. He directed the formation of Lockheed’s first major organization for Weapon System Analysis, which defined the optimum anti-submarine warfare systems with the support of the Office of Naval Research. He also directed the pilotless aircraft division and led the development of the X-7 ramjet test vehicle and X-17 reentry test vehicle, which formed the basis for the formation of LMSC. As chief engineer and then as assistant general manager of the Missiles and Space Division, he led the advanced design teams that developed the concepts leading to the Navy’s Polaris submarine launched ballistic missile as well as the Agena space vehicle and Discoverer program.
In addition to his work at Lockheed, Hawkins contributed his ideas and advice to the government, military, and industry establishments through his consulting for a variety of private and public institutions, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Army, the Navy, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Research Council (NRC). With the NASA he served as a member of the Space Program Advisory Council (SPAC) from 1974 to 1978, as a member, then Chairman of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) between 1975 and 1984, and as a member of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) from 1977 to 1983. He was a member of the NRC Naval Studies Board (NSB) from 1982 to1986 and 1988 to1992, member, then Chairman of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) from 1967 to 1975, and a member of the NAE Space Applications Board (SAB) from 1975-1978. He was also Vice-Chairman (1970) and Chairman (1971) of the Aerospace Industry Association (AIA) Aerospace Technical Council and, in 1979, Chairman of the Defense Science Board of the Department of Defense.
Hawkins received numerous awards and honors throughout his career. In 1961 he received the U.S. Navy Distinguished Public Service Award for his contributions to the Polaris missile program. Hawkins briefly left Lockheed between 1963 and 1966 to serve as Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Army for Research and Development, for which he received Distinguished Civilian Service Awards in 1965 and 1966 for his contributions to the Army’s research and development programs and for his direction of the M1 Abrams main battle tank development. He received an honorary Doctor of Engineering degree from the University of Michigan in 1965 and an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Illinois College in 1966, the same year he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). In addition to the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal awarded in 1975 for his contributions to the space shuttle program, Hawkins received the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy in 1982 and the National Medal of Science in 1988.
Hawkins was a member of many professional organizations, including the honorary engineering society, Tau Beta Pi, and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). He was a fellow of both the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the Royal Aeronautical Society of Great Britain.
Hawkins held 14 patents, including basic aircraft and component patents on carrier aircraft landing gear, a multiple-wheel system for large aircraft, a jet aircraft system with augmented takeoff and boundary-layer control, thrust augmentation of pure jet engines, aircraft control with thrust deflection, jet aircraft with aft-mounted engines, and design patents for several Lockheed airplanes, including the C-130 Hercules transport vehicle.
Although he worked as an engineer and administrator rather than a test pilot, Hawkins earned a pilot’s license in 1939 and owned a series of private planes over his lifetime. He also maintained a sense of civic duty, and gave many speeches to a variety of audiences ranging from children to professional groups. He authored numerous articles in a wide variety of publications, both popular and technical, and remained deeply involved in many aspects of aviation in his private life until his death.
He married Anita Stanfill on 22 June 1940; they had three children, Nancy Gay (Bostick) (b. 1943), Willis M. III (b. 1945), and James Walter (b.1956). Widowed in 1982, Hawkins remarried Fredericka Betts in 1984 and later divorced in 1990. He died at his home in Woodland Hills, California on September 28, 2004 of natural causes at the age of 90.

Scope and Content

The Willis M. Hawkins Papers, 1920-2009 (80 boxes) document the successful aerospace engineering career of Hawkins at Lockheed, the relationships between industry, military, and government, and the development of airplanes, missile systems, and space vehicles during the second half of the 20th century. Effort was made to maintain the original order in which the collection arrived at The Huntington Library and the arrangement reflects Hawkins’ organization of materials largely by subject, project, or organization. The collection is divided into ten series: Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development, Calendars and Diaries, Consulting Files, Correspondence, Personal Files, Photographs, Presentations and Speeches, Publications and Writings, Subject Files, and Oversized, with the bulk of the material concentrated in the Consulting Files, Correspondence and Subject Files series. The bulk of collection materials date from the 1950s to the early 1990s and consists of correspondence, memoranda, presentation and meeting materials, reports, blueprints, clippings, speeches, writings, and ephemera. The collection is especially rich in correspondence; in addition to Hawkins’ incoming and outgoing correspondence is the copied correspondence of other Lockheed executives with whom Hawkins worked closely during his tenure. Hawkins’ involvement in consulting and professional organizations was often in conjunction with his role at Lockheed, and researchers should thus be aware that materials are often dispersed through the series. For example, materials related to specific committees are frequently represented in both the Correspondence and Consulting Files Series.
The collection consists of the following series, described in detail within this document:
SERIES 1: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, 1963-1966, 1968, 1970-1972, 1975, 1992, n.d.
SERIES 2: CALENDARS AND DIARIES, 1966-1981, 1983-1984, 1995-1998
SERIES 3: CONSULTING FILES, 1966-1999, n.d.
SERIES 4: CORRESPONDENCE, 1941-1964, 1966-2001, 2003-2004, n.d.
SERIES 5: PERSONAL FILES, 1937, 1941-1954, 1955, 1959, 1961-1994, 1997-2001, 2008-2009, n.d.
SERIES 6: PHOTOGRAPHS, 1920, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1939, 1944, 1946, 1947-1948, 1950, 1952, 1954-1955, 1957, 1962-1967, 1969-1971, 1974-1989, 1991-1994, 1999-2000 n.d.
SERIES 7: PRESENTATIONS AND SPEECHES, 1949, 1952-1956, 1958-1962, 1964, 1966-2002, 2004, n.d.
SERIES 8: PUBLICATIONS AND WRITINGS, 1937, 1944, 1950, 1979-1981, 1983-1987, 1992-1993, 1995-1997, 1999-2000, n.d.
SERIES 9: SUBJECT FILES, 1920, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937, 1942, ca. 1944, 1945-1946, ca. 1947-1948, 1951, 1956-1957, 1962, 1964-1986, 1988-2001, 2004, n.d.
SERIES 10: OVERSIZE, 1963-1966, n.d.

Arrangement

ARRANGEMENT
A detailed container list is available through the Manuscripts Department.

Indexing Terms

Corporate Names

Lockheed Advanced Development Company
Lockheed-California Company
Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company

Subjects

Aeronautical engineers—United States
Aeronautics—United States
Aerospace engineering
Aerospace engineering—United States
Aerospace engineers—United States
Aerospace Industries Association of America
Aerospace industries—Employees
Aerospace industries—United States
Aerospace Technical Council (Aerospace Industries Association of America)
Aircraft industry—Employees
Aircraft industry--Military aspects
Aircraft industry--United States
Aircraft industry--United States—History
Airplanes
Airplanes—Design and construction
Airplanes, Military
Antisubmarine aircraft
Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (U.S.). Naval Studies Board
Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (U.S.). Space Science Board
Ballistic missiles
California—History—1950-
Cheyenne (Attack helicopter)
Constellation (Transport planes)
Engineering—United States
Engineers—United States
Hydrogen as fuel
Intercontinental ballistic missiles
Jet planes, Military
Liquid hydrogen
Lockheed aircraft
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation—History
Supersonic transport planes
NASA Advisory Council
National Research Council (U.S.)
National Research Council (U.S.). Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board
National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Army Science and Technology
Stealth aircraft
United States. Army Scientific Advisory Panel
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

Geographic Areas

California, Southern
Burbank (Los Angeles County, Calif.)

Genre

Awards
Clippings
Documents
Ephemera
Negatives (photographic)
Photocopies
Photographic prints
Scrapbooks
Technical drawings


CONTAINER LIST

 

Series 1. Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development 1963-1966, 1968, 1970-1972, 1975, 1992, n.d.

Physical Description: 1 box

Scope and Content Note

Arranged by subject and chronologically, the series documents Hawkins’ term of service as Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development and consists of clippings, photographs, ephemera, and correspondence. Includes six large scrapbooks located in Oversize series.
 

Series 2. Calendars and Diaries 1966-1981, 1983-1984, 1995-1998

Physical Description: 3 boxes

Scope and Content Note

The series contains three distinct forms of calendars and diaries, arranged by format and chronologically. Of particular interest are the diaries (1966-1981, 1983-1984) which contain Hawkins’ detailed and extensive daily entries of work activities with personal commentary. Calendars (1980-1983), likely maintained by Hawkins’ secretary or assistant, contain brief schedule and appointment notes. Personal calendars (1995-1998) were maintained by Hawkins and contain brief notes of his daily activities, primarily personal, but include work and travel schedules.
 

Series 3. Consulting Files 1966-1999, n.d.

Physical Description: 27 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged alphabetically by organization, institution, or corporation, the series consists of agendas, correspondence, meeting materials, memoranda, minutes, notes, organizational charts, papers, presentation materials, and reports that document Hawkins extensive consulting experience with the government, military, and industry establishments. Hawkins’ involvement in consulting was often in conjunction with his role at Lockheed, as such, researchers should be aware that materials may be dispersed through the collection.
Committees and studies in which Hawkins acted as chairman are best represented in the series. He served as chairman for the National Research Council Strategic Technologies for the Army (STAR) Study, formed with the primary objective “to identify those technological requirements, operational changes, and combat service support structures needed to land and support forces ashore.” The bulk of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) records date from 1976 to 1984, including Hawkins’ term as chair from 1982 to 1984. The ASAP assessed the operational plans, procedure, and facilities of the Space Transportation System, including the design and schedule review, space shuttle alternatives review, and risk analysis; frequent correspondents include James Beggs, Gil Roth, Gen. James Abrahamson, Herbert Grier, and Leighton I. Davis. Hawkins also advised NASA programs as member and Chairman of the National Academy of Engineering Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), and as a member of both the National Academy of Sciences Space Applications Board (SAB) and Space Science Board (SSB). The records in the NAE subseries document the relationship between the ASEB, SSB, and SAB, and include detailed meeting summaries and yearly activity reports; frequent correspondents include LaRae L. Teel, George M Low, James C. Fletcher, and Charles H. Townes.
 

Series 4. Correspondence 1941-1964, 1966-2001, 2003-2004, n.d.

Physical Description: 20 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged alphabetically by subject and chronologically within, the series contains professional and personal letters, often including attachments of meeting notes, agendas, minutes, papers, blueprints, drawings and clippings. The Chronological subseries, likely maintained by Hawkins’ secretaries or assistants, represents the bulk of the series and consists primarily of Hawkins’ outgoing correspondence. Compiled by Hawkins, the various subject and Personal correspondence files contain a greater number of incoming letters and memoranda. In addition, copied correspondence or memoranda from or between Lockheed executives throughout Hawkins’ tenure are well represented in the series. The distinctions between the subseries are often unclear as there is overlap and duplication of topics and material. As such, researchers should be aware that materials may be dispersed through the series. Likewise, materials in the Correspondence, Consulting Files, and Subject Files series are frequently related and contain corresponding or duplicate documents.
Frequent correspondents include Lockheed executives and senior management such as Roy A. Anderson, Lawrence O. Kitchen, and Daniel Tellep, Norman R. Augustine, Carl Haddon, Carl Kotchian, James W. Plummer, Jack Real, Clarence L. Johnson, Ben Rich, Daniel J. Haughton, and Courtland Gross. Frequent correspondents at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company include Eugene Root, Herschel Brown, Stanley Burriss, Louis Ridenour, and James Plummer. The Army, Air Force, and Navy are correspondents within the Department of Defense (DoD) subseries.
Topics represented in the series include aircraft (C-141 Starlifter, C-5 Galaxy, AH-56 Cheyenne, L-1011, supersonic transport, stealth, Quiet Aircraft, remotely piloted vehicles, long endurance aircraft), missile systems (tactical, long range, intercontinental, air-to-air, air-to-surface, cruise, Polaris, Ding-Dong), space programs and satellite systems (Discoverer/CORONA, Pioneer Venus, Agena), and projects (Ping-Pong reconnaissance rocket, X-7 ramjet test vehicle, X-17 research rocket). Other topics represented are employee relations, personnel development, and operations at Lockheed, internal and national research and development programs, and liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Noteworthy are Hawkins’ weekly, monthly, and yearly activity reports throughout the Chronological subseries, which provide an account of the projects he supervised in detail.
 

Series 5. Personal Files 1937, 1941-1954, 1955, 1959, 1961-1994, 1997-2001, 2008-2009, n.d.

Physical Description: 3 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged alphabetically by subject, the series contains awards, financial records, ephemera, correspondence, and clippings. Also documents Hawkins’ social memberships, patents, and security clearances.
 

Series 6. Photographs 1920, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1939, 1944, 1946, 1947-1948, 1950, 1952, 1954-1955, 1957, 1962-1967, 1969-1971, 1974-1989, 1991-1994, 1999-2000 n.d.

Physical Description: 3 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged alphabetically by subject, the series contains various sized photographs and negatives in black and white and color. Several photographs precede Hawkins’ tenure at Lockheed, but capture significant company events, programs, and employees. Photographs originally located in other series within the collection were replaced with photocopies and relocated to the Photographs series.
 

Series 7. Presentations and Speeches 1949, 1952-1956, 1958-1962, 1964, 1966-2002, 2004, n.d.

Physical Description: 7 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged chronologically, the series contains notes, correspondence, drafts, and ephemera that document Hawkins’ extensive public speaking engagements. Hawkins spoke on a wide range of topics to varied audiences, including aerospace clubs, professional organizations, elementary and university classes, and Lockheed employees. Topics include commercial transport, liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel, science and technology, the role of engineers, maintaining aerospace leadership, research and development, as well as Lockheed projects and history.
 

Series 8. Publications and Writings 1937, 1944, 1950, 1979-1981, 1983-1987, 1992-1993, 1995-1997, 1999-2000, n.d.

Physical Description: 1 box

Scope and Content Note

The series consists of drafts, papers, correspondence, notes, and clippings and is divided into two subseries, published and unpublished material, and arranged alphabetically by title. Topics include the history and future of Lockheed and aerospace industry projects, management systems, liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel, public speaking, and memorial tributes. Writings were published in domestic and international journals, magazines, and books, for professionals as well as enthusiasts.
 

Series 9. Subject Files 1920, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935, 1937, 1942, ca. 1944, 1945-1946, ca. 1947-1948, 1951, 1956-1957, 1962, 1964-1986, 1988-2001, 2004, n.d.

Physical Description: 14 boxes

Scope and Content Note

Arranged alphabetically by subject, the series is comprised of correspondence, reports, papers, memoranda, notes and ephemera relating to various Lockheed projects in which Hawkins was involved. Project designations for aircraft, satellites, missiles, etc. changed over time, as such, subseries titles reflect the designations represented in the materials in chronological order. The subjects best represented/illustrated in the series include the C-5A / C-5D / C-5 Galaxy subseries, which documents the 1972 Congressional Hearings and the Corporate Steering Committee chaired by Hawkins, formed to review and guide the efforts of the Task Force assigned to improve the utility of the C-5 for the Air Force; the L-1011 Tristar subseries details the design plans, production of the Rolls Royce RB-211 engine, 1971 Congressional Hearings, and airplane rollout; and the C-130 Hercules subseries contains material regarding the design of the aircraft, litigation issues, and anniversary articles. The Rigid Rotor Helicopters subseries documents the Blue Ribbon Committee technical audit of the AH-56A, the technical design review of a surveillance derivative of AAFSS, and the history of the program; frequent correspondents include Jack G. Real, M. Carl Haddon, and Rudy Thoren. The Hydrogen Fuel subseries documents Hawkins international campaign to use liquid hydrogen as an alternate aircraft fuel and includes the reports and papers of Daniel Brewer, who worked closely with Hawkins.
The Lockheed Aircraft Company / Lockheed Corporation / Lockheed Martin subseries documents corporate history through employee newsletters, oral histories, correspondence, clippings, ephemera, photographs, papers, reports, and notes. The Oral Histories subseries is primarily comprised of transcripts of interviews conducted in 1982 by W.D. Perreault as a Lockheed Oral History Project. The discussions explore the early life, education, career of the interviewee. Also described are significant events, developments and projects at Lockheed and in the aerospace industry during the individual’s career. The subseries also contains transcripts from interviews of Hawkins in 2000 and Cyril Chappellet’s wife, Pat, in 2001.
 

Series 10. Oversize 1963-1966, n.d.

Physical Description: 1 box and 6 scrapbooks

Scope and Content Note

The series is comprised of clippings, correspondence, ephemera, photographs, and presentation materials that document Hawkins’ term as Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development and contains art work used for presentations related to the use of hydrogen as an alternate fuel.