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Guide to the Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection
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Series I: Sacramental Records, 1777-1903, 1958

Physical Description: 10 boxes

Scope and Content

This series consists primarily of nine volumes of sacramental records which register the baptisms, confirmations, marriages and burials administered by the Franciscan clergy (1777-1851) and the Jesuit clergy (1851-1903) as a fundamental part of their ministry at Mission Santa Clara. The nine volumes of sacramental records contain more than 30,000 individual records; three volumes correspond to baptisms (1777-1862), one to confirmations (1779-1896), two to marriages (1777-1903), and three to burials (1777-1894). The Franciscans kept the sacramental records in Spanish, while in the latter half of the 19th century the records were written in Latin and English. The records correspond to the sacraments dispensed to the Indians ( indios) and individuals of Spanish origin ( gente de razón) who lived in Mission Santa Clara and its vicinity. The records also include, starting in the mid-19th century, the growing number of new European and American immigrants.
The sacramental records of Mission Santa Clara include basic information such as the name of the individual receiving the sacrament, his or her origin, the name of the minister, and the date. But they also reveal significant and diverse aspects of Mission Santa Clara’s history. The first baptismal record of June 6th, 1777 indicates, for example, that the first baptisms took place in the Indian villages surrounding the mission, for the Franciscan missionaries went there when they learned that many Indian children were ill. The first native baby was christened with the name Clara by the founder of Mission Santa Clara, Fray Tomás de la Peña. Another baptismal record of 1845 reflects the new Protestant immigration in the region; Alexandro Siros, a Presbyterian adult from Pennsylvania, was baptized in Mission Santa Clara after signing an “oath of faith.” Many marriage records of Indian couples such Gaspar and Cipriana (1790), reveal that in Santa Clara the Franciscans acknowledged existing Indian marriages and considered the Catholic marriage ceremony a “renewal” of the Indian “marital contract.” Marriage records also indicate that while the large majority of Indians in Santa Clara married other Indians, occasionally they married other groups: in 1856, for example, Catarina, Indian, married Ludovicus McCormick, an immigrant from Ohio. The burial records show, for instance, that Catholic Indians as well as individuals of Spanish origin were normally buried in the mission’s cemetery. However, burial records also reveal that Indians who had not converted to Catholicism sometimes continued to bury their baptized relatives in the Indian villages: in 1797 the “Pagan” relatives of 10-year old Egidia buried her in their village, despite the fact that she had been baptized in the mission five years earlier.

Box 1: Libro de Bautismos I (Book of Baptisms I), 1777-1804


Box 2: Libro de Bautismos II (Book of Baptisms II), 1804-1843


Box 3: Libro de Bautismos III (Book of Baptisms III), 1843-1862


Box 4: Libro de Confirmaciones (Book of Confirmations), 1779-1896


Box 5: Libro de Casamientos I (Book of Marriages I), 1778-1863


Box 6: Libro de Casamientos II (Book of Marriages II), 1863-1903


Box 7: Libro de Entierros I (Book of Burials I), 1777-1840


Box 8: Libro de Entierros II (Book of Burials II), 1840-1866


Box 9: Libro de Entierros III (Book of Burials III), 1866-1894


Box 10: Documents Related to Sacramental Records, 1777-1934, 1958


Box 10, folder 1: Matrimonial investigation, Agustín Narbais and María Antonia Rosales, 1799


Box 10, folder 2: Matrimonial investigation, Ignacio Pacheco and María Guadalupe Duarte, 1840


Box 10, folder 3: Matrimonial investigation, Francisco Galindo and María Manuela Pacheco, 1845


Box 10, folder 4: Matrimonial investigation, Rafael Altamirano and María de Gracia Miranda, 1848


Box 10, folder 5: Matrimonial investigation, Ylario Barrios and Jesús Martínez, 1850


Box 10, folder 6: Spanish transcriptions (non-literal, typewritten) of selected Mission Santa Clara baptismal records, 1777-1804

Transcription by T.W. Temple II, 1958. (39 pp.)

Box 10, folder 7: Spanish transcriptions (non-literal, typewritten) of selected Mission Santa Clara baptismal records, 1804-1843

Transcription by T.W. Temple II, 1958. (62 pp.)

Box 10, folder 8: Spanish transcriptions (non-literal, typewritten) of selected Mission Santa Clara marriage records, 1778-1863

Transcription by T.W. Temple II, 1958. (34 pp.)

Box 10, folder 9: Spanish transcriptions (non-literal, typewritten) of selected Mission Santa Clara burial records, 1778-1866

Transcription by T.W. Temple II, 1958. (35 pp.)

Box 10, folder 10: Unofficial records of baptisms, confirmations and marriages, Santa Clara, 1895-1934


Box 10, custom box 1: Baptisms Index, Mission Santa Clara, (non-Indian population), 1777-1855


Box 10, custom box 2: Libro de Confirmaciones I (Book of Confirmations I), Mission San Francisco, 1838, 1840


Series II: Informes (Mission Reports), 1777-1840

Physical Description: 1 box

Scope and Content

The Informes series consists of three different sets of periodic reports prepared by the Franciscan missionaries of Santa Clara:
1) The Annual Reports or Informes are very valuable sources for the history of Mission Santa Clara for they provide comprehensive information regarding the spiritual and material life in the mission. The missionaries normally included in the Annual Reports the total number of baptisms, marriages and deaths of the Indians ( indios) and individuals of Spanish origin ( gente de razón) who lived in the mission and its vicinity. Similarly, the Franciscans recorded the total Indian population. The missionaries also gave an account of the material dimension of the mission, such as the category and quantity of cattle and crops, as well as the construction of various buildings in the mission. The Annual Reports were sent to the Franciscan authorities in Alta California and in Mexico City.
Note: The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection includes the Annual Reports for the years 1777-1832 and 1840, except 1780, 1784, 1785, 1799-1809, and 1824.
2) The Biennial Reports are concise records of the total number of men and women who lived in Santa Clara, as well as the total number of baptisms, marriages and deaths of indios and gente de razón. Father Arthur Spearman affirms that these reports, prepared by the missionaries every two years, were sent to the governmental authorities in Monterey, Mexico City and Spain (Spearman, 1963, p. 15).
Note: The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection includes the Biennial Reports for the years 1799-1832, except the 1822 report.
3) The third set of reports, the Easter Precepts Reports, are also concise records which registered annually the number of neophytes who fulfilled the Easter precepts of confession and communion, as well as those who received the viaticum. The missionaries sent these reports to the President of the Alta California missions.
Note: The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection includes the Easter Precepts Reports for the years 1808-1831, except 1810, 1811, 1822, 1824, and 1828.
The Annual Reports or Informes are valuable sources which reflect the nature and complexity of Mission Santa Clara as well as its development throughout the years. The Informe of 1782, for example, provides a brief account of the initial years of the mission. It mentions, as well, the total number of baptisms, marriages and burials of indios and gente de razón that had taken place since the mission’s formation. In addition to the spiritual labor of the Franciscans, the Informe of 1782 also provides a detailed description of various material elements of Mission Santa Clara. The missionaries included long inventories of the church and sacristy (a sculpture of Patron Saint Clara, a redwood confessional, Chinese satin chasubles, etc.), their living quarters (a medicine cabinet, Chinese porcelain plates, and Native American metates for grinding), as well as implements used in the field (six plows and a branding iron for the cattle). The 1782 Annual Report also mentions the different types of cattle raised in the mission as well as their number, and the variety and volume of crops sown and harvested that year, reflecting the significance of cattle raising and agriculture in Mission Santa Clara. The founders of Mission Santa Clara, who wrote this Informe, also included a detailed census of the Indian neophytes who lived in Santa Clara; this document has great historical relevance for it is, most likely, the first census in the Santa Clara region.
Note: All the Reports are photocopies of the originals found in Mexico’s National Archives and Santa Bárbara Mission Archive-Library.

Box 11: Annual Reports, Biennial Reports and Easter Precepts Reports, 1777-1840


Box 11, folder 1: Annual Reports, Biennial Reports and Easter Precepts Reports, 1777-1840


Box 11, folder 2: Printed Record Form for Mission Reports, circa 1840


Box 11, folder 3: English Translations of Mission Reports, 1777-1823

Translated by Veronica Lococo, 1980.

Series III: Fr. Viader's Miscellany Book, 1779-1822

Physical Description: 2 boxes

Scope and Content

Father Viader’s Miscellany Book is a collection of 220 manuscripts (676 pages) that was assembled apparently by Father José Viader, one of the most influential Franciscans in Mission Santa Clara (where he served from 1796 to 1833). Father Viader’s Book, which is bound in hide, served as a reference book for life in Mission Santa Clara; as such, the multiple manuscripts in it deal with a great variety of subjects. Although some of the manuscripts in Father Viader’s Book were authored by Santa Clara missionaries, many manuscripts are copies that the missionaries made from other documents written in Spanish, Latin and Catalan. The predominant themes in these manuscripts are:
1) Church doctrine, liturgy and regulations. Father Viader’s Miscellany Book includes numerous copies and excerpts from Papal decrees, catechisms, theological treatises, regulations, missionary chronicles and missionary correspondence, they deal with matters of liturgy, sacraments, prayers, Protestantism, the faculties of the Alta California missionaries as well as instructions for the ministry of the Indians, among others.
2) Health care. These manuscripts include extensive collections of medications, detailed descriptions of treatments for various ailments as well as explanations of surgical procedures, such as inoculation and Cesareans.
3) Food production and preparation. Father Viader’s Book includes several manuscripts that describe the process of production of foods such as olive oil, wine and butter, as well as manuscripts with multiple recipes.
4) Economic legislation and production. Among these manuscripts are detailed descriptions on processing wool, tanning hides, and a 1788 mandate from the governor of Alta California listing the royal tariffs on various animals, animal products and grains.
5) International and local politics. Father Viader’s book includes news items about the turbulent political life in Europe as well as instructions for the election of Indian officials in Alta California.

Box 12: Fr. Viader’s Miscellany Book, 1779-1822


Box 12, item 1: Instalación de la Regencia (Installation of the Regencia), f.1v

News item concerning the installation of the Consejo de Regencia (Regency Council) in Spain on January 31, 1810 during the captivity of Fernando VII by Napoleon. The document also explains the electoral process of representatives for the Cortes de Cádiz (Spanish Parliament). (1 p.)

Box 12, item 2: Books purchased, f.1v

Brief list of books purchased, in all likelihood by Mission Santa Clara, including their cost. The books concern geography, medicine, history, philosophy and religion. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 3: Satirical poem, f.2r

Brief satirical poem contrasting the reputations of a rich man and a poor man when inebriated. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 4: Extract from Noticioso General concerning censorship and violence, f.2r

Brief extract (February 12, 1819) from Mexico’s periodical Noticioso General condemning censorship and encouraging the use of violence to confront violence. (1p.)

Box 12, item 5: Islas adyacentes a esta California Alta (Islands adjacent to Alta California), f.2

List of islands adjacent to the coast of Alta California, based on Miguel Constanzó´s map of 1770. June 23, 1820. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 6: Format for correspondence, f.2v

Format to be used for the correspondence directed to governmental and ecclesiastical authorities. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 7: Indice de cuanto contiene este libro 1º y en seguida el 2º (Index for the content of this first book, followed by the second), ff.3r-12v

Two indices of documents; the first index is an approximate list of the manuscripts found in Father José Viader’s book, the second index corresponds to an unknown second volume to this work. (20 pp.)

Box 12, item 8: Santos óleos viejos (Old holy oils), f.16v

Excerpt of a circular letter (June 8, 1822) by Fr. José Francisco Señán, President of the Alta California missions, on the use of holy oils in the missions.(1 p.)

Box 12, item 9: List of Russian possessions, f.16v

Brief list of Russian possessions in the North Pacific (“Ross,” “Notka,” “Sittica," “Yacutat,” “Codiac”), including their latitude and priests present in that territory. This document was created, in all likelihood, by Father Catalá who had served as chaplain of a Spanish ship which explored northern Pacific waters in 1793-1794. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 10: Book titles, f.17r

Brief list of book titles concerning mathematics, religion, medicine, linguistics and literature. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 11: Islas del Sur (Southern Islands), f.17r

Description of the distance between Punta de la Concepción, Isla de San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Barbara. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 12: Salve Dolorosa (God save Thee, sorrowful Virgin), f.17v

Prayer to Mary in eight stanzas. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 13: Real Arancel que hizo y mandó observar en toda la provincia de Californias el señor Don Pedro Fages gobernador y comandante inspector de ella el día 2 de enero del año 1788 (Royal tariff prepared and mandated for the entire province of Californias by Pedro Fages, governor and commander inspector of California on January 2, 1788), ff.18r-19v

Extensive list of tariffs to be paid in California on various animals, animal products, and grains, as mandated by the Governor Pedro Fages in 1788. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 14: Indice de los precios que no siendo tasados por arancel son corrientes en esta provincia (Index of prices not charged with tariffs in this province), ff.19v-22r

Extensive list of various products used in Alta California (not charged with tariffs) and their respective prices. The list includes saddles, boots, arms, deer hides, fabrics, chocolate, fruit, alcoholic beverages, among others. (7 pp.)

Box 12, item 15: Peso de la Romana (Weight of the steelyard), f.22r

Brief explanation of the operation of the steelyard. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 16: Peso de las balanzas (Weight of the scales), f.22r

Brief description of the eight-pound scales. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 17: O Dulcísima María (Prayer to sweetest Mary), f.22v

Prayer to sweetest Mary in four stanzas. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 18: Fundación y existentes de todas las Misiones (Foundation and Indian population of all the missions), f.23r

List of the existing 19 Alta California missions and the Asistencia de San Rafael, including the date of their foundation and the magnitude of the Indian population for every mission. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 19: El Ave María (Hail Mary), f.23v

Hail Mary prayer in seven stanzas. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 20: Mano Astronómica, Epactas…(Astronomic hand, epacts…), ff.24r-27v

Detailed instructions for calculations of the calendar and liturgical years. The instructions include a textual explanation as well as an illustration of a mnemonic hand. The manuscript offers a lengthy explanation of the leap year. Written by Fr. Viader, at Mission San Luis, July 2, 1805. (8 pp.)

Box 12, item 21: Mano astronómica (Astronomic hand), ff.28r-31v

Detailed instructions for calculations of the calendar and liturgical years. The instructions include text, tables and two illustrations of mnemonic hands. The manuscript also includes the names of the Hebrew months. (8 pp.)

Box 12, item 22: Cuarteta al santo angel de la Guarda (Prayer to the guardian angel), f.31v

Prayer to the Guardian Angel in four lines. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 23: Arancel provisional de la Suprema Junta Gubernativa del Imperio Mexicano (Provisional trade regulations of the Supreme Governmental Council of the Mexican Empire), ff.32r-33v

Excerpt from the regulations established in 1821 by the Mexican government for the imports and exports of the new nation. The regulations specify import and export tariffs, duty free products, as well as prohibited items for importation (for example tobacco and “books against Religion”). (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 24: Manifiesto canónico, político, moral en que se hace ver lo útil y precioso del presente estado de las tres misiones de N. y se proponen los medios que más pueden conducir a sus mejoras en lo christiano y civil (Canonical, political, moral manifesto which demonstrates the advantage and beauty of the present state of the three missions of N. and suggests the best means to bring improvements in the Christian and civil realms), ff.34r-59v

Excerpt from the account by Franciscan Francisco Pérez de los Cobos ( Manifiesto canónico, político, moral sobre las misiones de los montes Caraballos, 1795) concerning the missions of Puncan, Caranglan and Pantamangan in the Philippines. In his account the Franciscan describes various aspects of the native society including the demography, their government, their languages, their agriculture, as well as various economic aspects concerning the missions. Father Pérez de los Cobos also fully analyzes and affirms the need to congregate the native population for social, political and spiritual reasons. (52 pp.)

Box 12, item 25: Tarifa de los derechos que en los puertos y ensenadas de la costa de la Nueva California deben exigir los Señores habilitados como administradores de Real Hacienda de los esquilmos que se embarquen en buques nacionales conforme a lo dispuesto por el señor gobernador de la provincia teniente coronel Dn. Pablo Vicente de Solá (List of duties that officials of the Royal Treasury should charge in the ports and bays of Nueva California of the products shipped in national vessels according to the stipulation of lieutenant colonel Don Pablo Vicente de Solá, governor of this province), f.60v

List of products including flour, hides, wool, otter, and the corresponding duties, as stipulated by the governor of Alta California Pablo Vicente de Solá in 1817. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 26: Machote del beneficio que se ha de dar a la lana (Instructions for processing wool), ff.61r-61v

Instructions for the various stages involved in processing wool: washing, laying out, beating, carding, spinning as well as for the weaving of various types of clothes and blankets. This document reveals the importance of the large number of sheep at Mission Santa Clara. (2 pages)

Box 12, item 27: Salve Dolorosa (God save Thee, Sorrowful Virgin), f.62r

Prayer to Mary in eight stanzas. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 28: Canción a la Virgen de Belén (Song to the Lady of Bethlehem), f.62v

Lyrics for a Christmas folk song, probably a villancico, consisting of eight stanzas of four lines; this informal song describes the shepherds’ visit to Mary and Jesus in Bethlehem. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 29: Gobierno para curtir vaquetas de Ignacio Higuera (Instructions for tanning hides by Ignacio Higuera), ff.63r-63v

Instructions for the various phases involved in hide tanning, including the type of tools employed. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 30: Los motivos de la fe, esperanza y caridad (The objects of faith, hope and charity), f.63v

Languages: In Latin

Explanation of the material and formal objects of the three theological virtues: faith, hope and charity. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 31: Resolución del P. Prefecto sobre un casamiento de unos Neófitos, dirigida a los PP. Tapis y Payeras para S. Inés y Purísima (Resolution of the Father Prefect regarding the marriage of some neophytes addressed to Fathers Tapis and Payeras for Missions Santa Inés and Purísima), ff.64r-64v

Instructions given by Fr. Vicente Francisco de Sarría, Commissary Prefect in Alta California, to missionaries Esteban Tapis and Mariano Payeras regarding the marriage of Indians after their conversion to Christianity, including cases of polygamy, June 22, 1814. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 32: Remiendo de escrituras (Correcting writing errors), f.65r

Instructions for correcting writing errors, the process involved the use of a razor, sandarac resin, and bread crumbs. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 33: Párrafo de mucho Consuelo (Paragraph of much consolation), f.65v

Languages: In Latin

Reflexion on the biblical passages of Hebrews 11:6 and John 1:2. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 34: Apuntes para Abecedario (Notes for the alphabet), ff.66r-70v, 72r-72v, 73r, 76r-76v

Compilation of definitions of various subjects classified alphabetically, similar to a brief encyclopedia. The entries correspond mainly to European history and historical characters. The main source of information is a multivolume work by the author Ortiz. (15 pp.)

Box 12, item 35: Algunas noticias sacadas del cuaderno del P. Traggia Carmelita Descalzo (News items extracted from the notebook of P. Traggia Discalced Carmelite), ff.70v-75v

Excerpt from the writings of the Carmelite friar Manuel de Santo Thomas Traggia where he addresses the Spanish Cortes (Parliament) arguing for the regular clergy’s right to vote. The extract is, in all likelihood, from his Memoria sobre el derecho de los religiosos al voto en Cortes extraordinarias (Valencia, 1811). (11 pp.)

Box 12, item 36: Leche, Mantequilla, Asaderas o Quesadillas, Quesos y Requesón (Milk, butter, quesadillas, cheeses and curd cheese), ff.73r-73v

Detailed instructions for the production of butter and jocoque. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 37: Cómo se escriben oficios, cómo cartas a virreyes y obispos y cómo a otros de menos carácter (How to write official letters, letters to viceroys and bishops, and others of less prestige), ff.76v-77v

Format to be used for the correspondence directed to viceroys, bishops, and other individuals. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 38: Relación del viaje que hizo el PP Fr. Juan Riobó en calidad de capellán, en las fragatas de S. Md. La Princesa y la Favorita, para el descubrimiento de nuevas tierras, y mares al Norte, de los establecimientos de los puertos de Monte Rey, y N.P.S. Francisco: cuyas missiones están a cargo de los Missioneros Apostólicos del Colegio de Sn Fernando de Megico (Account of the voyage undertaken by P.P. Fr. Juan Riobó as chaplain in the frigates S.M. La Princesa and La Favorita for the discovery of new lands and seas North of the ports of Monterey and San Francisco, whose missions are administered by the Apostolic Missionaries of the Colegio de San Fernando of Mexico), ff.78r-85v

Franciscan missionary Juan Antonio García Riobó wrote a thorough narrative of this voyage of exploration intended to “discover new lands and seas North of the ports of Monterey and San Francisco.” The royal frigates set sail from the port of San Blas, Mexico in February of 1779 and reached Alaska six months later. García Riobó, chaplain for the exploration, registered the latitude and longitude along the route and the crew drafted new maps. The Franciscan also offers significant information about the native people and cultures they encountered in their journey, especially those of Santa Cruz. (16 pp.)

Box 12, item 39: Modo de curtir (Process for tanning hides), ff.86r-87v

Comprehensive instructions for processing hides and suede. The instructions explain the different stages of the process (soaking in water and lime, dyeing, etc.), the number of weeks involved, and the tools employed (whale’s bone, etc.). (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 40: Método de practicar la inoculación de las viruelas con cuya sencilla operación se evitan inumerables muertes (Instructions to practice the inoculation of poxes with this simple operation innumerable deaths are prevented), f.88r

Instructions provided by the surgeon of the Monterey presidio, Pablo Soler, to the missionaries of Alta California on May 14, 1798 to practice the inoculation of poxes among the Indians in order to avoid the devastation of the Indian population of Lower California that had taken place in 1781. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 41: Virtudes de varios medicamentos aplicados tanto interior como exteriormente con el uso que de ellos debe hacerse (Virtues of various medications applied internally and externally, including indications for their use), ff.89r-97v

Compendium of 58 medications of the European and Native-American traditions including oils, balsams, plants, salts, seeds and poultices. The document offers a detailed explanation of the application of the individual medications for various ailments. (18 pp.)

Box 12, item 42: Régimen contra la disentería (Regimen against dysentery), ff.98r-98v

Thorough description of the medical treatment for dysentery, one of the most common ailments at Mission Santa Clara. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 43: Treatment for headaches, f.98v

Description of the treatment for headaches with herb-based fomentations. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 44: Gazeta de México, del Martes 4 de Diciembre de 1787. Tom II, Num.46, p.453, 454, 459, 460, 463-466 ( Gazeta de México, Tuesday, December 4, 1787. Tom II, Num.46, p.453, 454, 459, 460, 463-466), ff.100r-103v

Printed issue of colonial Mexico’s prominent periodical Gazeta de México which includes news about the political life in Guadalajara, commerce between the port of Veracruz and Spain, the Caribbean and Venezuela, as well as a copy of the royal decree of March 15, 1787 regarding church asylum. (8 pp.)

Box 12, item 45: Compendio de varios remedios caseros (Compendium of various home remedies), ff.104r-106r

Compilation which provides a full description of 12 homes remedies for ailments such as mange, syphilis, sores and burns. Some remedies mention the author’s name (Carrillo, Luz, Father President, Father Marcelino, Juan Morelos Beltrán, Miranda). (5 pp.)

Box 12, item 46: Modo fácil de hacer miel de sandía (Simple instructions for making watermelon honey), f.105v

Instructions for making watermelon honey. By Felipe García. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 47: Para hacer y conservar el agraz (To make and preserve verjuice), f.106r

Instructions for making and preserving sour grape juice. By Herrera. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 48: Modo de componer un puerco (Instructions for preparing pork), ff.106r-107r

Instructions for the preparation of various pork recipes, including chorizo, blood pudding, blood sausage and cured bacon and ham. The detailed instructions mention the ingredients, cooking utensils and the time for preparation. By P. Bonilla. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 49: Receta para hacer tinta (Instructions for making ink), ff.107v-108v

Five sets of instructions for the production of ink. The instructions mention the ingredients (mainly gall, copperas and gum Arabic), the tools and the time involved in the process. By P. Pangua and Antonio el Portugués. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 50: Recetas para las diarreas y disenterías. Dios sobre todo (Remedies for diarrheas and disenteries. God above all), ff.109r-109v

Brief description of three different remedies to cure diarrhea and dysentery, including the use of willow bark and pomegranate peel. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 51: Modo de curtir Saleas (How to tan hides), f.109v

Brief instructions for tanning hides. By Sargento Olivera. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 52: Treatment for hernia ventosa, f.109v

Brief description of the treatment to cure the hernia ventosa. By D. Luis Fernández. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 53: Explicación de la balanza grande (Explanation of the large weight scale), ff.110r-110v

Brief description of the configuration of a large weight scale, listing the different weights of the 12 pieces that constitute the scale. The second section of the manuscript explains the configuration of a small weight scale of 10 pieces. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 54: Romana grande (Large steelyard), ff.110v-111r

Explanation of the operation of the steelyard to weigh objects. By Captain Arguello. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 55: Remedio contra las quemaduras (Remedy for burns), f.111v

Instructions for the treatment of burns according to their severity (including the use of olive oil and egg yolk). This manuscript is an extract from the Spanish periodical Espíritu de los mejores diarios literarios que se publican en Europa (t.1, n.44). (1 p.)

Box 12, item 56: Goma que resiste al agua y al fuego para remendar toda suerte de loza fina y ordinaria (Glue resistent to water and fire to repair all kinds of fine and ordinary crockery), ff.111v-112r

Instructions for the production of glue (with milk, egg yolks and quicklime) utilized for the restoration of crockery. This manuscript is an extract from the Spanish periodical Espíritu de los mejores diarios literarios que se publican en Europa (t.2, n.48). (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 57: Para el dolor de cabeza y de estómago (For the headache and stomachache), f.112r

Concise description for the treatment of the headache and stomachache. By Captain Arguello. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 58: Modo de hacer aguardiente (How to make brandy), ff.112r-113v

Comprehensive description of the different stages involved in the production of apple, peach and grape brandy: grinding, boiling, sweetening, fermenting, distilling, and coloring the brandy. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 59: Jarabe de vinagre de Masdevall (Syrup of Masdevall Vinegar), f.113v

Concise instructions for producing this syrup with vinegar, sugar and egg. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 60: Del Vino (About wine), f.114r

Brief description of the process involved in the production of grape wine. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 61: Para hacer dulce de piñón (To make pine nut syrup), f.114r

Cooking instructions for the preparation of pine nut syrup, including the required ingredients and utensils. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 62: Beneficio del cuero hasta hacerlo costal (Processing hides to make sacks), f.114v

Brief description of the various steps involved in making sacks with cowhide. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 63: Receta para el dolor de costado y pulmonía (Prescription for side pain and pneumonia), ff.114v-115r

Instructions for the preparation and administration of remedies for pneumonia (barley-based beverage) and for side pain (salt and vinegar ointment). (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 64: Receta de zarzaparrilla para los gálicos (Sarsaparrilla treatment for syphilis), ff.115r-116r

Comprehensive explanation of the treatment for syphilis, one of the most common ailments at Mission Santa Clara. The manuscript mentions the remedy (beverage of sarsaparilla and guayacan), the diet to be observed, the type of rest needed (in a smoked room) and the duration of the treatment (43 days). By P. Florencio Ibañez. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 65: Remedios varios de Quijano (Various remedies by Quijano), ff.116r-116v

Compilation of medications and treatments for 14 different medical conditions, including tumors and childbirth. By Manuel Quijano, surgeon in Monterey from 1807-1824. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 66: Remedios que hay en esta Misión (Remedies found in this Mission), ff.117r-117v

List of names of medical ointments, oils, balsams, dressings, and plants found at this Mission. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 67: Medicamentos que con sus virtudes trae el cuaderno tercero de este libro (Medications and their virtues found in the third section of this book), f.118r

List of medications which are described in the manuscript “Virtudes de varios medicamentos” (ff.89r-97v) found in Fr. Viader’s book. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 68: Medicinas varias y sus usos según el Cirujano Don Manuel Quijano (Various medicines and their uses according to surgeon Don Manuel Quijano), ff.118v-121r

Compilation of 43 medications which includes the specific ailments treated with each medication as well as a brief description of every treatment. The remedies include ointments, balsams, poultices, oils, plants, bark, salts and mercury. By Manuel Quijano. (6 pp.)

Box 12, item 69: Medicamentos que aquí hay y cuyo uso no se ha expresado aún (Medications found in this place which use has not been expressed yet), ff.121r-122v

Compendium of 23 medications including ointments, oils, poultices, salts, and plants for ailments such as dysentery, tumors and scurvy. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 70: Remedios varios (Various remedies), f.122v

Compilation of descriptions for the treatment of six ailments, including dysentery, fever, and concussions. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 71: Quina y varios modos de tomarla (Quina and various ways of consuming it), ff.123r-123v

Extract from the periodical Diarios de México, December 10-12, 1809, concerning the use of quina (bark from the Andean tree cinchona) for the treatment of yellow fever. The manuscript describes in detail various ways to prepare the quina, as well as the quantity and the frequency for the administration of this remedy. The document also addresses the importance of isolating the patients suffering from yellow fever. Some of the information is based on Don Tadeo LaFuente’s writings about yellow fever, LaFuente was a medical doctor for Spain’s Royal Army. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 72: Purga suave (Mild purge), ff.123v-124r

Instructions for the preparation of a medicinal drink, with senna leaf, used as a laxative. By Don Raymundo Carrillo. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 73: Modo práctico para curar el gálico en los indios según experimentó un aficionado (Practical way to cure syphilis among the Indians according to a nonprofessional), ff.124r-124v

Comprehensive explanation of the treatment for syphilis, one of the most common ailments at Mission Santa Clara. The description involves various remedies (beverages made with the medicinal plants sarsaparilla and guayacan, ointments for sores, senna leafs for purges), the diet to be observed (the Native-American atole, pozole and pinole), as well as the recommended hygiene and climate. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 74: Gobierno del tobacco (Production of tobacco), f.125r

Brief description of the various stages involved in the production of tobacco. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 75: Modo de hacer el aceite acomodado a las circunstancias de la California (How to produce oil according to California’s conditions), ff.125r-126r

Explanation of the various stages of olive oil production recommended for California: picking the olives, cleaning, laying them out to dry, grinding in a mortar, mixing with hot water, pressing, and cooking. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 76: Receta para beneficiar el Tabaco (Instructions for the production of tobacco), ff.126r-126v

Comprehensive explanation of the different stages involved in the production of tobacco. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 77: Cómo se componen y tajan las plumas para escribir (How to prepare and carve feathers for writing), f.128v

Detailed explanation of the different steps involved in making quill pens: selecting a feather from the right wing of a swan or goose, washing it, rubbing with oil, carving, etc. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 78: Adobos, Asados y Salsas (Spicy marinades, roasts and salsas), ff.129r-129v

Compilation of eight recipes for marinated beef, roasted lamb, various salsas, and bizcochos (Spanish pastries), including the utensils required. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 79: Gobierno de la cocina (Administering the kitchen), ff.130v-135v

Compilation of 50 recipes for savory and sweet dishes which combine the cuisines from Spain, central Mexico and California. The manuscript also mentions the cooking utensils necessary in the kitchen. (11 pp.)

Box 12, item 80: Años, meses, semanas, días, horas, minutos, corrección Gregoriana (Years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, Gregorian correction), ff.136r-136v

Definitions for time-related terms including the year (following the Gregorian calendar), the leap year, civic year, ecclesiastical year, week, day, month, hour and minutes. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 81: Formulario para las Diligencias Matrimoniales (Form for matrimonial investigations), ff.136r-139r

Sample form (1790’s) to be used by the Franciscans to interrogate the bride and groom regarding their background (place of birth, parents, etc.) as well as possible impediments for the marriage. It also includes the form for the declaration of two witnesses. The final section of this document is a questionnaire for the bride and groom concerning their age, their parish, their knowledge of doctrine, etc. (7 pp.)

Box 12, item 82: Forma de las Amonestaciones (Form for matrimonial banns), f.140r

Sample form to be used for the three matrimonial banns, requesting the community to inform of any impediment before a couple’s wedding. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 83: Informe de esta Misión de N. según el estado en que se hallaba el día último de diciembre del año N (Report for this Mission according to the condition of it the last day of December), ff.140v-141r

Sample form to be used by the Alta California missions to prepare their annual reports. The annual reports were to include the total number of baptisms, marriages and deaths of Indians and Spaniards who lived at the mission and its vicinity, the total Indian population, the type and quantity of cattle and crops, the various objects and tools found in the church, the living quarters and the field, as well as new constructions. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 84: Para el biennio (For the biennial), ff.141r-141v

Sample form (1796-1797) to be used by the Alta California missions to prepare their biennial reports. The concise biennial reports were to include the total population, as well as the total number of baptisms, marriages and deaths of Indians and Spaniards. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 85: Copia del oficio que se pasa al gobernador cuando la elección de alcaldes (Copy of the official letter sent to the governor upon the election of alcaldes), ff.141v-142r

Sample letters to be used by the missionaries to inform the governor of Alta California of the results of the elections of alcaldes and regidores on January 1st. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 86: Copia del papel de iglesia que el R.P. Fr. Marcelino Ciprés ministro de la Misión de San Antonio dio a la neófita Eulalia al extraerla la justicia del sagrado (Copy of the church paper that Father Marcelino Ciprés minister of Mission San Antonio gave to the neophyte Eulalia when removed by the justice), ff.142r-142v

Copy of a certification given to the Indian neophyte Eulalia by Father Marcelino Ciprés from Mission San Antonio on February 1, 1801. Eulalia had sought church asylum in the mission after committing certain crime and Father Ciprés wrote this certificate when she was sent to Sargent Gabriel Moraga, of the Monterey presidio, for interrogation. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 87: Copia de la certificación a que el R.P.Pte. manda a los misioneros se arreglen para dar la constancia de haberse leido donde corresponde los edictos de la Inquisición (Copy of the certification ordered by the Father President to be used by the missionaries to show proof that the edicts of the Inquisition had been read where it corresponds), f.142v

Sample form to be used by the Alta California missionaries to confirm that they had publicized the edicts of the Inquisition received in their mission. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 88: Facultades que tiene el R.P. Presidente (Faculties entitled to the Reverend Father President), f.143r

Extract from Father José Señán’s letter from December 9, 1812 in which he mentions that as President of the missions of Nueva California, and as determined by the bishop of Sonora, he is the vicar forane for the missions’ district. Señán mentions that the President of the missions has the faculty for the dispensation of marriage banns. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 89: Quemazones (Fires), f.143v

Note concerning Alta California Governor Pablo Sola’s circular letter of September 27th, 1815 in which he prohibited burning fields, and stated that if the Indians needed to burn some they had to notify the corporal. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 90: Breve tratado de aritmética sacado de los que escribieron Don Juan Sánchez Reciente y Don Juan Justo García (Brief treatise of arithmetic taken from those written by Don Juan Sánchez Reciente and Don Juan Justo García), ff.144r-157r

This brief arithmetic treatise is a summary of the Tratado de arithmética theórica y práctica, según el modo con que se enseña en el Real Colegio Seminario de San Telmo, written by Juan Sánchez Reciente professor of the Real Colegio Seminario de San Telmo (Spain), around 1751. The treatise consists of five chapters which offer definitions and examples of the principles of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. (28 pp.)

Box 12, item 91: Extracto de la Tabla de Don Julian Yllana (Excerpt from Don Julian Yllana’s Table), f.158r

Excerpt from Spanish teacher Julian Yllana's conversion table for currency, weights and measurements. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 92: Modo de clarificar el azúcar (How to clarify sugar), f.158r

Brief description of the process for clarifying sugar utilizing water and eggs. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 93: Dulces de varias frutas conservas, cajetas, jaleas de perón, masa de rodeo (Sweets of various fruits, preserves, cajetas, peron jelly, masa de rodeo), ff.158v-160r

Compilation of recipes for the preparation of apple, quince, pear, and pine nut preserves, jellies, and cajetas (caramel spread). The recipes fully describe the different steps involved in preparing the preserves and spreads and mention the type of cooking utensils necessary. The manuscript also includes a recipe for making cookies called rodeos. María Antonio Carrillo is the author for the perón recipe. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 94: Vinos blanco, cocido, arrope, and vino arropado (White wine, cooked wine, grape syrup, and vino arropado), ff.160r-160v

Instructions for making four different grape beverages. The manuscript also includes Father Viader’s personal account of the grape harvest of the two vineyards in 1813, in which he mentions the volume harvested as well as recommendations for the following harvest. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 95: Copias de las cartas órdenes de N.P. Presidente y todo lo que hallé digno de apuntar desde el mes de Octubre de 1798 en esta Misión de N.S. de la Soledad (Copies of the letters containing the mandates of our President and everything I considered worth recording since the month of October of 1798 in this Mission of N.S. de la Soledad), ff.164r-165v

Copies of various documents found at Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad.
1. Synopsis of President Fermín Francisco de Lasuén’s circular (October 1798) mandating the election of alcaldes and regidores on January 1st.
2. Copy of a letter from Fr. Lasuén (1799) regarding Indians who had left the mission.
3. Copy of a letter from Fr. Lasuén (1801) concerning Spanish royal mandates addressing the need for the consent of relatives or tutors in order to wed.
4. Excerpt from the Reales Ordenanzas (Royal Ordinances) concerning church asylum.
5. Excerpt from the Reales Ordenanzas (Royal Ordinances) regarding correction for military officers. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 96: Privilegios para comer carne (Privileges for consuming meat), ff.165v-166r

Excerpt from the periodical Gazeta de México concerning the special permission granted by an edict for the poor (including the Franciscans) to consume meat during Lent and Holy Week in 1802 and 1803. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 97: Dispensa de la abstinencia de carnes (Dispensation from meat abstinence), f.166r

Segment from the Spanish periodical Guía de Forasteros (1802) concerning the Pope’s permission to consume meat on proscribed days for the years 1801-1807. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 98: Edicto del Señor Obispo (Edict from the bishop), ff.166r-167v

Notes from an edict (1802) by Sonora’s bishop Francisco Rouset concerning a royal decree about the taxation of inheritances. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 99: Edicto del Obispo. Dispensa de carne (Bishop’s edict. Dispensation of meat), ff.168r-169r

Copy of an edict (January 1803) by Sonora’s bishop Francisco Rouset informing that the Pope had granted the Indians a dispensation from observing certain fasts. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 100: Copia de la Patente de Presidente del P. Tapis (Copy of the letter of President of Father Tapis), ff.169r-169v

Copy of the letter (January 1798) from Fr. Miguel Lull, Guardian of the Colegio de San Fernando in Mexico City, designating Esteban Tapis as substitute for the President of the Alta California missions. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 101: Pagar fletes (Payment of shipping costs), ff.169v-170r

Summary of New Spain Viceroy José de Iturrigaray’s mandate concerning shipping costs for imports and exports in Alta California. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 102: Cédula de Iglesias (Decree concerning churches), f.170r

Summary of a royal decree (1802) regarding the edification of churches in the Californias. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 103: Fragmento de una carta al P. José Faura su autor el P. Calzada (Excerpt from a letter to Father José Faura his author Father Calzada), ff.170v-171v

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Excerpt from Father Faura’s letter concerning the Papal Bull Omnimoda, which specifically addresses the Franciscans’ faculty to officiate Indian weddings at all times. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 104: Prohibición de todo comercio con los extranjeros (Prohibition of all commerce with foreigners), ff.172r-172v

Copy of letter from Father Esteban Tapis (1804) to missionaries from Mission San Buenaventura to Mission San Diego informing them that all commerce with foreigners is illegal. Father Tapis cites Spanish legislation from the Recopilación de las Indias. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 105: Real cédula sobre matrimonios (Royal decree concerning marriages), ff.172v-175r

Copy of a royal decree (1803) by Carlos IV regarding the marriage of minors and the government’s jurisdiction on marriage. The decree is based on Carlos III’s Pragmática de Matrimonios (1766) and later resolutions. 1804. (6 pp.)

Box 12, item 106: Noticias curiosas de los principios de esta nueva conquista sacadas fielmente de los libros de la administración de la misión de San Diego (Curious news about the origins of this new conquest faithfully obtained from the books of the administration of mission San Diego), ff.175r-177v

Copy of excerpts from mission San Diego’s early sacramental books which relate the initial history of mission San Diego, partially narrated by Junípero Serra in 1776. August 9, 1804. (6 pp.)

Box 12, item 107: Modo de hacer la operación Cesarea después de muerta la Madre (How to perform a Cesarean operation after the mother’s death), ff.177v-179v

Copy of a medical treatise providing detailed instructions about how to perform a Cesarean if the mother died in childbirth. These instructions were formulated in 1803 under the directive of the Real Colegio de San Carlos, Madrid’s College of Medicine. They reached the California missions since the King had commanded to send this information to the Spanish colonies. The document emphasizes the importance of having a written description of this process given that “the spiritual and physical life of the creature is of utmost importance” and surgeons were not always available. Copied from Father Tapis’s document. November 14, 1804. (5 pp.)

Box 12, item 108: Indulto de carne a los indios (Meat dispensation for the Indians), ff.179v-181r

Copies of letters (1804) from Francisco Rouset, bishop of Sonora, and Fr. Esteban Tapis, President of the Alta California missions, affirming that, based on ecclesiastical legislation the mission Indians could benefit from the dispensation of meat abstinence. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 109: Que los PP. no castiguen a los gentiles (The Fathers should not punish the gentiles), ff.181r-181v

Copy of a letter from Governor of Alta California José Joaquín de Arrillaga to a Father explaining the jurisdiction of the military over the “Pagan Indians.” (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 110: Encargo del P. Pte. (Directive from the Father President), f.181v

Copy of an order from the Father President instructing the Alta California missions to send the results of the election of alcaldes and regidores to the governor of Alta California in January. November 14, 1804. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 111: Sentencia de los puntos de acusaciones (Resolution regarding the charges), ff.181v-182r

Copy from New Spain viceroy José de Iturrigaray’s letter (April 19, 1805) to the Father General from the Colegio de San Fernando in Mexico City declaring that the accusations of abuse against the Alta California missions are unfounded and encouraging the Colegio de San Fernando to continue their demanding labor. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 112: Reforma del actual Presidente (Reform from the current President), ff.182r-185r

Copy of letter (November 12, 1805) from President Esteban Tapis to the Franciscans from mission Soledad to San Diego proposing a “uniformity plan” for the missions to regulate the devotional life and the labor. The letter also addresses the use of physical punishment. Tapis wrote the letter from Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad. (7 pp.)

Box 12, item 113: Absolución de casos reservados (Absolution of reserved cases), ff.185r-185v

Copy of letter from the Father President (January 19, 1806) concerning the faculty of the missionaries to absolve and be absolved of “reserved cases”. Letter was written from mission San Carlos. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 114: Nevada (Snowfall), f.185v

Brief note stating that the mission was covered with snow at daybreak on January 9, 1806. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 115: Ejercicios (Exercises), f.185v

Instructions from the President of the Alta California missions to the missionaries concerning their need to congregate in other missions to practice the “ejercicios.” (1 p.)

Box 12, item 116: Apuntes de la carta del R.P. Fr. Joaquín Portillo a sus Hermanos Fr. Andrés, Fr. Santiago y Fr. Agustín, todos Capuchinos (Notes from the letter from Reverend Father Fr. Joaquín Portillo to his brothers Fr. Andrés, Fr. Santiago and Fr. Agustín, all Capuchins), f.186r

Notes from Capuchin Father Joaquín Portillo’s letter which offers a spiritual reflection on the principles of obedience and seeking counsel. Father Portillo wrote the letter in New Orleans, December 1791. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 117: Sobre el parte de la elección de alcaldes (Concerning the notification of the election of alcaldes), f.186v

Copy of letter from President Esteban Tapis (October 10, 1806) informing that Governor José de Artillaga mandated that the results from the annual elections of alcaldes and regidores in the Alta California missions should be sent to the commanders of the presidios. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 118: Dispensa de los impedimentos del matrimonio (Dispensation of marriage banns), f.186v

Copy of letter from Sonora’s bishop to the President of the Alta California missions granting him the faculty for the dispensation of marriage banns. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 119: Contestación sincerando la conducta de los misioneros de California (Reply explaining the conduct of the California missionaries), ff.187r-188v

Copy of the Colegio de San Fernando’s reply to the viceroy of New Spain concerning the accusations of “excesses, rigidity and cruelty” against the Franciscan missionaries in Alta California. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 120: Reconocimiento y juramento hecho a las Cortes (Recognition and oath made to the Cortes), ff.188v-189r

Copy of letter (May 8, 1811) from Father Esteban Tapis to the Alta California missionaries instructing them to take the oath recognizing the Cortes Generales and Extraordinarias (Spanish Parliament). Written at Mission San Luis Rey. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 121: Dispensar en los matrimonios (To dispense on marriages), ff.189r-189v

Copy of letter (May 8, 1811) from Father Esteban Tapis to Alta California missionaries informing them that the bishop of Sonora had granted them the faculty to revalidate certain marriages “in foro conscientiae.” Written at Mission San Luis Rey. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 122: Apuntes sacados del libro cuyo título es: Resoluciones morales y canónicas acerca del sacramento del bautismo. Su autor: el M.R.P fr. Juan Josef de la Cruz y Moya del Orden de Predicadores. Misionero Apostólico de la Gran China. Escrito año 1754 (Notes extracted from the book titled Moral and canonical resolutions concerning the sacrament of baptism. Its author: Most Reverend Father Fray Juan Josef de la Cruz y Moya from the Order of Preachers. Apostolic Missionary to Great China. Written in 1754), ff.190r-198r

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Excerpts from the Dominican Father Juan José de la Cruz’s work Resoluciones morales y canónicas acerca del sacramento del bautismo: con un sinópsis de los privilegios que gozan los regulares, especialmente en Philipinas, en orden a la administración de los sacramentos , published in Mexico in 1755. In his work, de la Cruz, missionary to the Philippines, addresses the special prerogatives given by various Popes to the regular clergy in the Indies, the instruction necessary before baptism, the use of military force to congregate the Indians, among other themes. (17 pp.)

Box 12, item 123: Regla del Derecho (Rule of law), ff.198r-199v

Languages: In Latin

List of 69 chapters of an unidentified book concerning cannon law. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 124: Para cumplimiento de iglesia los Indios y demás que no comulgan (Fulfillment of Easter duty for Indians and those who don’t receive communion), ff.199v-200r

Excerpt from Alonso de la Peña Montenegro’s Itinerario para Párrocos de Indios concerning the Indians’ privilege to fulfill the precept of confession at a time other than Easter. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 125: Edict concerning indult for Lent, ff.200r-200v

Excerpt from an edict by the general subdelegate of the Holy Crusade concerning the indult for Lent for the poor. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 126: Fragmento del edicto del señor subdelegado general de la Santa Cruzada en la Nueva España (Fragment from the edict from the general subdelegate of the Holy Crusade in New Spain), ff.200v-201r

Instructions from the general subdelegate of the Holy Crusade in New Spain concerning the application of the Santa Bula (Bull of the Crusade) for the decade of 1790. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 127: Extracto de los edictos expedidos por el Sr. Dr. Don Juan Francisco Jaravo, canónigo doctoral de la Sta. Iglesia Metropolitana de México, como subdelegado de la Santa Cruzada. Insertados en la Gaceta de México. December 3, 1805 (Extract from the edicts issued by Don Juan Francisco Jaravo, doctoral canon of the Holy Metropolitan Church of Mexico, as subdelegate of the Holy Crusade. Inserted in the Gaceta de México, December 3, 1805), ff.201r-202v

Instructions given by Juan Francisco Javaro, subdelegate of the Holy Crusade in Mexico concerning the application of the Bull of the Crusade circa 1806-1807, specifically in relation to the indult for Lent as well as the economic contributions according to social class. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 128: Si el Religioso puede apelar de los mandatos de su superior (Whether the clergy could appeal the mandates of his superior), f.202v

Languages: In Spanish and Latin

Notes concerning the occasions when the clergy could appeal the orders of their superiors, according to the work of Covarrubias and Peyrinis. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 129: Consecratio Patena et calicis (Consecration of the paten and the chalice), ff.203r-204r

Languages: In Latin

Prayers in Latin used for the consecration of the paten and the chalice. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 130: Modo de bendecir el hábito, cordón y capilla (How to bless the habit, cord and cowl), ff.204r-204v

Languages: In Latin

Prayer in Latin to bless the Franciscan habit, cord and cowl. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 131: Bendición de mortajas de N.S.P. San Francisco (Blessing of the shrouds of Our Father Saint Francis), ff.204v-205r

Languages: In Latin

Prayers to bless the shrouds of Saint Francis. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 132: Real Cédula con dos Reales Ordenanzas que le acompañan tocante a los sínodos de los Misioneros (Royal decree including two royal ordinances concerning the missionaries’ stipend), ff.205r-205v

Copy of a royal decree of 1773 stating that the stipends correspond directly to the missionaries, not the monasteries, and mandating the viceroys and other governmental authorities to enforce the decree. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 133: Varia Decreta Sac. R. Congregationis (Various decrees from the Sac. R. Congregationis), ff.206r-212v

Languages: In Spanish and Latin

Compilation of Catholic teachings from the 16th-18th centuries regarding liturgy and sacraments, extracted mainly from Decreta Authentica Congregationis Sacrorum Rituum. (14 pp.)

Box 12, item 134: Generación de Bonaparte (Bonaparte’s generation), f.213r

Fragment of a document identifying and describing members of Napoleon Bonaparte’s family and other men of his generation. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 135: Extracto de una carta de Clemente XIV a un Guardián (Extract from a letter from Clement XIV to a Guardian), ff.213r-213v

Copy of a letter from Pope Clement XIV to a Franciscan superior instructing him to forgive and lighten the penance of friars. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 136: Documentos varios dados por el mismo Clemente XIV a un maestro de novicios (Various documents issued by Clement XIV to an instructor of novices), ff.213v-215r

Copy of a letter from Clement XIV to a clergyman describing in detail the training philosopy to be used when educating young novices. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 137: Otra al Prior de la Cartuja del mismo autor (Another one to the Prior of the Cartuja by the same author), f.215r

Copy of letter from Pope Clement XIV to the Prior of Cartuja, Spain, affirming the necessity of the clergy to nap for half an hour in hot climates. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 138: Modo de absolver al excomulgado (How to absolve the excommunicated), ff.215v-216v

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Instructions for a priest for the absolution of men and women who had been excommunicated, including the use of Scripture, prayers and physical reprimand. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 139: Absolución de apostasía y manos violentas (Absolution from apostasy and violent hands), f.216v

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Description of the ceremony of absolution in cases of apostasy and violent hands, including prayers, hymns and physical reprimand. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 140: Certification of indulgences for missionaries, insert

Certification by Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén of the four indulgences granted by the bishop of Sonora Damián Martínez to the missionaries of Nueva California. March 4, 1795. Written at Mission San Carlos. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 141: Formula dispensandi super impedimenta matrimony (Formula dispensing impediments to marriage), ff.217r-217v

Languages: In Latin

Formula to dispense impediments to marriage. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 142: Formula dispensandi in irregularitatibus (Formula for dispensing irregularities), f.218r

Languages: In Latin

Formula to dispense irregularities and a list of irregularities exdefecto and exdelicto. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 143: Solicitante, cómplice, sigilista, duelante, ff.218v-219v

Languages: In Latin

Box 12, item 144: Campanilla en la misa (Handbell in the Mass), ff.220r-220v

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Compilation of instructions about the liturgical use of handbells during Mass, according to Benedict XIV and other theologians. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 145: Misa solemne (Solemn Mass), ff.220v-221v

Explanation of the solemn Mass according to various theologians and the Sacred Congregation of Rites. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 146: Ayuno de los militares. Edicto sólo para México (Fasting for military officers. Edict only for Mexico), ff.221v-223r

Copy of an edict issued by New Spain’s archbishop Francisco Javier de Lizana on February 22, 1809 explaining in nine articles the fasting of meat, fish, and dairy to be observed by military officers and their families throughout the liturgical year. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 147: Bulas Apostólicas (Apostolic Bulls), ff.223r-228r

Languages: In Spanish and Latin

Explanation of Papal Bulls issued by Innocent XI and Clement XIV in the 17th and 18th centuries regarding the organization and government of the Franciscan Colegios Apostólicos de Propaganda Fide (established in New Spain since the 17th century to train missionaries) as well as the granting of indulgences to the clergy and the laity. (11 pp.)

Box 12, item 148: Bishop Liguori's writings on sacraments and candles, ff.228r-228v

Languages: In Latin

Excerpts from the work of bishop Liguori concerning the sacraments and the liturgical use of candles. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 149: Fragmentos de oficio (Fragments from official documents), ff.228v-229r

Copy of excerpts from official documents concerning the suspension of the circulation of the Spanish Constitution. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 150: Fr. José Viñals' letter regarding provisions, ff.229r-229v

Copy of a circular letter (March 22, 1809) from Father José Viñals to all the missions regarding sending to them the provisions from Alta California and Veracruz. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 151: Bula de Pío VI (Pius VI’s Bull), ff.229v-238r

Copy of Carlos IV’s mandate (January 22, 1804) to proclaim in the Spanish colonies Pope Pius VI’s Bull issued on December 12, 1797, which is included in its entirety. The Bull consists of 28 articles concerning the Colegios de Propaganda Fide, primarily their government. (18 pp.)

Box 12, item 152: Confesión del indio (Confession for the Indian), ff.238r-238v

Principles concerning the confession of Indians and Blacks (i.e. Who is required to confess? When should they confess?) based on the work of Alonso de la Peña Montenegro, bishop of Quito. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 153: Azotar y cortar el pelo el misionero (Flogging and hacking hair by the missionary), f.238v

Regulations concerning the physical punishment of Indians by priests and vicars according to the work of Juan de Solórzano Pereira, jurist in Perú. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 154: Donde no hay frailes no se pongan clérigos ni viceversa (Secular clergy should not be appointed where there are friars, and viceversa), f.239r

Note based on Spanish legislation ( Recopilación de las Indias) and Juan de Solórzano Pereira’s work, stating that friars and secular clergy should not be appointed to the same location in order to avoid tension. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 155: Comunión a los indios (Communion to the Indians), f.239r

Analysis concerning whether the Indians should receive communion based on the teachings of Acosta, Fr. Agustín Dávila, Fr. Bernardino de Cárdenas and the work of Juan de Solórzano Pereira and Alonso de la Peña Montenegro. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 156: Castigo (Punishment), f.239v

Reflection on the need for clemency when chastising Indians given that they are new in the faith, according to the work of Alonso de la Peña Montenegro. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 157: Juicio imparcial de la nación Española. Expresión general y particular de las provincias que la componen (Impartial judgment of the Spanish nation. General and particular expression of its provinces), ff.240r-243v

Individual descriptions of the population of 21 regions that constituted the Spanish nation (Castilla La Vieja, Castilla La Nueva, Alcarria, La Mancha, Extremadura, Andalucía, Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia, Murcia, Galicia, Maragatos, Montañeses, Vizcaya, Navarra, Asturia, Rioxa, Mallorca, Canaria, América and Madrid). The descriptions are separate stanzas of 10 lines. (8 pp.)

Box 12, item 158: 12 sentencias de la Sagrada Escritura (12 declarations from the Holy Scripture), ff.243v-244r

Languages: In Latin

Quotes from several chapters of the book of Ecclesiasticus. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 159: Explanation of the Inquisition's jurisdiction over the Indians, ff.244r-244v

Explanation according to Alonso de la Peña Montenegro’s work, concerning the fact that the Inquisition had no jurisdiction over the Indians, but an ecclesiastical judge could process them in cases of sorcery and magic. It mentions the type of sentences applied. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 160: Nota sobre erigir capillas (Note concerning building chapels), f.244v

Copy of letter from Father President Esteban Tapis to Fray Marcelino Ciprés affirming that according to Adriano VI’s Bull Omnimoda, Father Ciprés had the authority to bless the chapel built in San Miguelito. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 161: Bendecir (To bless), ff.245r-245v

Languages: In Latin

Copy of an essay on the subject of blessing by the Franciscan Lucio Ferraris ( Prompta bibliotheca canonica, juridical moralis, theological). (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 162: Operación Cesárea o Parto Cesáreo (Cesarean Operation or Cesarean Delivery), ff.246r, 246v, 248r, 248v

Essay concerning the clergy’s responsibility to know how to perform a Cesarean operation given the importance of the baby’s spiritual life. The essay makes reference to the “small work” of Father Manuel Rodríguez which includes the instructions to perform Cesarean operation. This essay also explains, based on Father Manuel Rodríguez’s work, the measures necessary to ensure the survival of the baby after the Cesarean operation. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 163: Beneficios que España ha hecho a América desde el momento en que la descubrió (Benefits that Spain has given to America from the moment Spain discovered it), f.247r

Essay from the periodical Diario de México (July 19, 1809) reflecting on the religious, academic, scientific, economic and political contributions of Spain to the Americas. It addresses, in particular, the participation of diputados (representatives) from the Americas in the Suprema Junta Central formed during the captivity of Fernando VII by Napoleon. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 164: Cruz con crucifijo (Cross with crucifix), f.247v

Description of the ceremony of Good Friday with the use of the crucifix, extract from Diario de México (July 14, 1809). (1 p.)

Box 12, item 165: Decretos varios (Various decrees), ff.248v-250v

Languages: In Latin

Copy of decrees concerning the liturgical calendar and the Divine Office. (5 pp.)

Box 12, item 166: Indulgencias de la Orden (Indulgences of the Order), ff.250v-253r

Compilation of teachings from Papal Bulls concerning indulgences in the Franciscan Order. The information is organized in 15 articles. (6 pp.)

Box 12, item 167: Resuelve la duda sobre el modo de las misas de los difuntos (Resolves the question about the manner of the masses offered for the dead), ff.253-254v

Detailed instructions on the liturgy to be observed when celebrating the masses offered for the dead on November 2nd. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 168: Sobre la indulgencia de Porciúncula (Concerning the indulgence of Porciúncula), ff.254v-255r

Explanation of Papal teachings regarding the indulgence of Porciúncula granted to Saint Francis. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 169: Ad dubia nunc proposita respondent sequentia Decreta, ff.255r-256v

Languages: In Latin

Explanation of different aspects of liturgy in 13 articles according to the Sacra Rituum Congregatio. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 170: Modo de hacer la aspersión los domingos antes de la misa conventual (How to perform the aspersion on Sundays before the conventual mass), ff.257r-257v

Specific instructions for the ceremony of the aspersion of the altar, the clergy and the laity with the hyssop, including the chants and Scripture utilized, before the conventual mass on Sundays. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 171: Decretos varios para rezar con acierto el Oficio Divino ( Notationes quedan variae) (Various decrees to pray with accuracy the Divine Office ( Notationes quedan variae)), ff.258v-260r

Languages: In Latin

Compilation of decrees which explain how to properly observe the Divine Office, including the feast of the Lady of Guadalupe. From Sacra Rituum Congregatio, Breviarium and Cavalieri. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 172: Decree concerning confession and indulgence, ff.260r-260v

Languages: In Latin

Copy of a decree (1759) by the Sagrada Congregación de Indulgencias y Reliquias concerning the requirement of sacramental confession before receiving an indulgence. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 173: Quaedam observanda, ff.260r-263r

Languages: In Latin

Compilation of various teachings concerning liturgy and sacraments from Pope Benedict XIV, Clement XII, Cavalieri, the Sacra Rituum Congregatio, and Cronología Históricolegal Franciscana. (7 pp.)

Box 12, item 174: Decreta Ordinis Minorum Observantium Santi Francisci (Decrees from the Franciscan Friars Minor of the Observance), ff.263r-266r

Languages: In Latin

Copy of a series of 18 questions and answers regarding the church calendar and liturgy. The manuscript mentions the Araceli monastery. (7 pp.)

Box 12, item 175: Modo o método para rezar el rosario o corona de María Santísima (The way or method to pray the rosary or crown of Most Holy Mary), f.267v

Prayers to Christ and Mary extracted from a book printed in Mexico in 1801 by a missionary of the Holy Cross. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 176: La antífona (The antiphon), f.268r

Instructions for the use of the trium puerorum on different ecclesiastical celebrations, by Seron and Valderrain. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 177: No debe jamás el sacerdote simple revestirse en medio del altar (The priest should never change his vestments in the middle of the altar), ff.268r-268v

Explanation concerning where the priest should change his vestments when there is no sacristy. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 178: Sobre el ayuno de Navidad (Concerning the Christmas fast), ff.268v-269v

Extract from the periodical Diario de México (November 1, 1810) concerning the proper time to observe the vigil for Christmas and Epiphany when these feasts fall on Monday. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 179: Secta de los Francmasones (Sect of the Francmasons), ff.269v-270r

Essay concerning the alleged origin of Francmasonry as well as a discussion of the movement’s philosophical principles such as equality and liberty of conscience. From the Spanish periodical Despertador Cristiano y Político. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 180: Código Napoleón (Napoleonic Code), f.270r

Summary of principles contained in the Napoleonic Code, particularly in relation to religion. From the Spanish periodical Despertador Cristiano y Político. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 181: Jurisdicción castrense quién la goza? (Who is under the (ecclesiastical) military jurisdiction?), ff.270v-272r

Copy of letter (February 24, 1808) from bishop of Sonora fray Francisco Rouset in which he makes reference to a Papal document addressed to the Spanish crown which states the terms of ecclesiastical military jurisdiction. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 182: Refranes varios sacados del Diálogo de Bonaparte y Sancho Panza (Various sayings taken from the Dialogue of Bonaparte and Sancho Panza), ff.272v-273v

Compilation of quotidian sayings or proverbs extracted from the Spanish treatise Don Quijote de Ahora con Sancho Panza el de Antaño (1809), in which the author Francisco Meseguer creates an imaginary dialogue between Napoleon Bonaparte and Sancho Panza (Don Quijote´s squire) concerning the political environment in Europe. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 183: Expresiones irónicas (Ironic expressions), ff.273v-274r

Critical reflexion on the concept of virtue. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 184: News items about Europe, ff.274r-275r

Collection of news items concerning the monarchy, the demography and political events in Europe (England, Westphalia, France and Spain) around 1786-1810. The information derives mainly from the periodical Gaceta de México. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 185: Representación del P. Viñals (Proposition of Father Viñals), ff.275r-278v

Copy of correspondence between the Colegio de San Fernando in Mexico City and the General Commissary of the Indies in Spain Fr. Pablo de Moya, concerning the office of “Procurador de Misiones” (elections, duties, etc.). (8 pp.)

Box 12, item 186: Modelo para una representación (Example of a proposition), ff.278v-279v

Excerpts of a proposition from Fernando VII to his father Charles IV. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 187: Excerpts from book concerning baptism by heretics, f.279v

Languages: In Spanish and Latin

Excerpts from Apología por los Curas del Sagrario de la Santa Patriarcal Iglesia de esta cd. De Sevilla (Madrid, 1783) concerning the baptism administered by heretics. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 188: Carta exhortatoria (Exhortative letter), ff.280r-281r

Copy of a letter from the Father President of the Alta California missions exhorting the missionaries to instruct the faithful about their duties to the King and to other authorities. It includes a letter from the Vicar of Culiacán which makes reference to the exhortation made by the Audiencia of Guadalajara to the religious orders for a stronger loyalty to Fernando VII. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 189: Espíritu de un verdadero Cristiano (Spirit of a true Christian), ff.281r-281v

Excerpt from the gospel of Matthew chapter 9 concerning mercy. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 190: Música de canto figurado (Music treatise about figured chant), ff.281v-288v, 290r-290v

Detailed treatise of music theory concerning the genre of figured chant. The treatise explains various musical concepts such as the three clefs, major and minor scales, and provides illustrations on staffs. (17 pp.)

Box 12, item 191: Copia de los dubios que en 14 de enero pasé al P. Presidente fr. Esteban Tapis (Copy of the queries that on January 14th I presented to Father President fray Esteban Tapis), ff.289r-290r

Copy of a list of 10 questions addressed in 1810 by Father Mariano Payeras (from Mission Purísima Concepción) to President Tapis concerning episcopal faculties and the financial administration of the Alta California missions. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 192: Tributos (Tributes), f.290v

Copy of a news item from the periodical Gaceta de México announcing that Spain had cancelled, starting September 1, 1811, the payment of tributes by Indians. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 193: Cortes (Parliament), f.290v

Brief statement concerning the installation of the Spanish Parliament in the Isla de León on September 24, 1810. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 194: Proclama de los tlaxcaltecas (Proclamation of the tlaxcaltecas), f.290v

Brief statement concerning Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s war in Mexico against the Spaniards which is contrasted to the Christian duty to the King. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 195: Actes de Fe (Acts of Faith), ff.291r-306v

Languages: In Catalan

Theological treatise in Catalan consisting of prayers and spiritual reflections on subjects such as acts of faith, hope and charity.

Box 12, item 196: Judicare vivos et mortuos (Judgment of the living and the dead), f.306v

Excerpt from Francois Aime Pouget’s catechism concerning the resurrection of men in the last days. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 197: Modo en que han de admitirse los capellanes y sus obligaciones (Process of admission for chaplains and their obligations), ff.307r-309v

Document which explains in 17 articles the process for the appointment of military chaplains as well as their duties. (6 pp.)

Box 12, item 198: Un protestante rebautizado en Pachuca al símil de los de Sevilla. Para modelo (A Protestant rebaptized in Pachuca like those in Sevilla. A guide), ff.311r-316v

Printed article from the periodical Gaceta del Gobierno de México (October 7, 1817) and handwritten copy of an article extracted from the periodical Noticioso General (November 26, 1817) which address the conversion from Protestantism and the Catholic baptism of second lieutenant Benjamín Avilar in Pachuca, Mexico. (12 pp.)

Box 12, item 199: Prórroga del indulto de comer carne por diez años: esto es: desde el 19 inclusive hasta el 28 (Extension of the indult for the consumption of meat for 10 years, that is, from the 19 (inclusive) to the 28), f.313v

Copy of a news item from the periodical Noticioso General (October 8, 1817) concerning Pope Pius VII’s concession of a 10-year extension on the dispensation of meat consumption. In the Indies this would commence in 1819. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 200: Fr. Ramón Abella's letter concerning conditions for dispensation, ff.317r-317v, 320r

Letter from Fr. Ramón Abella (December 8, 1819) to the President of the Alta California missions concerning conditions for dispensation according to Pope Benedict XIV. Written at Mission San Carlos. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 201: 1 Formulario para que un misionero diputado dispense en impedimento matrimonial en virtud de las Bulas y demás adherentes (One form for a delegate missionary to dispense on matrimonial impediments according to the Papal Bulls), f.318r

Sample letter from the Commissary Prefect and Prelate of the Alta California missions where he entitles other friars in the territory to act according to the Bull Omnimoda by Pope Adrian VI, issued in Aragon in 1522. The Bull grants Franciscans and other Friars in the Indias (Indies) where there are no dioceses, or where they are very distant, the complete (omnimoda) authority necessary for the conversion of the Indians and their perseverance in the Catholic faith. The Commissary Prefect specifically confers the authority to grant dispensations in case of marriage impediment among the Indians. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 202: Viceroy's instructions about demographic reports, f.319v

Copy of note (October 23, 1820) from New Spain’s Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca instructing the ayuntamientos (local governments) to provide every three months demographic information prepared by the clergy. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 203: P. Sarría al P.N. que ejecutando la dispensa haga acuerdo de la delegación, apunte en la dispensa el tenor del indulto y el tiempo que se le concedió (Father Sarría to a Father instructing him to record on the dispensation the nature of the indult and its duration), ff.321r-321v

Explanation by Father Sarría concerning the privileges granted by Popes Leon X and Adrian VI to Franciscans for the conversion of the Indians and instructions for the administration of marriage dispensations for Indians. It includes a sample form for marriage dispensation in case of consanguinity. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 204: Carta al P.N. en que se le dice cómo se ha de haber con los que case con impedimento en la gentilidad (Letter to a Father explaining how to proceed with marriages which had an impediment when they were pagans), ff.322r, 322v, 325r

Letter from Father Vicente Francisco de Sarría to Father Ramón Abella examining various circumstances concerning Indian marriages and the need for dispensations. Father Sarría makes reference to Pope Benedict XIV’s Bull and the work of González Matheo. Written at Mission San Antonio. June 15, 1816 (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 205: P. Prefecto Sarría deputa al P.N. a fin de que ejerzca las facultades de la Omnimoda (Father Prefect Sarría deputes to a Father in order to exercise the faculties of the Omnimoda), f.323r

Letter from Commisary Prefect and Prelate Father Sarría to Father Abella granting him the faculties of the Omnimoda. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 206: Inquisición (Inquisition), f.323r

Notes from Father Sarría related to the Inquisition, specifically the burning of banned papers and the denunciation of solicitant confessors. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 207: Fr. Sarría's notes regarding episcopal faculties, f.323v

Notes from Father Sarría concerning the episcopal faculties that could be exercised by the missionaries in Alta California. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 208: N.115 del Noticioso General del 28 de agosto del año 16 (N.115 of the Noticioso General from August 28 of the year 16), ff.323v-324r

News item from the periodical Noticioso General (Mexico, August 28, 1816) concerning the right of a nation to expel noncitizens. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 209: Machote para reconciliar a herejes y cismáticos con la Iglesia (Instructions for the reconciliation of heretics and schismatics to the Church), ff.324r-324v

Copy of a letter (March 18, 1811) from President Mariano Payers to Father Viader offering comprehensive instructions on how to incorporate heretics and schismatics into the Catholic Church. Father Payeras’s letter was a response to Father Viader’s inquiry about Thomas el Inglés’s petition to join the Catholic Church. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 210: Preguntado el P. Esteban Tapis sobre bautizar gentiles (Inquiry to Father Esteban Tapis about baptizing gentiles), f.324v

Copy of Father Tapis’s instructions concerning the baptism of Gentiles in the missions as well as the residence of baptized Indians in the missions. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 211: Orden Real para que declaren en juicio los eclesiásticos (Royal Ordinance dictating that the clergy should testify in trial), ff.325v-326r

Copy of a Royal Ordinance published in New Spain in 1796 dictating that, when involved, the clergy should attend trials concerning criminal cases. (2 pp.)

Box 12, item 212: Profesión de fe formada según las decisiones del Concilio de Trento por el Papa Pío IV (Profession of faith created according to the decision of the Council of Trent by Pope Pius IV), ff.327r-329r

Copy of the “Profesión de fe formada según las decisiones del Concilio de Trento por el Papa Pío IV” found in Francois-Aimé Pouget’s Catecismo o Compendio de la Doctrina Cristiana (Madrid, 1788). The Profesión includes the Nicene creed as well as post-Reformation Catholic teachings. (5 pp.)

Box 12, item 213: P. President contestación a los 10 dubios (Father President reply to the 10 inquiries), ff.330r-334r

Letter from Father Esteban Tapis responding to Father Mariano Payeras´s 10 inquiries. Father Tapis first addresses the inability of Indians who worked in ranches to attend Mass at the mission and then provides answers to Father Payeras’s 10 questions concerning the financial management of the missions, the special faculties of the missionaries (e.g. to bless churches, grant plenary indulgences), the dispensation of meat consumption for neophytes, among others. January 28, 1810. Written at Mission San Carlos. (9 pp.)

Box 12, item 214: Consulta (Inquiry), ff.334r-335v

Inquiry (July 31, 1814) from a missionary from Mission La Purísima to Father Sarría, Commisary Prefect, regarding the building of small chapels in ranches in order to say Mass when there is no access to a mission. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 215: Corpus pa. Procesión (Corpus, for Procession), f.336r

Instructions concerning the liturgy observed for the procession of the Eucharist. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 216: Especies pa. el sermón (Species, for the Sermon), ff.336r-337r

Languages: In Latin and Spanish

Explanation of the institution of the sacrament of the Eucharist by Jesus Christ as well as the Catholic doctrine regarding this sacrament. (3 pp.)

Box 12, item 217: Carlo Magno (Charlemagne), f.337r

Brief note extracted from Diccionario portátil de los Concilios (Pons-Augustin Alletz, Madrid, 1782) concerning the canonization of Charlemagne by schismatics on December 29, 1165. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 218: S. Emigdio (St. Emydius), f.337

Languages: In Latin

Biographical information about St. Emydius (traditionally invoked for protection against earthquakes), and liturgical readings for his feastday. (4 pp.)

Box 12, item 219: Orden del Sr. Govr. Solá relativa a azotes (Mandate from Governor Solá concerning lashes), f.337v

Copy of a mandate (July 20, 1818) by Alta California Governor Solá for the commanders of the four presidios informing them that the corporals had no authority to flog Indians, instead in criminal cases the authority rested with the commanders and the governor. Governor Solá ordered that the missionaries be informed of this mandate. (1 p.)

Box 12, item 220: Extract from Gaceta de México about Indian privileges, f.338r

Extract from the periodical Gaceta de México (November 2, 1811) which addresses the economic, legal and spiritual privileges that the Indians enjoyed as vassals of the Spanish crown. (1 p.)

Box 13: Fr. Viader’s Miscellany Book, Spanish Transcriptions, 1958


Box 13, folder 1: Spanish transcriptions (typewritten) of selected manuscripts.

Transcribed by Thomas Workman Temple II, 1958. (75 pp.)

Series IV: Ecclesiastical and Governmental Correspondence, 1782-1872

Physical Description: 3 boxes

Scope and Content

Mission Santa Clara was not isolated, it maintained regular communication with governmental, ecclesiastical and military figures in Alta California, Mexico City, and Spain. This series includes two bound volumes where the missionaries copied the official correspondence they received as well as dozens of individual letters sent and received by Mission Santa Clara.

Box 14: Libro de Patentes y de Inventario Perteneciente a la Misión de Santa Clara, 1806-1846

Every mission in Alta California had a Libro de Patentes, a book where the missionaries copied the official correspondence they received before they forwarded the original letters to another mission. The first section of Mission Santa Clara’s Libro de Patentes contains letters received during the years 1806-1846 from the Franciscan superiors in Spain, Mexico City, Zacatecas, and Alta California. This correspondence deals with various matters including the spiritual instruction of the Indians, the election of Franciscan superiors, the process of secularization and the creation of the diocese of California in 1840. In 1813 Father Vicente F. Sarría, Comisario Prefecto in Alta California, for example, circulated a letter in all the missions instructing the Franciscans, among other things, to learn the native languages as well as to write catechisms in these languages.
The second section of the Libro de Patentes includes correspondence received by Mission Santa Clara during the years 1812-1844 from the episcopal authorities from Sonora and Santa Barbara and also from the Spanish and Mexican governments. The letters deal with a variety of issues including the political developments in Spain, Europe and Mexico, the prohibition of politically subversive literature in the missions, and the need to found in the new diocese of California elementary schools for boys and girls. In 1822, the year after Mexico gained its independence, for example, Mission Santa Clara and its Spanish friars were instructed by the new government to celebrate with a Mass the formation of the Mexican Congress as well as to pray for divide guidance for the legislators.

Box 15: Libro que Contiene Algunas Disposiciones Reales y de los Señores Obispos, 1804-1848

This volume consists primarily of the correspondence received by Mission San Carlos from civil and episcopal authorities from 1804 to 1826, only the few final entries of these letters were made at Mission Santa Clara (1847-1848).

Box 16: Ecclesiastical and Governmental Correspondence, 1782 -1872

While boxes 14 and 15 consist of the correspondence received by the mission, box 16 includes primarily correspondence that was sent out from Mission Santa Clara throughout the years 1782 to 1872. The Franciscans in Santa Clara maintained correspondence with governmental, ecclesiastical and military figures in Alta California, Spain and Mexico City. The friars informed them of the nature of the Ohlone society and culture, the election of Indian alcaldes, the ministry in the pueblo of San José, provision for the military presidios, the physical condition of the mission and the process of secularization, among other things. In 1814, for example, Fathers Viader and Catalá replied to a questionnaire sent by the Spanish government with 36 specific questions regarding the native society and culture. The missionaries’ response provides invaluable information about the native population that had joined Mission Santa Clara, as well as those who had no converted to Catholicism, including their spiritual beliefs, language, dress, education, music, healing practices, and economic subsistence.
Note: Several letters are photocopies obtained from the Santa Bárbara Mission Archive-Library.

Series V: Secularization and the Formation of California's First Diocese, 1833-1851

Physical Description: 1 box

Scope and Content

This series concerns a crucial chapter in the history of the Alta California missions which began in 1833 when the Mexican government ordered their secularization. Secularization intended to transfer the mission churches from the Franciscans to the secular, or diocesan, clergy, to appoint a lay commissioner to administer the mission property, and to distribute some of the property among the population. Mission Santa Clara was secularized in December of 1836 but the Franciscans continued to direct the spiritual affairs of the mission since there was no secular clergy to replace them. This series includes a copy of the 1833 secularization decree, instructions on secularization by California authorities, Franciscan correspondence about secularization, the 1851 thorough inventory of Mission Santa Clara which reflects the material condition of the mission after secularization, as well as manuscripts documenting grants and purchases of mission property.
While the social elite greatly benefited from the redistribution of mission property, the manuscripts reveal that occasionally other individuals also had the opportunity to acquire property and land. María Silveria Pacheco, for example, lived and worked at Mission Santa Clara, where she had transformed a simple room into a house. In 1840, after the secularization of the mission, María Silveria Pacheco turned to the California government requesting ownership of this property. Governor Alvarado acquiesced and granted María Silveria the house as well as a considerable area of land, which was extended by another grant in 1846.
This series also addresses the formation of the first diocese of (Alta and Baja) California. Some missionaries believed that an independent diocese in California would bring stability after secularization, thus Father Francisco García Diego, who served at Mission Santa Clara, presented to the Mexican government the proposal to establish this diocesis. In 1839, Mexico submitted this request to the Holy See along with Father García Diego’s candidacy for bishop. In 1840 the Pope approved the formation of this diocese and Father García Diego was consecrated as California’s first bishop.
The main document regarding this subject is Father García Diego’s canonical process for his appointment, a very informative manuscript about García Diego’s personal and clerical life as well as the territory constituting the new diocese. The Correspondence Series includes some of Bishop García Diego’s early communication, including his plan to build a cathedral and establish a seminary and elementary schools for boys and girls.

Box 17: Secularization and the Formation of California’s First Diocese, 1833-1851


Box 17, folder 1: Decree from the Mexican Government Mandating and Explaining the Secularization of the Alta and Baja California Missions, 1833


Box 17, enclosure 1: Decree from the Mexican Congress Authorizing the Government to Implement all Measures Necessary for the Secularization of the Alta and Baja California Missions, 1833


Box 17, folder 2: Father Francisco García Diego’s Response to the Alta California Governor Regarding Secularization, 1833


Box 17, folder 3: Acquisition of House and Land by María Silveria Pacheco, 1840


Box 17, folder 4: Land Grant from Governor Micheltorena to Diego Forbes, 1844


Box 17, folder 5: Land Claim by Josefa Peralta, 1846


Box 17, folder 6: Land Petitions to John Burton, Justice of the Peace, 1847


Box 17, folder 7: Deed of Orchard and Annexed Houses to Tomas Larkin, 1847


Box 17, folder 8: Transfer of Vineyard and Military Housing Property, Pico Family, 1849


Box 17, folder 9: Father Suárez del Real’s Letter to Alcalde Pico Regarding his Right to Grant Deeds, 1849


Box 17, folder 10: Land Deed from José B. Samit to Abondio Ruggio, 1849


Box 17, folder 11: Land Deed from José Dolores Samit to José Arqués, 1850


Box 17, folder 12: Sale of House, Land and Corral, from Father Suárez del Real to Andrés Pico, 1850


Box 17, folder 13: Complaint of Bishop Alemany vs. Joshua Redman, Illegal Possession of Land, 1851


Box 17, folder 14: Mission Santa Clara Inventory of 1851 (Reproduction, Transcription and Translation), 1851


Box 17, folder 15: Decree from the Mexican Government Concerning the Plan to Create the Diocese of California, 1836


Box 17, folder 16: Canonical Process for Francisco García Diego’s Appointment as the First Bishop of California (Reproduction), 1839


Series VI: Personal Legal and Financial Records, 1840-1878

Physical Description: 1 box

Scope and Content

This brief series deals with various legal and financial affairs of the men and women who lived in the region of Mission Santa Clara throughout the years 1840s to 1870s. The manuscripts found in this series include wills, marriage licenses granted by the civil government, receipts for funeral expenses, and marital litigations, among others. These documents reveal important information regarding the social history of Mission Santa Clara, including, for example, the experience of women in 19th-century California.
In 1846, for instance, a determined Juana Pacheco turned to Judge John Burton in San Jose to begin a litigation against her husband Santiago Olvera who lived in Ignacio Alviso’s ranch in Mission Santa Clara (Alviso was part of the group of first settlers who arrived in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1776). Juana claimed that Santiago failed to provide for her housing, food and dress and that he would temporarily abandon her and also physically mistreat her, thus she petitioned for a separation. Judge Burton determined that the clergy should intervene in Juana’s case.

Box 18: Personal Legal and Financial Records, 1840-1878


Series VII: Music Manuscripts, bulk undated

Physical Description: 2 boxes

Scope and Content

The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection includes four music manuscripts which reflect the importance of music in the life of the Mission.

Box 19: Choirbook in the hand of Father Narciso Durán, undated

The main manuscript is a large Choirbook for which Father Narciso Durán, from Mission San José, was the scribe. According to Craig Russell the Mission Santa Clara Choirbook, along with two other written by Father Durán, “constitute the richest and most invaluable anthologies of music from the mission period.” Father Durán´s Choirbook, which measures 21”x16”, consists of 149 vellum pages; its wood lids are covered with leather and their corners with beautifully decorated bronze. The Choirbook contains the musical settings for many Masses, including the Ordinary (the invariable sections) as well as the Proper of the Saints and of the Time (the music that changes throughout the liturgical year to commemorate individual Saints as well as events in the life of Christ). The feast of Santa Clara “Día de Santa Clara fiesta de esta Misión” is given special attention in the Choirbook, in which ten pages are dedicated to commemorate the Mission’s patron saint (with music for the Proper and Divine Office). Other feasts particular to the Mission included in the Choirbook are those of San Francisco and our Lady of Guadalupe. Durán’s Choirbook represents different genres of music: plainchant, measured music for two and four voices (in colorful red and black notation), as well as music to be performed with instrumental accompaniment.

Box 20: Choirbook in the hand of Florencio Ibañez and Pedro Cabot, 1812; Mass in the Key of C (Mode 5), undated; and Missa S.P.N. Dominic (folio, fragment), 1812, and undated

The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript collection has a smaller Choirbook written by the scribes Florencio Ibañez and Pedro Cabot, Franciscan missionaries (in Mission San Antonio and Mission Soledad). This Choirbook, partly written in 1812, consists of 85 pages and is bound in hide. Most of the music in Father Ibañez´s Choirbook is to observe the Proper of the Time and the Proper of the Saints (including San Francisco); it includes Requiem music as well. This Choirbook also reveals an intense devotion to the Lady of Guadalupe. The dominant music genre in the Choirbook is plainchant in Latin. The most striking element in Father Ibañez´s Choirbook is the use of a drum after singing the Alleluia for Pentecost, an incorporation of a Native American worship practice.
The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection also two brief music manuscripts: a Mass in the key of C (Mode 5) for four voices written in colored notation (the manuscript consists of five leaves); and a Mass of Saint Dominic, probably written out by Fray Pedro Cabot (two leaves).
Cayward, Margaret. Musical Life at Mission Santa Clara, 1777-1834, and the Santa Clara Choral Book (M.A. Thesis, Hayward, CA: California State University, 2002).
Russell, Craig. From Serra to Sancho: Music and Pageantry in the California Missions (Oxford, MA: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Series VIII: Alta California Manuscripts, 1805-1851

Physical Description: 5 boxes

Scope and Content

In addition to the numerous manuscripts that concern Mission Santa Clara, the Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection holds a considerable number of manuscripts that deal with the entire region of Alta California, including the other missions. These documents provide significant information about the economy, the demography, the military and the history of Alta California. The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection thus is a valuable resource for the history of California, not only for Mission Santa Clara.

Box 21: Mission San José Account Book, 1837-1838

The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection holds two volumes from Mission San José, both are account books corresponding to the years after the secularization of the missions. The 1837-1838 account book registers the monthly economic activity of the former mission, providing very specific and thorough information. The monthly account book includes, for example, the salaries of the new lay administrator, the alcaldes, and the troops; the production of crops and deer hides; the sale of clothes and food to various individuals as well as the provision of clothes, cooking utensils and “small notebooks for the school” for the Indians of the “exmisión.”
The Mission San José Account Books are valuable works in the Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection since this Collection does not have an account book from Mission Santa Clara, and because of the proximity of both missions. These account books are also important because they reflect the transformation of the missions after their secularization.

Box 22: Mission San José Account Book, 1837

The other account book from Mission San José ( Libro Anual Principiado en el Año de 1837 para el uso de la Misión de San José) corresponds only to the year 1837 and provides some of the information found in the 1837-1838 account book, but in more global and concise terms.

Box 23: Antonio María Osio’s history of Alta California, 1851

The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection also includes Antonio María Osio’s history of Alta California, a valuable manuscript written in 1851 as requested by the Franciscan Father Suárez del Real from Mission Santa Clara. Osio was a government official, civil servant and landowner in Alta California; his narrative is significant because it constitutes the first written history of Alta California during the era of Mexican rule. Osio’s history of Alta California addresses various matters: the challenges of political life in Mexican California, Native American uprisings, the secularization of the missions, the Bear Flag revolt and the U.S. invasion of Alta California. In his narrative Osio considers that the missions had been ineffective in the evangelization of the Indians and the administration of the land; he strongly opposes the U.S. invasion of Mexican California as well. Osio also provides detailed descriptions of other elements of Alta California’s society and culture such as European and Native American dances, and the presence in San Francisco Bay of Kodiak Aleuts from Alaska who in their sealskin canoes skillfully hunted otters.

Box 24: Alta California Statistics, 1816-1827

The Mission Santa Clara Manuscript Collection includes nine single-sheet manuscripts which offer in table format systematic information about the demography, the armed forces and the economy of the military presidios, pueblos and missions of California during the years 1816-1827.

Box 24, item 1: Provincia de la Nueva California. Resumen general que manifiesta el estado en que se hallan los nuevos establecimientos de esta Provincia, 1816


Box 24, item 2: Compañía de caballería del presidio de San Diego, December 1820


Box 24, item 3: Estado de la fuerza con que están dotadas las cuatro compañías de caballería que guarnecen los establecimientos de la Nueva California, circa 1821-1822


Box 24, item 4: Provincia de la Nueva California. Resumen general que manifiesta el estado en que se hallan los nuevos establecimientos de esta Provincia, August 1, 1825


Box 24, item 5: Misión de San Luis Rey. Estado en que se halla dicha misión por fin de diciembre del expresado año, 1826


Box 24, item 6: Misión de San Diego. Estado en que se halla dicha misión por fin de diciembre del expresado año, 1826


Box 24, item 7: Puerto de San Diego. Estado de la fuerza efectiva con que se halla dicho puerto, April 7, 1827


Box 24, item 8: Estado general que manifiesta la fuerza efectiva con expresión de sus destinos que tienen los cuerpos que guarnecen los dos territorios de Californias, June 18, 1827


Box 24, item 9: Territorio de la Nueva California. Jurisdicción del puerto de San Diego. Estado que manifiesta el número de las poblaciones de indios congregados en las misiones que administran los religiosos del Colegio Apostólico de Propaganda Fide de San Fernando de México. undated


Box 25: Accounts from Colegio de San Fernando and Alta California individual documents, 1805-1838


Box 25, folder 1: Accounts of Supplies from the Colegio de San Fernando in Mexico City to the Alta California Missions, 1805-1815

The accounts include medicines, food, and various objects for the missions’ living quarters, fields, and churches.

Box 25, folder 2: Tabla para los Niños que Empiezan a Aprender a Contar (Table for Children who are Beginning to Learn to Count), circa 1838

Broadside of multiplication and conversion tables (for currency and weight) printed by the Zamorano Press, first printer of California, Sonoma, circa 1838.

Box 25, folder 3: Document Concerning the Candidacy of Mariano Bonilla to the Legislature of Alta California, 1837, 1838


Box 25, folder 4: Lista de Medicinas Necesita(das) en este Cajón (List of Medications Needed in this Drawer), undated


Series IX: Pictorial Materials, Ephemera and Reproductions, 1777-1903, 1956, 2002

Physical Description: 14 boxes

Scope and Content

This series includes 19th-century photographs, sketches and an etching of Mission Santa Clara as well as ephemera related to the California missions. The series also includes Photostats of manuscripts from the preceding series.

Box 26: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Book 1: Baptisms, 1777-1804


Box 27: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Books 2-3: Baptisms, 1804-1843, 1843-1862


Box 28: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Book 1: Burials, 1777-1840


Box 29: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Books 2-3: Burials, 1840-1866, 1866-1894


Box 30: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Confirmations, 1779-1896


Box 31: Sacramental Records (facsimiles) — Books 1-2: Marriages, 1778-1863, 1863-1903


Box 32: Sacramental Records Indexes (facsimiles) — Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1777-1866


Box 33: Sacramental Records Indexes (facsimiles, partial set), 1777-1866


Box 34: Mission Manuscripts (facsimiles) — Fr. Viader's Miscellany Book and Libro que Contiene Algunas Disposiciones Reales de los Señores Obispos (Mission San Carlos and Mission Santa Clara), 1799-1822, 1804-1848


Box 35: Mission Santa Clara Assorted Documents, Series I-VIII, and Indices of Sacramental Records of the Santa Barbara Presidio Church (photocopies), 1777-1910


Box 36: Mission Manuscripts (photocopies) – Libro de Patentes and Mission San José Account Book, 1806-1846, 1836-1837


Box 37: Ephemera and Lithographs – California Missions, 1872-2002


Box 38: Mission Santa Clara etching, Henry Chapman Ford, 1883


Box 39: Photographs and Sketches, Mission Santa Clara, 1842-1956