A collection of Ethiopic manuscripts, various dates

Processed by Kesis Melaku Terefe, October 2008; machine-readable finding aid created by Caroline Cubé.
UCLA Library Special Collections
Room A1713, Charles E. Young Research Library
Box 951575
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1575
Email: spec-coll@library.ucla.edu
URL: http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/special/scweb/
© 2013
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.


Descriptive Summary

Title: A collection of Ethiopic manuscripts
Date (inclusive): various dates
Collection number: 937
Extent: 13 boxes.
Abstract: Collection contains 64 Ethiopian manuscripts.
Language: Finding aid is written in English.
Language of the Material: Materials are in Ethiopic (Ge'ez), Agaw, and Amharic.
Repository: University of California, Los Angeles. Library Special Collections.
Los Angeles, California 90095-1575
Physical location: Stored off-site at SRLF. Advance notice is required for access to the collection. Please contact UCLA Library Special Collections for paging information.

Administrative Information

Restrictions on Access

Open for research. STORED OFF-SITE AT SRLF. Advance notice is required for access to the collection. Please contact UCLA Library Special Collections for paging information.

Restrictions on Use and Reproduction

Property rights to the physical object belong to the UC Regents. Literary rights, including copyright, are retained by the creators and their heirs. It is the responsibility of the researcher to determine who holds the copyright and pursue the copyright owner or his or her heir for permission to publish where The UC Regents do not hold the copyright.

Processing Note

Processed by Kesis Melaku Terefe, October 2008.

Ge'ez descriptions available

To obtain a copy of this finding aid which contains Ethiopic language (Ge'ez) descriptions of the material, please contact UCLA Library Special Collections. A computer with the Ge'ez font installed is necessary to view the Ge'ez descriptions.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], A collection of Ethiopic manuscripts (Collection 937). UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA.

Scope and Content

Collection contains 64 Ethiopian manuscripts. Of these, 14 are magical prayers, 10 of which are in scrolls. Most of the manuscripts are service books of Ethiopian Orthodox Church. There is one manuscript which is the prayer book of Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jewish community); it is one of very few Jewish manuscripts written in Ethiopic (Ge'ez) and Agaw. Most of the manuscripts are written in the Ethiopic (Ge'ez) language but there are some manuscripts in Amharic.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.

Subjects

Ethiopic manuscripts.


Container List

Box 1

Manuscript number: 1 Title (Romanized): Qeddāsé Māryām, Malek’ā Kidāna Mehrat

Uniform title: Anaphora of Mary, Images of the Saints

Title (English): The Anaphora of Mary and Image of Kidana Meherat (Covenant of Mary).
1842-1854.

Author: Cyriacus Bishop of Behnesa
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns of text, 14 lines of text per page

Size: 97 mm x 64 mm x 28 mm (heighth, width, spine)

Velum, 120 pages (60 leaves)

the manuscript composed in six quires 10 leaves each

Text in black ink. Beginning of each prayer, instructions for the priests and deacons, Saint Mary's name and the name of the Holy Trinity are in red ink

Binding: stamped leather over wooden boards.

Written by a single hand.

No drawings.

Quires??

Biography

Based on the size of the manuscript (it is too small for church service), we can say the purpose of this manuscript is for private use.

Provenance

On p. 82, the previous owner's name is overwritten with ink and, at the bottom of the page, it says "Ayela Eyasus's origin is in Wallaga."

Scope and Content

One of the the official fourteen anaphoras of the Ethiopian orthdox church. Praise for St. Mary and discourse on the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as the major part of the liturgy.
Box 1

Manuscript number: 2 Title (Romanized): Arede’et , Sena Feterat, Mesṭira Hāyamnot, Amestu A’emāda Mesṭir

Uniform title: The Book of Disciples, Beauty of the Creation, Mystery of the Faith

Title (English): The Book of Disciples, Beauty of the Creation, Mystery of the Faith (The Five Pillars of Mystery).
18th-19th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column of text, the first book 14 lines of text per page the second book with different hand has different lines per page.

140mm x 95m x 73m

Vellum, 300 pages

Text in black ink. Beginning of each prayer and the names of Jesus, Christ, Mary, and also the name of the owner are in red ink

Binding: Wooden board.

The second part of Beauty of the Creation is written by another scribe in poor handwriting.

Quires?

Biography

The manuscript contains four books. Book of the Disciple is the Christian version of the same book which is also used by the Beta Israel (Falasha or Ethiopian Jew). It narrates how Jesus told his disciples his hidden names. The second book, The Beauty of the Creation, also lists what God created in six days. The Five Pillars of Mystery teaches the basic doctrine of the Ethiopian Church in catechism format.

Provenance

The owner (scribe?) was Gabra Heyewat. On pp.89, 90, 97, 99, 100, 120, his name is erased and over it inserted the second owner's name Waleda Hawareyat. The scribe of Beauty of the Creation mentions Abuna Wold (pp. 180).
Box 1

Manuscript number: 3 Title (Romanized): Weddasé Māryām, AnqaṢa Berhān, Yewédeswā Malā’ekt, Mālk’ā Māryām, Malek’ā Eyasus

Uniform title: Wedase Mareyam

Title (English): Praise of Mary, The Gate of the Light, Angeles Praise Her, The Image of Mary, and the Image of Jesus.
late 19th c.

Author: Attributed to Ephrem the Syrian (500s) and St. Yared the Musician (600s)
Scribe: Gabera Eyasus
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns on vellum, 17 lines per page

Vellum, 128 pages

Size: 147 mm x 105 mm x 30 mm

Binding: stamped red leather over the board

Text in black ink, Jesus and Mary's name and the beginning of each prayer (maleke) are in red.

The manuscript is composed of quires of ten leaves each.

Some illustrations.

Provenance

On p.126, the owner wrote in Amharic and Ge'ez that "this book belongs to Gabera Hana."
Box 1

Manuscript number: 4 Title (Romanized): Ṣoma Deggwā

Uniform title: Church Hymns

Title (English): Hymns for Lent.
Late 19th-early 20th cent.

Author: St. Yared the Musician
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 222 pages.

Two columns per page, 21 lines of text per page.

Size: 161 mm x 124 mm x 50 mm

Text mainly in black ink. The musical tones, the type of song, and the day for that song are in red ink. Small hand.

Some missing musical notes added in blue ink (pen)

Musical notations throughout, above each line of the hymn.

Binding: wooden board with leather spine, in sewn plastic case with applique and cloth strap. String

The manuscript is composed of quires of ten leaves each.

Illustration of Saint Yared p. 4.

Biography

Soma Degguwa is one of St. Yared's well-known hymn books. It is the standard for traditional church education. Learning Soma Degguwa is the second great step after finishing reciting psalm.

Provenance

The owner is listed in pencil as Tafasa of Dabera Amin Takla Haymanot (p. 1)

Scope and Content

Hymns for Lent season. St.Yared, the author of these hymns, divided the Lent season into eight weeks. Almost all of the hymns are constructed around the teaching and miracles of Jesus. The hymns discuss the teaching of Jesus in the Synagogue, his cleaning of the temple, the miracle of healing paralysis, the parable of the faithful servant, his discussion with Nicodimus, his teaching about his second coming, his glorious entrance into Jerusalem, his last days in Jerusalem, and his crucifixion.
Box 1

Manuscript number: 5 Title (Romanized): Yetbārak Egzi’abehér amelāka Esrā’él …

Uniform title: Prayers of the Beta Israel

Title (English): Blessed Be the Lord God of Israel ….
20th.c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Northern Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 200 pages

Two columns, 14 lines of text per page

Size: 145mm x 130mm x 40mm

Text in black ink. The beginning of each section ('me'eraf), the names of God, and the angles are in red ink.

Binding: without cover boards.

The manuscript composed in 12 quires

Biography

A rare and important collection of Beta Israel prayers in the Ge'ez and Agaw languages. Most of the Ge'ez prayers are derived from the Bible, especially from Psalms, those in Agaw are more indigenous and difficult to translate. One of the last Beta Israel books to be written in Ge'ez or Agaw. See David Appleyard, Title??? (publisher, date).

Provenance

p. 145, the owner of the book is named Abba Barok. Purchased by Prof. Wolf Leslau.
Box 2

Manuscript number: 6 Title (Romanized): MāṢehāfa ṭemeqat

Uniform title: Book of Baptism

Title (English): Book of Baptism.
20th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 72 pages

One column of text, 14 lines of text per page

Size: 148 mm x 110 mm x 40 mm

Binding: wooden boards with leather spine

Text in black ink, some names and the beginning of the prayers and instructions for Deacons and Priests are in red.

The manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

No illustrations.

Provenance

"This book belongs to Wayzaro Walatta Kidan. She gave the book to the church of Kidane Merhat" (p. 64)
Box 2

Manuscript number: 7 Title (Romanized): Mazemura Dāwit, Ṣalota Nabiyat, Wedāsé Māryām, AnqaṢa Berhān

Uniform title: Dawit

Title (English): Psalter, Canticles of Old and New Testament Prophets, Praise of St. Mary, The Gate of Light.
19th c.

Author: King David, Ephrem of Syria, St. Yared the Musicain
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column of text, 22 lines of text per page

Vellum, 142 pages

Size: 170 mm x 115 mm x 30 mm

Binding: wooden boards.

The front wooden board and two thirds of the Psalms pages are missing. The Psalms begin with Psalm 111 (112): 3b.

The manuscript is damaged, probably by water. The text in red ink is totally washed out or faded.

The manuscript composed in seven quires of two quires has 12 leaves each , four quires of 10 leaves each and one quire of 8 leaves.

The text is in black ink; the name of God, angels, and saints, including the scribes and the owners, and the first line of each book, is in red ink.

No illustrations.
Box 2

Manuscript number: 8 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽eneta Ḥemāma Ayena ṭelā wa- Ayena Wareq, Māhléta Ṣegé, Seyefa Śelāssé,Qeddāsé Māryām

Uniform title: Prayer, Qedāsé

Title (English): Prayer against the Disease of Ayena ṭelā and wa- Ayena Warek, Canticles of the Flower (Mary), Sword of Trinity, Anaphora of St. Mary.
20th c.

Author: Various authors
Scribe: Habeta Mareyam
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: pp1-65 and 207-217 One column of texts. Pp75-206 and 219 two column of text

Vellum, 272 pages. The first four blank pages with out page numbers.

Size: 120mm x 94 mm x 40 mm

Binding: stamped red leather over the board each book written with different hand.

The first book of the manuscript composed in one quire of two leaves, three quires of ten leaves each and one quire of six leaves.

The second book of the manuscript composed in one quire of four leave one ten leave six quires of eight leaves each one qiere of five leaves.

The third book in composed in one quire of six pages.

The fourth book composed one quire of ten leaves one quire of eight leaves and one quire of six leaves.

Text is in black ink. Divine and saints name in red ink

Provenance

The magical prayer agianst ayena telā was owned by Fekada Egezi'e (pp. 2, 6, 12, 13, etc). Canticles of the Flower was owned by Hayela Sellase (pp. 141). And the second owner of that book is Waleda Mareyam (pp. 141). Sword of Trinity owned by Walda Zena Markos (pp. 209, 212, 217). The Anaphora of St. mary was owned by Walda Tensae (pp. 219, 265).

Scope and Content

The prayer against the disease of ayena telā uses magical names for protection from evil spirits. Māhaléta Ṣegé are songs for St. Mary sung during Zamana Sege (the season of flowers), the season between Meskaram (September/October) 26 and Hedar (November) 6. The seaons is the commemoration of the flight of the Holy Family to Egypt. Sword of Trinity. Praise for the Holy Trinity and prayer for protection from evil spirits and evil people.
Box 2

Manuscript number: 9 Title (Romanized): Tā’amerā Mareyam Maqdem Tergwāme

Uniform title: Te'amera Mareyam

Title (English): Commentary on the Introductory Rite of Almuqqā of the Miracle of Mary.
20th c.

Author: Ethiopian church scholar
Scribe: ???
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, 11 lines of text per page

Vellum, 134 pages. The first four pages are blank and with out page nambers

Size: 100mm x 70mm x 35mm

Composed of quires of eight and ten leaves each.

Text in black ink. Beginning of each chapter (parts) and also the divine and church father names in red ink. Binding: wooden boards

Biography

According to the tradition of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the introduction of the Miracles of St. Mary must be read before any other reading from the book. There are two types of introduction. The longer one presented in this manuscript is read every Sunday and on the feast of St. Mary. The introduction of the Miracles of St. Mary is also known as the Book of Order, which discusses how the book of the Miracles of St. Mary came to Ethiopia. In addition to its introduction about the honor of St. Mary and her miracles and the importance of reading her miracles, the book also lists the 33 feasts of St. Mary. Based upon the method of andmeta commentary, the author tries to comment on the introduction and points out the importance of honoring her feast and hearing the reading of the miracle. The author also explains the severity of the anathema of the fathers on those who have not followed this order.

Provenance

On p.133, Debetara Zena is mentioned as the owner.

Scope and Content

Commentary on the introduction to the Miracles of St. Mary; it is a rare individual commentary. The writer follows the 'anedemta' commentary style. The main theme is about the usefulness of listening to the reading of the book of the Miracles of St. Mary and keeping the 23 feasts of St. Mary
Box 2

Manuscript number: 10 Title (Romanized): ṭabiba ṭabibān; Arde‛et

Uniform title: Hymn to God; Book of the Disciples

Title (English): The Wisest of the Wise; Book of the Disciples.
Late 19th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column of text per page,11 lines of text per page

Vellum, 166 pages

Size: 102 mm x 74 mm x 33 mm

Binding: stamped red leather over the board

The manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each

Text is in black ink. The beginning of each chapter (parts) and prayers with divine names are in red ink.

No illustrations

Scope and Content

Tebiba Tabiban is a hymn for God written in metrical poetry. For Ared'et, see MS no. …
Box 2

Manuscript number: 11 Title (Romanized): Deresāna Mikā’él

Uniform title: Deresan

Title (English): Homilies on St. Michael the Archangel.
19th c.

Author: The homilies are attributed to the bishops of Alexandria and Ethiopia.
Scribe: Habeta Maryam
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 274 pages

Two columns per page, 19 lines of text per page

Size: 195 mm x 140 mm x 59 mm

The manuscript composed of fourteen quires of two quires of four leaves, four quires of twelve leaves and eight quires of ten leaves each.

Text in black ink. The beginning of each homily and the names of Jesus and the archangel Michael are in red ink.

Binding: wooden board with string binding

Some illustrations.

Biography

These thirteen homilies are written to be read during the feasts of St. Michael each month. Each homily includes a miracle of the Archangel Michael and hymns for him.

Provenance

The original owner is unknown. The later owner inserted his name in pencil as Takela Maryam.

Scope and Content

A collection of thirteen homilies in honor of the Archangel Michael. Following each homily there is one miracle of St. Michael and the Synaxarium about St. Michael for each month.
Box 2

Manuscript number: 12 Title (Romanized): Sayefa Śellāsé, Dersāna Mikā᾽él, Amestu A'emāda Mesṭir

Uniform title: The Sword of the Trinity, Homily of St. Michael, The Five Pillars of the Faith

Title (English): The Sword of the Trinity; Homily On St. Michael; Introduction of The Five Pillars of the Faith.
Late 18th.c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page,17 lines of text per page

Vellum, 100 pages

Size: 165 mm x 130 mm x 30 mm

The manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

Text is in black ink, the beginning of each prayer and divine names are in red ink.

Binding: wooden board without a cover for the spine

Some borders as illustrations.

Provenance

The previous scribe or owner's name, Takla Haymanot, has frequently been erased from the text and replaced with the name Gabera Heyewot

Scope and Content

Prayer to the Holy Trinity (Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit). Praise of the Trinity based on God's attributes. Theology of the Triune God. Prayer for protection from evil spirits, evil persons, magicians, and sorcerers.
Box 3

Manuscript number: 13 Title (Romanized): Nages (Egzi᾽abehér Nagesa)

Uniform title: Hymns for Saints' Feasts

Title (English): Enthroned (God Is Enthroned).
20th c.

Author: Various Ethiopian church scholars.
Scribe: Gabera Le'ul
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column per page, thirteen lines of text per page

Vellum, 222 pages

Size: 135 mm x 87 mm x 48 mm

Text in black ink, beginning of each nagese divine and saints' names in red ink.

Binding: wooden boards. With protective vellum cover over the vellum only. Leather spine cover.

The manuscript is composed of very different quires (in number of leaves and size).

No illustrations.

Provenance

The first owner is listed as "Gabera Egezi'abeher Saneduna Qale" on p.217, the second owner is listed as "This book belongs to Dabetera Nadew's. End of Nages [the book]." (p. 2)

Scope and Content

Nages for feast days
Box 3

Manuscript number: 14 Title (Romanized): Amesetu A᾽emāda Mesṭir; Bāhera Ḥāsab; Nags

Uniform title: The Five Pillars of Mystery; Computus; Hymns

Title (English): The Five Pillars of Mystery, Computus of Ethiopian Calendar; Hymns to God and Saints.
Late 19th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 120 pages
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, fourteen lines of text per page

Binding: wooden boards

Size: 122 mm x 85 mm x 29 mm

Most of the manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

The text is in black ink; the name of God, angels, and saints, including the scribes and the owners, and the first line of each book, is in red ink.

No illustrations.

Provenance

"This picture is for Aleka Hiruy" p. 1 (later addition?)
Box 3

Manuscript number: 15 Title (Romanized): Mesālyāta Salomon; Daqiqa Nabiyāt

Uniform title: Book of Proverbs and Minor Prophets

Title (English): Proverbs of Solomon; The Minor Prophets.
19th-20th c,.

Author: According to the tradition of Ethiopia, the authors of the Book of Proverbs is King Solomon.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 178 pages

Binding: wooden boards

Size: 185mm x 165mm x 65mm

Text is in black ink, some names and titles of the chapters are in red.

The manuscript is composed of ten quires of one quire of four leave one quire of eight leaves eight quires of ten leaves each.

Biography

Amesetu Masāhefeta Salomon (the five books of Solomon) is the name which is given to Proverbs, Tagsas, Wisdom, and Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs.In this manuscript Song of Song is not included. The reason seems to be that Song of Songs is usually attached with Psalms and it becomes part of the church service book. The manuscript also contains the books of the 12 minor prophets. Like the other Christian traditions, the Ethiopian scholars also divided the book of the prophets of the Old Testament into two parts, Abayet Nabiyāt (major prophets) and Daqiqa Nabiyāt (minor prophets). Critical editions and translations of parts of the Ethiopic versions of the books of Solomon and minor prophets of Ethiopic version were conducted, especially in Europe. For full discussion see ??????.

Provenance

There is a note in Amharic from Abba Matthias, the Catholic Bishop of Shoa: "this book is for Tasaruye Waleda Selasse. I, Abba Matthias, put the seal twice by mistake." p.177 Tasefa Iyasus is also mentioned as the owner.

Scope and Content

Part of the wisdom and prophetic books of the bible, which include Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Wisdom of Solomon, and the books of the minor prophets
Box 3

Manuscript number: 16 Title (Romanized): Saātāt; Nages; Liton

Uniform title: The Hours; Hymns for Saints; Liton

Title (English):The Hours; Hymns for Saints; Liton.
early 18th c.

Author: Abba Giorgis of Segla (Gascha) and other unknown Ethiopian scholars
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page,13 lines of text per page

Vellum, 226 pages

Size: 145 mm x 140 mm x 68 mm

Binding: wooden boards

Text is in black ink; the beginning of some prayers and St. Mary's name are in red ink.

The manuscript is composed of fifteen quires of eight and ten leaves each.

Some leaves missing at the end.

Provenance

On p. 2 appears the names of Priest Wolda Abb and Priest Habta Giyoregis. Someone has inserted as a bookmark a blank form of colonial Italy's 'Telegramma in partaenza'. On the back of the form, it is written in Amharic, 'I, Mekonnen Gezaw, borrowed from my father Abba Jerom four Ethiopian Birr. Regarding my borrowing, I have confirmed it with my signature. I swear by the name of my father Abba Jerome. The guarantor is Aleqa Like Tebebt. Genebot (May ) 16, 1938 [EC]."
Box 3

Manuscript number: 17 Title (Romanized): Sayefa Malakot

Uniform title: The Sword of Divinity

Title (English): The Sword of Divinity.
20th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Gabera Egezi'abher
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, eight lines of text per page

Vellum, 36 pages

Size: 120 mm x 85 mm 12 mm

Text in red ink. Some faded parts are written for the second time in blue ink. Last page in blue ink.

Binding: Cardboard boards and string.

Illustrations.

Quires?

Scope and Content

Magical names with magical illustrations. It is a prayer asking God for protection from various demonic and personal attacks.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 18 Title (Romanized): Dersāna Mikā᾽él

Uniform title: Deresan

Title (English):Homily on St. Michael the Archangel.
20th c.

Author: Ethiopian and other church scholars
Scribe: Gabera Woled
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column per page; 19 lines of text per page

Vellum, 244 pages

Size: 214 mm x 149 mm x 60 mm

Binding: smooth wooden boards with leather case and strap

Text in black ink, the archangels and saints' names and titles of the chapters are in red.

The manuscript is composed of quires of four, ten, twelve, and sixteen leaves each

Illustrations: some drawings and illustrated borders at the beginning of each month. Pp.2, 3, 234, 238, 242 Illustrations of Mary, St. Michael, and St. Gabriel with pen and color. Pp. 25, 42, 79, 154, 244 Crude drawings with pencil.

Biography

Thirteen homilies attributed to Ethiopian and other church fathers.

Provenance

On p.78, the first owner is listed as Wolda Mareyam. The second or last owner wrote his name and his family's name in many place in the text: Gabra Selase, Senesata Mareyam (Tajitu), Gabera Madehen, Gabera Selase (Bafeqadu).

Scope and Content

Collection of thirteen homilies in honor of the Archangel Michael. Following each homily there is related one miracle of St. Michael and the synaxarium about St. Michael for the twelfth day of each month.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 19 Title (Romanized): Ta᾽amera Māryām; Ta᾽amera Eyasus; Ta᾽amera Giyorgis; Ta᾽amera Mikaél;Ta᾽amera Gaber᾽él

Uniform title: Taamer

Title (English): The Miracles of Mary, Miracle of Jesus, Miracle of St. George, Miracle of Michael, Miracle of Gabriel.
20th.

Author: Traditionally ascribed to Bishop Daksios or Daqsios.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 170 Pages.

Two columns per page, 19 lines of text per page.

Size: 210 mm x 160 mm x 52 mm

Binding is wooden boards with stamped leather and string to tie closed.

The majority of the manuscript is composed of quires of ten leaves each.

The text is in black ink; the divine names of the saints and also the first few words of the miracles with the Trinitarian formula are in red ink.

No illustrations

Biography

The collection of miracles included in this manuscript are part of the readings for morning prayers. Local saints or patron saints or angels of that particular church can be added in the readings of collected miracles. But these miracles are the most popular among laity and clergy. The collection of the Miracles of Mary are always at the center of the readings. The Miracles of St. Mary have a special introduction.

Provenance

The owners were Gabera Madehen and Gabera Hiwot (passim).

Scope and Content

Collection of the Miracles of Jesus, St. Mary, St. George, St. Michael, and St. Gabriel.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 20 Title (Romanized): Lefāfa Sedeq; Manegada Samāy

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English):The Bandlet of Righteousness, The Way of Heaven.
20th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, folded a concertina

Size: 48 mm x 55 mm x 15 mm

Binding: Faced with paper board and tied with string. On two strips of vellum.

The text is in black ink; the divine names, the saints, and the name of the owner with the Trinitarian formula are in red ink.

Two illustrations in crude hand.

Biography

The Bandlet of Righteousness is a magical book which is very popular among the laity and nuns of the Ethiopian Orthodox church. In the past, like the Egyptian book of the dead, it was buried with the dead, but this tradition is no longer common.

Provenance

The owner is Le'ula Qal Yeheyes and his Christan name is Gabera Mareyam.

Scope and Content

It is claimed that The Bandlet of Righteousness was written by the "holy hand of God the Father" and given to St. Mary before Christ was born. It contains prayers and the hidden names of God.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 21 Title (Romanized): Māzemurā Dāwit, Asmat

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English): Psalms (for magical purposes).
20th.

Author: According to the tradition of the church, David is the author of these psalms.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, folded like concertina, text on both sides.

Size: 60 mm x 65 mm x 5 mm

No binding, composed of two strips of vellum.

The text is in black ink, but like other magical books, the beginning of each prayer and some magical names ('asmat') and magical tables are in red ink.

No illustrations.

Biography

In the tradition of the Dābtāra (the unordained clergy of the Ethiopian orthodox church), parts of the Psalms are useful for magical purposes. The scribe of this magical book is himself Dābtāra. Added at the end of the Psalms are other magical prayers and claims that reciting these prayers can bring love and wealth.The instruction is in Amharic mixed with some Ge'ez words.

Scope and Content

Three chapters from Psalms with magical prayer instruction.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 22 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot b᾽enetā ᾽amāsno mā᾽esāru lāsāyetān

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English): Prayer to Destroy the Binding of Satan.
20th.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, folded like concertina, text on both sides.

Size: 55 mm x 53 mm x 14 mm

No binding, composed of two strips of vellum.

The text is in black ink, but like other magical books, the beginning of each prayer and some magical names ('asmat') are in red ink. The magical images are drawn with black and red inks.

Twenty nine magical illustrations in black and red ink.

Biography

This magical book is written for the healing of the disease called Barya (epilepsy).

Provenance

The owner was Amātā Egeziābeher (a woman), mentioned near the middle of the text.

Scope and Content

Magical prayer against demons, zar, epilepsy, and so on. In addition to the magical or hidden names, it also contains certain passages from the the gospels.
Box 4

Manuscript number: 23 Title (Romanized): Sayefa Malakot

Uniform title: Prayers

Title (English): Sword of Divinity.
1900s.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, 10 lines of text per page

Vellum, 56 pages

Size: 86 mm x 70 mm x 14 mm

Binding: hard paper boards, but text in vellum

No illustrations.

Provenance

The owner might be Waleda Hana, who is mentioned on p. 9.

Scope and Content

Magical prayer with magical names (hidden names) for seven days.
Box 5

Manuscript number: 24 Title (Romanized): Mazemura Dāwit; salota nābiyat; Weddasé Māryām; AneqaṢa Berhān

Uniform title: Psalter

Title (English): Psalter, Old and New Testament Canticles, Praise of Mary, and The Gate of Light.
18th c.

Author: Biblical authors, including Ephrem of Syria and St. Yared the the Musician
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 360 pages
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, 21 lines of text per page

Vellum, 360 pages

Size: 160 mm x 120 mm x 64 mm

Text in black ink. Beginning of each chapter, title of the chapter, and names of God, Mary, and the angels in red ink.

Binding: stamped leather over wooden board.

In Psalms, strings of words were missing, but were then inserted above the line or after the line by the same scribe. These additional words (often ten or twelve in a row) are written in the same hand, but smaller

The manuscripts composed in eighteen quieres

Provenance

On p.1, there is writing and a very crude pencil drawing which says "this is the seal (of) Dejazmach Emru." On p.3, someone tried to erase the writing that said "this psalter is for Dejazmach Emru."
Box 5

Manuscript number: 25 Title (Romanized): Masehafa Qeddasé

Uniform title: Qedāsé

Title (English): The Book of Missal.
20th c.

Author: Various scholars
Scribe:
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 268 pages

Layout: Two columns per page, 14 lines of text per page

Size: 250mm x 222mm x 60mm

Binding: stamped leather over the board

Text in black ink. Beginning of each prayer and anaphora, instructions for the priests and deacons, and also the order of pointing and benediction over the Host (bread) and the cup (wine) are in red ink.

The manuscript composed in fifteen quires

Biography

The manuscript contains only the fourteen anaphoras which are commonly used in the church. In addition to that, like most published missals, it also contains the Office Prayer, Liton, intercessory prayers, and "enthronement" prayers. The order of the fourteen anaphoras and the following prayers are the same as in the published book of missal.

Provenance

The original owner's name is Gabra Selasse (p. 56)
Box 6

Manuscript number: 26 Title (Romanized): Ta’amra Eyesus

Uniform title: Miracles of Jesus

Title (English): Miracles of Jesus.
19th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 124 pages.

Two columns, the majority of the text is in 21 and 25 lines of text per page.

Size: 234 mm x 188 mm x 54 mm

Text is in black ink. The beginning of each miracle and the names of Jesus and Mary are in red ink.

Binding: with wooden board and string.

The manuscript is composed of seven quires of eight leaves each and one quire of six leaves.

No illustrations.

Provenance

The owner is mentioned by the name of Qale Kerestos and Eheta Giyorgis (p. 2, 121). Walata Rufael (probably the second owner) also inserted her name (p. 124). The most recent owner is Abba Gabera Mika'el, who is listed on the end page and put the anathema on those who would try to steal the book.

Scope and Content

Different miracles performed by Jesus. Some of them are similar to stories about his infancy from the apocryphal gospels.
Box 6

Manuscript number: 27 Title (Romanized): Teregwame Wanegel

Uniform title: Commentary

Title (English): Commentary on the Gospel.
19th.

Author: Ethiopian church scholars
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns; lines of text per page vary

Vellum and paper, 214 pages

Size: 230mm x 168mm x 58mm

Binding: wooden board

Text in black ink, the beginnig of each section (guba'e) is in red.

The manuscript is composed of one quire of eight leaves, five quiries of ten leaves each, and two quires of fourteen leaves each, one quire additional of six leaves.

Provenance

Hayele Mariam is the owner (p. ??)

Scope and Content

Commentary on the Gospel of Mathew and Mark. Most of the text is in abbreviated form. The purpose of the manuscript is to serve as a pneumatic or reference book for the 'andem' student trying to memorize the whole text of the gospels.
Box 6

Manuscript number: 28 Title (Romanized): Mazemura Dāwit,Ṣalotā nabiyāt, Mahālya Mahāley,Weddāsé Māryām, Anqāsā Berhan

Uniform title: Psalter

Title (English): Psalter, Old and New Testament canticles, Song of Songs, Praise of Mary, and The Gate of Light.
Late 19th c.

Author: King David, Ephrem the Syrian, and Yared the Musician
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Psalms and the canticles are written in one column per page and 22 lines of text per page. Praise of Mary and Gate of Light are written in two columns.

Vellum, 382 pages

Size: 154 mm x 93 mm x 52 mm

Binding: wooden boards

The majority of the manuscript is composed of seven quires of twelve leaves each.

Text is in black ink. The opening verse of the chapters of the Psalter, the first word of the prayers from Praise of Mary and Gate of Light, and the name of the Virgin Mary are in red ink.

Illustrations p. 2, 3
Box 6

Manuscript number: 29 Title (Romanized): Dersanā Mahyawi, Ṣalota Kidan

Uniform title: Homily and Office Prayer

Title (English): Homily of the Savior and Office Prayer.
19th c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Gabera Egezi'abeher
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns, the majority of the manuscript is eighteen lines of text per page

Vellum, 210 pages

Size: 212 mm x 169 mm x 50 mm

Binding: Wooden board covered with sewn khaki fabric and khaki handle

Most of the manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

Text in black ink but the opening of prayers and the name of Christ is in red ink.

No illustrations.

Provenance

The first owner is Waleda Takela Hayemanot; but the second owner, Gabera Mika'el, cancelled the previous owner's name and inserted his own name and his wife's name Amata Mika'el (pp. 265).
Box 7

Manuscript number: 30 Title (Romanized): Arede'et

Uniform title: Prayer book

Title (English): The Book of the Disciples.
1900s.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 88 pages.

One column of text per page, 17 lines of text per page.

Size: 132 mm x 89 mm x 32 mm

Binding is wooden boards and string.

Text is in black ink, the beginning of each prayer and Christ's name are in red ink.

The manuscript is composed of four quires of ten leaves each and one quire of four leaves.

No illustrations.

Scope and Content

The Book of the Disciples is the Christian version of a book also used by the Beta Israel (Falasha or Ethiopian Jewish) community. It narrates how Jesus told his disciples his hidden names.
Box 7

Manuscript number: 31 Title (Romanized): A'emadā Mesetir, Ra'eyā Barok

Uniform title: Dogma (doctrine) of the church, Catechism of the Ethiopian Church

Title (English): The Pillars of Mystery, The Vision of Baruch.
1900s.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: ???
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: pp.1-22 one column per page, pp. 23-138 two columns,14 lines of text per page

Vellum, 138 pages

Binding: wooden board

Size: 194 mm x 123mm x 45mm

Text in black ink. Beginning of each chapter, divine names, and church fathers names in red ink.

Manuscript is composed of seven quires of ten leaves each.

Biography

The Pillars of Mystery is a very important doctrinal book in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. It is the summery of the faith of the Orthodox church and the basis of the systematic theology of the church. Based on the Nicene Creed it presents the faith of the Orthodox fathers. The manuscript is the early Amharic translation of the Ge'ez text. The Vision of Baruch is one of five books attributed to Baruch, the scribe of the Prophet Jeremiah. The Vision of Baruch is also called The Fifth Baruch or The Ethiopic Apocalypse of Baruch, also used by the Ethiopian Jewish (Beta Israel) community. For a detailed discussion about the Beta Israel/Falasha version, see Leslau's Falasha Antology (1951).

Provenance

Bedlu Wolde Mika'el's seven generations are listed (p.118).

Scope and Content

The Pillars of Mystery is the discussion of the teaching of the the mystery of the trinity, the incarnation, baptism, holy communion, and the resurrection of the dead. It is in the format of questions and answers from the Old and New Testaments and also from the patristic writings. The second book, The Vision of Baruch, is the Christian rather than Jewish version of the Ethiopic Apocalypse of Baruch. When the Angel Sutu'el took Baruch to Heaven, he saw the punishment of sinners and the reward of the just.
Box 7

Manuscript number: 32 Title (Romanized): Qeddāsé Māryām, Kidan, Mālke'ā Mādehané Alām, Malek’a Mikā᾽él, Malek’a Edom

Uniform title:Anaphora, Images of the Saints

Title (English): Anaphora of St. Mary, Office Prayer, Image of the Savior of the World, Image of St. Michael, Image of Edom.
1900s?.

Author: Traditionally, the author of Anaphora of St. Mary is St. Heryaqos of Behnesa
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column of text per page, 14 lines of text per page

Vellum, 178 pages

Size: 116 mm x 83 mm x 42 mm

Binding: Wooden boards

Text in black ink. Angels' and saints' names and the beginning of prayers are in red ink.

Some border designs; no other illustrations.

Quires?

Biography

In the Fasting of the Assumption especially, it is common to read the Anaphora of St. Mary. Listening to the commentaries on this Anaphora of St. Mary and also the Praise of Mary are at the center of the mass and private devotion.
Box 7

Manuscript number: 33 Title (Romanized): Tāmahesānku … Giyorgis

Uniform title: Prayer book

Title (English): I Beseech George (Supplication to St. George).
1900s.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Kidana Mareyam
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns per page, with 13 lines of text per page.

Vellum, 92 pages

Size: 147 mm x 105 mm x 7 mm

Binding: Without cover, but string binding

The manuscript is composed of four quires of ten leaves and one quire of six leaves.

Text is in black ink with the names of saints in red ink.

Several notes in the upper margin of the pages serve as captions for the illustrations of the martyrdom of St. George, but some of the explanations and the images don't match. Probably the captions were written first and the illustrations done later.

Twenty-three illustrations of scenes from the saint's life. Most in black ink, some in pencil. descriptive data: Text in black ink, the name of the saint in red ink.

The manuscript is composed of quires of Ten leaves each

Biography

Based on the hagiography of St. George, the author mentions the passion of the saint and asks for the protection of the martyr. Following each prayer, there is a list of hidden names which have magical power.

Scope and Content

The manuscript contains prayers or supplications to St. George.
Box 7

Manuscript number: 34 Title (Romanized): Ṣelota Kidan; Temehereta Hebu'at,;Malk’ā Māryām; Malk’ā Iyesus; Malk’ā Giyorgis; Sayefa Śellāsé;QedaseMāreyām; Malek’a Śellāsé;Malk’ā Takela Hayemanot; Malk’ā Medehane Alem.

Uniform title: Images of the Saints

Title (English): Office Prayer, Mystagogia, Binding of Demons, Image of Mary, Image of Jesus, Image of George, Sword of Trinity, Anaphora of St. Mary, Image of Trinity, Image of St. Takela Haymanot, Image of Medehane Alem.
1874-1926.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Abba Wolda Aragawi, Gabera Giyorgis
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns of text, 15 lines of text per page.

Vellum and paper, 432 pages

Size: 155 mm x 115 mm x 59 mm

Binding is wooden boards with stamped red leather. In leather case with strap (very typical case).

The manuscript is composed of nine quires of ten leaves each, seven quires of twelve leaves each. The remaining four quires have five, six, nine, eleven,and fourteen leaves each.

The text is in black ink; the names of God, angels, and saints, including the scribes and the owners, and the first line of each book, are in red ink.

Pp. 323-432 in paper leaves, the rest of the manuscript in vellum

No portraits but geographic drawings as borders.

Provenance

The owner of the manuscript is Gabera Walede and his wife Askala Mareyam (pp. 269). The second owner is Walda Meskel (pp. 141).

Scope and Content

The manuscript includes the Office Prayer and Mystagogia prayers which, according to church tradition, the apostles received from Jesus Christ after his resurrection. It also includes 'malek' or images of Jesus and the saints.
Box 8

Manuscript number: 35 Title (Romanized): Arganon

Uniform title: Hymns for St. Mary

Title (English): Arganon (Praise) of Mary.
16th c.-17th c.

Author: Aba Giyorgis of Gascha (Segla)
Scribe:
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page, 18 lines of text per page

Vellum, 256 pages

Size: 222mm x 190mm x 80mm

Binding is wooden boards

Texts in black ink, the beginning of each prayer and St. Mary's name is in red ink.

The manuscript is composed of quires of eight and ten leaves each.

Illustrations?????

Biography

The manuscript contains one of the writingd of Abba Giyorgis of Gascha or Segla in Ethiopia. Following the advent of the Book of the Miracles of St. Mary, Abba Giyorgis was vigorously promoting the cult of St. Mary. In Arganon he intertwined biblical and patristic writings of the church with his new Mariology.
Box 8

Manuscript number: 36 Title (Romanized): Wānegel Zāyohanes

Uniform title: New Testament (Gospel)

Title (English): Gospel of John.
19th c.

Author: According to church tradition, John the Evangelist is the author of the fourth gospel.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 208 pages
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns of text, 17 lines of text per page.

Vellum, 208 pages

Size: 142 mm x 100 mm x 47 mm

Binding: wooden boards with a leather cover

Text in black ink, some names and titles of the chapters are in red.

No illustrations.

Quires?

Biography

The fourth gospel is the most copied book in Ethiopic manuscript collections. Apart from its prominent place in the church, the Gospel of John is the starting point in traditional church school for reading church books and developing Ge'ez vocabulary.

Provenance

The owner of the manuscript is a woman by the name of Walata Berehan (Daughter of light) (p. 204)
Box 8

Manuscript number: 37 Title (Romanized): Dersāna Raguel, Malek’ā Raguel,Malek’ā Giyorgis

Uniform title: Homily on St Raguel, Image of Saints

Title (English): Homily on St Raguel, Image of Raguel, Image of George.
19th.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column of text per page, 11 lines of text per page.

Vellum, 94 pages

Size: 118mm x 88mm x 19mm

Binding: wooden boards with stamped leather cover

Text in black ink. The beginning of the text and the saint's name is in red ink.

The manuscript composed in six quires of one quire of 2 leaves two quires of 8 leaves and three qiures of 10 leaves.
Box 8

Manuscript number: 38 Title (Romanized): Malek’ā Māryām, Malek’ā Eyasus

Uniform title: Image of Mary, Image of Jesus

Title (English): Image of Mary, Image of Jesus.
20th.

Author: Image of Mary is traditionally attributed to King Na'od.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column of text per page, 13 lines of text per page

Vellum, 76 pages

Size: 115 mm x 85 mm x 32 mm

The manuscript is composed of quires of six and eight leaves each.

Binding: wooden boards with string. The back board is broken.

Texts in black ink, the beginning of each prayer and Christ's name are in red ink.

Some border designs, but no other illustrations.
Box 8

Manuscript number: 39 Title (Romanized): Sā'atat

Uniform title: Horologium

Title (English): The Hours.
19th.

Author: Traditionally attributed to Abba Giyorgis of Sagela, Ethiopia.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column per page, mostly 13 lines of text per page, but it varies.

Vellum. 160 pages

Size: 110 mm x 85 mm x 40 mm

Binding: wooden boards

Text in black ink, some names and beginning of each prayer in red ink.

The manuscript is composed of ten quires of 8 leaves each.

No illustrations.

Provenance

The latter owner is listed as "Priest Mogas" (p. 152).
Box 9

Manuscript number: 40 Title (Romanized): Wānegel Zāyohāns

Uniform title: Gospel of John

Title (English): Gospel of John.
19th.

Author: According to tradition, the author of the fourth gospel is St. John the Evangelist.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns per page, 17 lines of text per page

Vellum, 150 pages

Size: 150 mm x 110 mm x 43 mm

Binding is wooden boards with stamped leather

The manuscript is composed of five quires of ten leaves each, two quires of eight leaves each, and one quire of nine leaves.

Text is in black ink; the beginning of the section (me'eraf) and the name of Jesus are in red ink.

Illustrations on pp. 2 and 149, and decorated borders elsewhere.

Biography

Part of the canon of Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Gospel of John is the most popular gospel. It is part of the curriculum in the early stages of traditional church education.

Provenance

The name of the owner has been deleted. The second owner is listed as Kidana Mareyam (p. 146). Also, with a crude hand are added the words, "This book is for Ato Gabera Mikael" (p. 149).

Scope and Content

The Ethiopic version of the Gospel of John has special characteristics concerning the method of dividing chapters. Ethiopian scholars divided the gospel into more chapters to help students to memorize the gospel with its commentary.
Box 9

Manuscript number: 41 Title (Romanized): Taseā’elotāta Zenāhomu la'abew Manakosāt Gebesāweyān

Uniform title: Monastic book

Title (English): Philoxenus or Questions on the Sayings of the Egyptian Fathers.
1700s or 1800s.

Author: Attributed to Philoxenus of Mabbug (based on the writings of Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis)
Scribe:
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 216 pages

Two columns per page, 20 lines of text per page.

Size: 190mm x 170mm x 56mm

The manuscript is composed 12 quires of one quire of 2 leaves one quire of eight leaves ten quires of ten leaves

Text in black ink. The beginning of each chapter (each part) and also the names of saints and church fathers in red ink.

Binding: wooden board (broken)

Biography

According to the tradition of the church, and as it says in the introductory part of the text, this book was written by Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabbug or Hierapolis (modern Aleppo of Syria), one of the defenders of the non-Chalcedonian (Jacobite) movement. It is based on the collection of The Sayings of the Desert Fathers. Some modern historians reject the idea that Philoxenus authored this book and attribute it to Dadiso Qatrayas, a Nestorian monk of today's Qatar. For more on this debate, see the "Filkeseyus" entry in Encyclopedia Aethiopica, vol. ? (Hamburg, 19??).

Provenance

The name of the previous owner is erased and written over with the name Aseqa Mika'el (P. 5 and 212).

Scope and Content

The formal text is accompanied by extensive notes in the margin in Amharic, called 'anedemtā' commentary, which serves as a reminder to the reader of commentaries about the specific words or passages next to which the notes are written.
Box 9

Manuscript number: 42 Title (Romanized): MaṢehafa Qeddāsé

Uniform title: Qedāsé

Title (English): Book of Missal.
1874-1913.

Author: Various church fathers
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 184 pages
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page, text lines per page varies.

Vellum, 184 pages

Size: 246 mm x 185 mm x 79 mm

Binding is wooden boards and string

Text in black ink. Beginning of each prayer and anaphora with instructions for Deacon and Priest in red ink. Includes musical notation.

No illustrations.

Quires????

Scope and Content

The manuscript contains office prayer, Liton, supplications, and seven anaphoras. The anaphoras included in this manuscript are used frequently in liturgical services.
Box 9

Manuscript number: 43 Title (Romanized): Malek’ā Giyorgis, Malek’ā Mika᾽él,

Uniform title: Mālek'e

Title (English): Image of George, Image of Michael.
19th.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: one column per page, average thirteen lines of text per page.

Vellum, 68 pages.

Size: 120 mm x 90 mm x 18 mm

Text is in black ink. The beginning of each prayer and the name of the saints are in red ink.

The manuscript is composed in four quires of eight leaves each.

Biography

These two 'maleke' are the most popular prayers among the priests and some educated churchmen, especially Dabeteras. The manuscript has very interesting miniatures of various saints and demons. These drawings are used for magical purposes.

Provenance

On p. 4, the owner wrote in crude handwriting "By the authority of Peter and Paul, be cursed. This book belongs to Aleqa Bezabeh Kassa." But on p. 34 the owner is mentioned as Gebra Mareyam.
Box 9

Manuscript number: 44 Title (Romanized): Qeddāsé Maryam

Uniform title: Qedāsé

Title (English): Anaphora of St. Mary.
20th c.

Author: Traditionally the book is attributed to Abba Cyriacus of Bihnsa.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, eleven lines of text per page.

Vellum, 84 pages

Binding is wooden board.

Size: 112 mm x 80 mm x 30 mm

The manuscript is composed of four quires of eight leaves each and two quires of four leaves each.

Text is in black ink. The instruction for priests and deacons and the name of St. Mary are in red ink.

Decorative borders but no other illustrations.

Biography

The small size of the manuscript indicates that it was used for private prayer.In the Fasting of the Assumption especially, it is common to read the Anaphora of St. Mary. Listening to the commentaries on this anaphora and Praise of Mary are at the center of the liturgy and private devotion.
Box 10

Manuscript number: 45 Title (Romanized): Ta'amra Māryām

Uniform title: Miracles of St. Mary, Miracles of Jesus, Bible

Title (English): Miracles of St. Mary, Miracles of Jesus, Readings from the Bible.
1889-1913.

Author: Miracles of St. Mary traditionally attributed to Bishop Daqeseyos.
Scribe: Wolda Heyewat
Origin: Ethiopia/ Gure Sellase
Physical Description: Vellum, 176 pages

Two columns per page, lines of text per page vary.

Wooden boards without leather; with string binding. In leather case with strap.

Size: 278 mm x 220 mm x 55 mm

The manuscript is composed of ten quires of ten leaves each.

Text in black ink. The beginning of each miracle and the name of St. Mary are in red ink.

Decorative border illustrations.
Box 10

Manuscript number: 46 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot bā᾽eneta bāreyā; Ṣalota Mastem

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English): Prayers against Epilepsy, Prayers of Māstem.
19th.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

One column

Size: 2245 mm x 110 mm

Text in black ink. Some words and divine and owner's names in red ink.

Illustrations: two images in ink and color of angels and one magical drawing.

Biography

A magical scroll with magical prayers against epilepsy and also prayers for the binding of demons.

Provenance

The scroll was written for Walata Eyasus (her secular name is Berenash).

Scope and Content

A magical prayer for the binding (or drowning) of demons. The prayers for the binding of demons is for seven days, followed by horoscope analysis of the owner and her magical hidden name.
Box 10

Manuscript number: 47 Title (Romanized): Lefafā Ṣdeq

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English): Bandlet of Righteousness.
20th c.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, 9 lines of text per page

Vellum, 68 pages

Size: 83 mm x 60 mm x 24 mm

Binding is wooden boards and the manuscript is in a leather case with a strap so it can be placed around the neck.

The manuscript is composed of four quires of eight leaves each.

Text is in black ink. The beginning of each prayer and the name of saints are in red ink.

No illustrations.

Biography

It is a typical magical book that is popular among Ethiopian Orthodox nuns as a talisman. The nuns and older women put this manuscript around their necks. It also is put on the necks of children and animals when they become sick.

Provenance

Amata Mareyam and Walata Kidan are the owners of the manuscript (both of them are women).

Scope and Content

Like the Egyptian Book of the Dead, this book is also filled with the prayers of the soul on the way to heaven.
Box 10

Manuscript number: 48 Title (Romanized): Salāmtā, Nagara Haymanot, Malek’ā Gabre’él, Mahlet Ṣegé, Sāqoqāwa Denegel

Uniform title: Māleke

Title (English): Greetings, part of The Beauty of Creation, Image of St. Gabriel, Canticle of the Flower, Lamentation of the Virgin, Greetings of St. Michael.
119th.c.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page, twenty three lines of text per page.

Binding: wooden boards with no leather cover, string binding

Velum, 102 pages

Size: 158 mm x 92 mm x 25 mm

The manuscript is composed of six quires of eight leaves each and one quire of four leaves.

Text is in black ink and the beginning of the book and each prayer is in red ink.

Color illustrations of saints.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 49 Title (Romanized): Marbabeta Salomon

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English): Prayer of King Solomon for Catching Demons (Marbabta Solomon).
19th.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, Scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with three strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1495 mm x 86 mm

The text is in black ink. The beginging of each prayer and the name of the owner and dvine names are in red ink.

Some illustrations.

Provenance

Aqba Giyorgis is the owner

Scope and Content

The scroll contains the magical prayer of King Solomon for catching demons. Marbabeta Solomon literally means "Net of Solomon." Healing images are common in most magical prayers. The prayer in this manuscript protects the owner from the hand of his enemies, from evil spirits which come as lions or tigers, and from other diseases.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 50 Title (Romanized): Marbabeta Salomon, Ṣalota Susnyos

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English): Prayer of King Solomon for Catching of Demons, Prayer of Susneyos.
18th. C.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, Scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1600 mm x 115 mm

Text in black ink. Names of the saints, the beginning of each prayer, the names of the owners are in red ink

Some illustrations.

Provenance

The owners of the scrolls are Walata Muse and Askala Mareyam (both of them are women).

Scope and Content

Magical prayer attributed to King Solomon for catching demnons. The scroll also includes the well-known magical prayer of Susneyos.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 51 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽eneta Mā᾽esaromu la- Agān᾽ent

Uniform title: Magical prayer

Title (English): Prayer about binding of Demons. Prayer of St. Susneyos.
19th.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, Scroll

Size: 1685 mm x 95 mm

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with three strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

The text is in black ink. The beginning of each prayer, divine names, and owner's name are in red ink.

Some illustrations

Provenance

The owner's name is listed as Walata Mareyam

Scope and Content

Magical prayer for binding of the demons. The Prayer of Susneyos is a well-known magical prayer against children's diseases.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 52 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽eneta Mā᾽esara Agān᾽ent

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English): Prayer for the Binding of Demons, Prayer of Susneyos.
20th. C.

Author: Unknown
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with three strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1515 mm x 95 mm

Text in black ink. Saints and owners' names and the beginning of each prayer are in red ink.

Some illustrations.

Provenance

The owner of this scroll is Wallata Eyasus.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 53 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽eneta Mā᾽esara Agān᾽ent

Uniform title: Magical Prayers

Title (English): Prayer for the Binding of Demons.
18th c.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with two strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1240 mm x 90 mm

Text in black ink. Saints and owners' names and the beginning of each prayer are in red ink.

Some illustrations.

Provenance

The owner of this scroll is Waleda Tenesa'e (Lagase).
Box 11

Manuscript number: 54 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽eneta Mā᾽esara Agān᾽ent

Uniform title: Magical Prayer

Title (English): Prayer for the binding of demons.
19th. C.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, Scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with two strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1864 mm x 100 mm

Text in black ink. The beginning of prayer and the name of the owner are in red ink.

Some illustrations.

Provenance

The owner of the scroll is Amata Egzi'abeher or Belaynesh (the secular name) and Walata Mareyam

Scope and Content

Magical prayer against demons of blood and miscarriage.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 55 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot bā᾽enetā ma'esāromu lā'aganenet

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English): Prayer for the binding of demons.
18th.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with two strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1815 mm x 108 mm

Text in black ink, the beginning of each prayer and the name of the owner are in red ink.

Provenance

The owner of the scroll is Zawaleda Mareyam.

Scope and Content

Magical prayers for the binding of demons and against ayenat and eplipsy, which confuse the mind. The scroll also has a magical prayer attributed to King Solomon.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 56 Title (Romanized): Ṣālot ba᾽enta Mā'esarā bāreyā walégéwon

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English): Prayer for the Binding of Bareya and Legion.
Early 19th. C.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with four strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Size: 1930 mm x 105 mm

Text in black ink, the beginning of each prayer is in red ink.

Some illustrations

Provenance

The owner of the scroll is Walata Heyewat or Tabayen (Tabayen is the secular name).

Scope and Content

Magical prayer for a woman (probably mother of infant baby) to protect from epilepsy and miscarriage. Also includes well-known magical prayer to protect children from various diseases.
Box 11

Manuscript number: 57 Title (Romanized): Ṣalot ba᾽eneta Ayena telā

Uniform title: Magical prayers

Title (English):Prayers against Evil Eye.
19th c.

Author: unknown
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, scroll

Layout: one column on a scroll composed with three strips of vellum in magic scroll format.

Text is in black, special names in red ink.

Size: 1725 mm x 100 mm

Some illustrations.

Provenance

The owner of the manuscript is Eheta Mika'el Awaga (a woman).

Scope and Content

Magical prayer against evil eye and different diseases. The scroll contains part of the first chapter of the Gospel of John
Box 11

Manuscript number: 58 Title (Romanized): Ṣalot s'elat wā'astabequ'ot

Uniform title: Collection of Prayers

Title (English): Prayers, Petitions, and Supplications.
19th c.

Author: Collection of Prayers atributed to St. Basil, who collected them from the patristic writings.
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: Two columns per page, seventeen lines of text per page.

Vellum, 338 pages

Size: 180 mm x 170 mm x 75 mm

Binding is wooden boards with no leather cover; string binding.

The manuscript is composed of one quire of four leaves each, two quires of eight leaves each, one quire of twelve leaves, fourteen quires of ten leaves each.

The text is in black ink. The beginning of each prayer and the name of the owner is in red ink.

No illustrations.

Provenance

The original owner's name was erased repeatedly and replaced with the last owner, "Kefla Mareyam" (passim, p. 336)

Scope and Content

Collection of prayers attributed to known church fathers.
Box 12

Manuscript number: 59 Title (Romanized): MaṢehafa Ziq, Malek’ā Śellāsé

Uniform title: Church Hymns

Title (English): Book of Ziq, Image of the Trinity.
20th.

Author: Various Ethiopian church scholars
Scribe: Unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: One column of text, fifteen or sixteen lines of text per page

Vellum, 176 pages

Size: 130 mm x 100 mm x 36 mm

Binding: wooden boards, in loose sewn cloth cover, in leather case with strap.

Text is in black ink, with the names of people and the divine in red ink. With musical notation.

The manuscript is composed of two quires of eight pages, eight quires of ten pages.

No illustrations.

Provenance

The owner's name is erased on p. 175, but elsewhere retained as Takela Haymanot Waleda Mareyam (p. 158)
Box 12

Manuscript number: 60 Title (Romanized): Ṣoma Degwā

Uniform title: Deguwa

Title (English): Hymns for Lent.
19th.

Author: St. Yared the Musician
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description:

Vellum, 232 pages

Layout: Two columns per page, twenty lines of text per page

Binding: Wooden boards with leather case

Size: 180mm x 137mm x 47mm

The manuscript is composed of two quires of four leaves , one quire of eight leaves , two quires of twelve leaves and eight quires of ten leaves each.

The text is in black ink. The name of each section of the song is in red ink

Biography

The manuscript contains Soma Deguwa, the Lenten hymns of St. Yared the Musician.

Scope and Content

Hymns for the Lenten season. St.Yared the Musician, the author of these hymns, divided the Lenten season into eight weeks. Almost all of the hymns are about the teaching and miracles of Jesus. The hymns discuss the teaching of Jesus in the Synagogue, his cleaning of the temple, his miracle of healing paralysis, his parable of the faithful servant, the discussion with Nicodimus, his teaching about his second coming, his glorious entrance into Jerusalem, his last days at Jerusalem, and his crucifixion.
Box 13

Manuscript number: 61 Title (Romanized): Malek’ā Mareyam, Malek’ā Mādehane Alām, Malek’ā Mika᾽él, Malek’ā Gāberél, Malek’ā Giyorgis

Uniform title: Praise for Saints (Mālek'e)

Title (English): Image of Mary, Image of the Savior of the World, Image of St. Michael, Image of St.Gabriel, Image of St. George.
20 c.

Author: Mālek’ā Mareyam is attributed to King Na'od of Ethiopia, who lived in the 1500s
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Layout: two columns per page, twelve lines of text per page

Vellum, 134 pages

Binding: wooden boards with red stamped leather cover; inside leather case with strap

Size: 128 mm x 95 mm x 32 mm

The manuscript is composed of eight quires of eight leaves each. One quire has four blank leaves.

The text is in black ink. The beginning of each 'malk' and 'salamta' and the name of the saints are in red ink.

Decorative border, but no illustrations.
Box 13

Manuscript number: 62 Title (Romanized): Māsehafā Ziq

Uniform title: Church Hymns

Title (English): The Book of Ziq.
19th. C.

Author: Various Ethiopian church authors
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia (probably Gondar)
Physical Description: Layout: One column per page, fifteen lines of text per page

Vellum, 284 pages

Binding is wooden board.

Size: 143mm x 105mm x 75

The manuscript is composed of seventeen quires of eight leaves.

The text is in black ink. The name of each greeting ('sālamta') and saints' names are in red ink.

Musical notations throughout, above each line of the hymn.

Illustrations: none

Biography

Authored by various Ethiopian scholars, mostly from the Gondar region. The hymns are sung following the 'malek' image assigned to be sung that day. Based on this interpretation, some scholars say that "Ziq" means "below," in Amharic "'zeq belo." Dillmann suggested that "ziq" derived from "zarziq," which means "condensed or collected works," see Kay Kaufman Shelemay and Peter Jeffery.

Scope and Content

Ziq is the collection of hymns praising God, Mary, and the saints. Following each malek assigned for that day, the ziq hymns will follow. Most of the ziq hymns come from other liturgical books, saints' lives, or the bible.
 

Manuscript number: 63 Title (Romanized): Dawit Ṣalota Nabiyāt,Weddasé Māryām, AnqaṢa Berhān,Malek’ā Gāber᾽él

Uniform title: Psalter

Title (English): Psalter and Canticles of New and Old Testaments Praise of Mary, The Gate of the Light; Image of Gabriel.
17th.

Author: The Ethiopian Orthdox Church attributes this text to King David and Old and New Testament prophets.
Scribe: unknown
Origin: Ethiopia
Physical Description: Vellum, 346 Pages

Layout: one column on vellum; 19 lines of text per page. Praise of Mary and Gate of the light in two columns 19 lines of text per page.

Pages 346 (started from page 17 assuming the first missing quire is eight leaves.

Size: 140mm x 120 x 78mm

Binding: wooden boards

Text in black ink, some names and titles of the chapters are in red.

The manuscript is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

The front board is broken and sewn.

The first quire ( pp1-16) is missing.

Parts of one quire (including pp. 313 on the Praises of Mary) are inserted incorrectly in the manuscript. They appear earlier than they should. This misplacement probably happened in Ethiopia when the very old manuscript was rebound.

Scope and Content

Collection of Psalms, biblical canticles, and also praise hymns about Mary (attributed to St. Ephram of Syria [400s] and St. Yared of Ethiopia [600s])
 

Manuscript number: 64 Title (Romanized): Rā’eya Māryām, Lefāfa Ṣedqe, Ta’amra Mikā’el

Uniform title: Gadel

Title (English): The Lives of Abba Zamikā’el and Gabra Krestos, The Vision of Mary, The Bandlet of Righteousness, The Miracle of St. Michael.
late 16th.

Author: The authorship of Lives of Abba Zamikā’el is attributed to St. Yāred the Singer. And also the Vision of Mary is attributed to St. John the Evangelist.
Scribe: Atenātéwos, Waleda Mareyām, Aresāneyos (there is also a hand that goes unnamed)
Origin: Maqedalā, Ethiopia. See f1v."Taken from King Theodores arsenal at Magdala after the fall of the place 14th April 1868"
Physical Description: Vellum, 206 pages, 103ff

Two columns, eighteen lines of text per page (the Miracle of St. Michael is 24 lines per page).

Size: 178mm x 160mm x 49mm

Binding is wooden boards with stamped leather back.

The majority of the manuscript (Gadela Zamikā’el and Gadela Gabera Keresetose) is composed of quires of eight leaves each.

The text is in black ink; the name of God, angels, and saints, including the scribes and the owners, and the first line of each book, is in red ink.

The books of Gadela Abba Zemikael and Gadela Gabera Keresetos are written in the same hand.

Colophons:

ff. 53, is a supplement to the hagiography called Salameta (greeting) to Gabera Keresetos

ff. 101-102, is a list of the abbots who came before and after Zemikael (Aregawi) written in a second hand.

ff.78-79 Bandlet of Righteousness is written in raqiq ( small hand writing)

Images:

f.1r, is a miniature representing Abba Zamikā'el (Aragawi)

f.54 is a miniature of Gabera Keresetos surrounded by dogs and with white leprosy spots (very important early representation of leprosy)

f.1v is in English handwriting in ink and says " Taken from King Theodores arsenal [parts of word obscured] at Magdala after the fall of the place. 14th April 1868"

Biography

The Life of Abba Zemike'el is well known because of the subject of the book, Abba Zamike'el, who was the founder of the great monastery of Dabra Damo. He is one of the Nine Saints of the fifth century who started the monastic movement in Ethiopia. Since the foundation of Dabra Damo, which is located in the Tigray Province, Abba Zamike'el has been considered the father of Ethiopian monastic life. The most respected monastic leaders included Abba Eyasus Mo'a and Abba Takela Haymanot, who not only made their monastic vows at Dabra Damo, but also considered themselves as the heirs of Abba Zamike'el. The Life of Abba Zamike'el is a very important 'gadel' (hagiography) which tries to explain how the celebrated monastic leader came to Ethiopia and founded the famous monastery. The gadel tells the story of Abba Zamike’el, the fourth generation after Saint Anthony and Saint Makars. Zamike’el was the son of King Isaac and Queen Edna of Rome, but he fled from his royal palace, and went to Abba Pachomius, founder of the first communal monastery of the Christian faith, and Zamike’el went to Axum carried on the wings of the angel. The book also narrates his struggle with the great serpent, which was considered by the local people of Dabera Damo as a god. The snake submitted and then took Zamike’el to the top of the mountain, where Zamike’el founded the monastery of Dabra Damo. Then King Gabara Maskal, son of King Kaleb, visited Dabra Damo. There is also the visitation of St. Yered the musician.
The second book is about the life of St. Gabera Keresetose who is known in the rest of the world as St. Alexi. In Ethiopia, St Gabera Keresetose is the patron saint of the rejected and out-cast people. The uniqueness of this manuscript, as the late Professor Leslau and Professor Richard Pankhurst said, is the very beautiful miniature which sheds some light not only on medieval Ethiopian painting but also the attitude of people towards the victims of leprosy disease.

Provenance

In f.31v, 50v, 51r, 78r, the scribe mentions the owner Wolda Mareyām. Adarā Giyoregis, inserted his name above the name of Wolda Mareyām.

Scope and Content

Compilation of important Ethiopian texts. Copied after 1632 (when the Portuguese were expelled). The first book in the compliation is the Life of Abba Zamikā’el (Aragawi) discusses the life of Abba Zamikā’el. He is one of the Nine Saints of the fifth century and a leader among those saints. Abba Zamikā’el is the founder of the Dabra Damo monastery. The second book in the compliation is the Life of Gabera Keresetos, which describes the acetic life of Gabera Keresetos, the son of King Theodosius of Constantinople, and what happened after he ran away on his wedding night. The other books are, in order,The Vision of Mary, The Bandlet of Righteousness, The Miracle of St. Michael, for a total of five books.