Inventory of the John Olmsted Papers

Sara Gunasekara
Department of Special Collections
General Library
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616-5292
Phone: (530) 752-1621
Fax: (530) 754-5758
Email: speccoll@ucdavis.edu
© 2014
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.


Creator: Olmsted, John, 1938-
Title: John Olmsted Papers
Date (inclusive): 1968-2012
Extent: 0.4 linear feet
Abstract: John D. Olmsted (1938-2011) was a California naturalist who was instrumental in the creation of the Jug Handle State Reserve and the Independence Trail, a hiking path in the Yuba River Canyon. The collection contains a slide set created by Olmsted of California plant and animal life as well as two dvds including, "My Father Who Art in Nature," a documentary film by Alden Olmsted about his father John Olmsted.
Physical location: Researchers should contact Special Collections to request collections, as many are stored offsite.
Repository: University of California, Davis. Library. Department of Special Collections.
Davis, California 95616-5292
Collection number: D-539
Language of Material: Collection materials in English.

Biography

John DeVaux Olmsted, a California naturalist, was born March 2, 1938 in Los Angeles. He earned a master's degree in plant ecology at Pomona College and became education director at Golden Gate Park in San Francisco. He worked as a naturalist, docent and educator at the Oakland Museum, UC Berkeley Extension and the Mendocino Art Center. He was instrumental in the creation of the Jug Handle State Reserve and the Independence Trail, a wheelchair accessible hiking path in the Yuba River Canyon. Canyon. In 2010, he founded the Mendocino Tahoe Conservancy.
Olmsted passed away on March 8, 2011.

Scope and Content

The collection contains a slide set created by Olmsted for Bay Area teachers to use in their classrooms before going on field trips. He later expanded it to include all of California. Also included are two dvds including, "My Father Who Art in Nature," a documentary film by Alden Olmsted about his father John Olmsted.

Arrangement of the Collection

The collection is arranged in two series: Slides and DVDs.

Indexing Terms

The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the library's online public access catalog.
Olmsted, John, 1938---Archives
Olmsted, Priscilla C.
Plants--California--Identification
Animals--California--Identification

Access

Collection is open for research.

Processing Information

Sara Gunasekara processed this collection with assistance from student employee My-Hanh Nguyen.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Alden Olmsted in 2011.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], D-539, John Olmsted Papers, Department of Special Collections, General Library, University of California, Davis.

Publication Rights

All applicable copyrights for the collection are protected under chapter 17 of the U.S. Copyright Code. Requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Head of Special Collections. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Regents of the University of California as the owner of the physical items. It is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the researcher.

Collection Contents

 

Series 1. Slides: The Language of Nature, Set 1, California Plant and Animal Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 609 slides

Scope and Content Note

The slide set, which was edited by John D. and Priscilla C. Olmsted, is arranged according to their organization in 30 subseries: 1. Seashore Life, 2. Fresh Water Life, 3. Coastal Life, 4. Redwoods Life, 5. The Live Oak and Mixed Evergreen Forests, 6. Chaparral, 7. Valley Life, 8. Mountain Life, 9. Great Basin Life, 10. Desert Life, 11. The Pyramid of Life, 12. Poisonous Life, 13. Animal Coloration: Mimcry and Camouflage, 14. Parasitism, Saprohiyism, 15. Indian Uses of California Plants, 16. Climate and Life, 17. Animal Signs and Architecture, 18. Form and Function, 19. Form-Names, Folk-Names of Plants, 20. The History of Life, 21. Spore Plants, Plants Without Seeds, 22. Conifers and Allies, 23. Flowering Plant Families, 24. Flower Pollination, 25. Plant Dispersal, 26. Animals Without Backbones, 27. Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, 28. Birds, 29. Mammals, 30. Animal Children, Parenthood.
The individual slide descriptions are taken from the index.
 

Subseries 1.1 Seashore Life 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:2

I-0 Exposed Rocky Coast, Low tide, surf grass, Mussel Rods; Mendocino coastline, gray sandstone bedrock with fossil ocean deposits on top (red-tan) fifteen feet - same materials underly pygny forest, 1 1/2 miles Inland. Low shrubs on cliff are wind-dwarfed Sitka Spruces, near their southern limit from Alaskan growing areas as much as 1500 miles to the north. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-1 Exposed ROCKY COAST, Medium Tide, SEA PALMS, with extreme wave exposure (if you're standing in sea palms on a rocky point you're in a very dangerous place - they grow here because the wave action is too vigorous for other plants). Mendocino Coast, gray sandstone bedrock, Summer. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-2 FOUR TIDE ZONES: Cormorants, their nests and guano; Sea Lions, Kelps. Bird Island, Seventeen Mile Drive, Monterey Coast. Kelps are in zones three and two, gray color below guano is in zone one. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-3 High-TIDE SPLASH ZONE: Green-colored Alga, middle and right, grows in splash pools with salinity up to ten times sea water (summer) or 1/10 sea water (winter, almost fresh, from rain); Since algae have no food and water veins (except rarely), when pool shrinks in summer (right), algae dies (white). Left image shows isopod or rock louse, a modern survivor of the ancient trilobites and seahorse relative of the "sow bug" we find under logs (RP-9) 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-4 SEA PALMS; BULL KELP; Sea Palm, center has very short, stout stems for growing on wave-struck rocks (I-1); BUll Kalp, right (K-0) grows up from ocean bottom at 50 foot depths or more, each year, its large float forming when it reaches the surface, leaves stretching out from their; Its holdfast, or sea anchor, left, supports other algae, and uses a kind of glue. A new giant kelp (similar to bull kelp) has a tiny hold fast (K-1/2). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-5 LOWER HI-TIDE ZONE: Turban snails (S. Calif.), tracks in sand, Corona Del Mar. This type of snail shell is most sought after by hermit crabs (G-6). Whereas Zone One (Hi-Tide Splash) is out of water 90% or more, Zone Two is only out of water 70% or less. First real tide pools, with lined shore crabs and hermit crabs (G-6,P-7) are in this zone. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-6 MID-TIDE ZONE: Sun Star (Pycnopodia), Ochre Star (Pisaster ochraceus, brevisphinus), Giant Star (P. giganteus (pinker one); Urchins, caralline red algae, etc. Pescadero Coast South of San Francisco. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-7 Mid-TIDE ZONE: Octo. Star, tube feet, left, spines pedidellarae (mitune hook and pincer defenses against parasite, etc), right; Chiton, below center, has eight, shingle-like shell segments, is relative of snails but can roll up into ball for defense (See also I-9,left, D-17, A-9, C-24,top,whitw shell). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-8 MID-TIDE ZONE: Great Green Anemone (Antholeura xanthogranica) with single-cell green alga growing on its skin (Zoochlorella) - supplies oxygen, simialr relation occurs in coral reefs; Closed aggregating anemones, right, occur higher in Zone two and may keep cool at low tide in summer by reflection of heat by white shell particles it holds close to skin. (See I-15 for anemone predator).

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-9 MID-TIDE ZONE: SEA SACS on rock, Rockweeds; Half-covered Chiton (Katherina tunicata). Water streaks from pinched Sea Sacs, right. Mendocino, SUMMER (Sea Sacs are annual). The Sea Sacs store water while tide is out. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-10 Upwashed Octopi, one at left shooting ink for smokescreen, upper right changing color to light background of abalone shell, one at bottom right showing suction cups. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-11 Mid Tide ZONE: Red, Brown, Green Algae, July, Mendocino Coast. Dark color is Iridea, an iridescent brown-looking red alga. Green color is sea lettuce (K-1/2). Out of water less than 30% of time. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-12 MID-LOW TIDE ZONE: Purple Urchin occurs higher on tide scale than Red Urchin below (this one has been washed in beyond usual level). Urchin shell, top; Urchins are Echinoderms (J-7,P-1) 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-13 MID-LOW TIDE ZONE: BAT STAR - top view, rt; underside, eating crab, left; Mendocino Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-14 MID-LOW TIDE ZONE: Green Abalone, left, with red nudibranch on shell; Red sponge at right is usually eaten by the nudiibranch, with good protective coloration. Silica spiculues in sponge are incorporated into Nudibranch's Anatomy, becoming a protection (See I-15, also); Abalone eat kelps, are eaten by Sea Otters (S-21). See also Clingfish as far-right, rock undersides. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-15 Two Nudibranchs: Left, Hermissenda, eats sea anemones, incorporates stinging cells on anemone into own hairlike gill area and for own defense. Triopha Carpenteri, right. Nudibranchs are snails without shells - Sea slugs. Nudibranch means naked gills (Tactibranchs I-20). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-16 LOWER LOW-TIDE ZONE: Laminaria species, Hedophyllud, sponges (I-14), tunicates (J-8). Only out of water less than 10%. Mendocino. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-17 ROCK UNDERSIDE, LOWEST LOW-TIDES:7 Phyla Echinodermata-Echinoidea: urchin; Asteroidea; 6-leg Star. Porifera - sponges (orange-red spots + ocre matrix); Bryozoans - mixed in with sponges (P-2, lower rt. center white aggregate); Annelida - Polychaeta Serpilid Worms (P-2),P-o; Arthropoda - flattened under-rock Crab; Mollusca; small yellow nudibranchs, small chiton, rt; Coelenterata - hydroids (by water level)Mendocino. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-18 SAND BEACH - Jellyfish relatives: Upwashed by-the-wind-sailor floats, left; ostrich-plune hydroids, lower rt., comb jelly? upper right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-19 SAND BEAC - Sand Hopper, top, on Cancer Crab, above sand-Hopper's Kelp dinner, burrows. Sand Crab, bottom. N. Calif., S.Cal. Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:2

I-20 SANDY TIDEPOOLS, S. Calif. Tectibranchs: Lined Sea Slug, left; Sea Hare, rt. (P-3,I-21). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.2 Fresh Water Life 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:3

II-1 FRESH WATER POND, surrounded by mixed evergreen forest, April, Inverness Ridge, Pt. Reyes Seashore, ca. 1000, covered with Duckweed (Lenna sp.). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-2 FRESH WATER POND, mid-view of II-1, fall, mallards in background, duckweed, cat-tails, bay trees, lichens. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-3 FRESH WATER POND, mid-close view, duckweed and cattail bases at left, cinnamon teal pair, right. Duckweed has the smallest flower in the world, one pistil, one stamen (unisexual flowers, three per plant). Main reproduction is vegetatir, transported on ducks feet from pond to pond. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-4 MICROSCOPIC LIFE in a drop of pond water: (from a 6' wide museum diorama as Los Angeles County Museum). Far up, left, rotifer, far left column with spiral chlorophyll structures, Spirogyra, right also and in conjugating stage (spirals less apparent); Vorticella, lower left; left center, Paranocia, conjugating, dividing; center, Hydra diatoms. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-5 POND SURFACE: Spirogyra (close-up II-4) colonies at pond surface, bottom, with mating pair of dragonflies, male (red) in front holding up female while she lays eggs into water. Dragonfly mating system is unique to animal world, designed and evolved over the millenia as a helicopter support system. Before mating the male bends his abdomen up to a bucket on his chest (second picture from top), placing sperms there. He then grabs a female in the air by his abdominal claspers (upper right) and she bends her abdomen by great contortion back to the sperm bucket on his chest (see T-2 for same process in damsel flies). Since she is being hel by the neck, she is ready to lay the eggs into or even under the water mmediately after fertilization while the male continues to hold her up. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-6 AQUATIC PLANTS: POND SURFACE, Monkey flower leaves, far left (Miculus guttatus) next to Duckweed Ferns (Azolla), more intricate texture than duckweeds (small ovalsm lower right corner); pink color of duckweed ferns usually seen in spring (upper right). Not a flower like duckweed but a true ally of ferns and horsetails. Mosquito fish, bot. rt. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-7 AQUATIC PLANTS: Stream Monkey Flowers, Dock leaves, Reshes, left; water cress and checkered white butterfly, right (w.cress w/4 petals, mustard fam.). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-8 FLOATING PLANTS, POND SURFACE: Aquatic knotweed, right (Polygonum sp.), pondweeds, duckweeds, Cal. native waterlillies (Auchar), center, leaves top, flowers, bottom; flower and fruit stages, left; early fl. type. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-9 AQUATIC REPTILES: Garter Snakes, non-aquatic types, aquatic (lower right); all with red tongues, ability to defecate odorously on disturbers. Main food is frogs; usualy hind-legs first. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-10 AQUATIC BIRDS: Long-billed marsh Wren, Bulrush Nest, May, cattails also used in weaving. Sac. Riv. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-11 AQUATIC BIRDS: Yellow-headed (Left) and Red-wing Blackbirds, mating display, upper right. Old cattail stalk, left shows column for feed flowers and thinner column at top where pollen flowers were; later were harvested, eaten by Indians, roots also, a very important food source. (See 0-9, cattail seeds). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-12 AQUATIC BIRDS: Canada Geese, Winter: Icebound Oregon Lake, left, ware Salton Sea, southeast California, right, spend about 4-5 months each winter. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-13 AQUATIC MAMMALS: Beaver lodge, top, high mountain lake in San Juan Mts., S. Colorado, 11,500 feet, large lake made by beaver dams; beaver lookout, slide marks, bottom, along Colorado River, southeastern California. Very few beavers in Calif. make lodges, burrowing rather in the banks of streams. Lodges are more desirable in areas of extreme winters. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-14 SLOW STREAM, intermittent through winter, drying completely for 6-8 months of year. Streamers of Spyrogyra (green alga) will die and turn white soon. Flowering hummingbird dhrub, left (Beloperone sp.) supports Costa's and other hummingbird nests, April, Deep Canyon, west side of Colorado desert near Palm Springs (G-14). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-15 SLOW STEAM, Mid and close views of stream in II-14. Spirogyra masses, far right, red dragonfly on twig (II-5), toad and tree frog tadpoles, right; Giant Water Bug male, left, carries eggs on back where placed be female, can eat tadpoles and other aquatic creatures, paralyzing bites. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-16 PERIODIC STREAM, more encrusting algae than Spirogyra, sometimes year round. Habitat for yellow-legged frog (0-10, left) and large garter snake (II-9, left). Trout surving in perennial pools sometimes eaten by garter snakes when water low. Both frogs and trout depend heavily on protective coloration as a garter snake defense. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-17 PERIODIC STREAM, Trapped Insects, Summer: Craneflies, Therevid Fly, Chrysidid wasp (metallic green). Insect wings are held by surface tension of water, but insects quite alive. Provide food for water striders (II-18, P-11) and for amazing flycatcher that became water strider to survive (H-6). Craneflies eat decaying plants. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-18 STREAM SURFACE AND BANK: Water strider, top left, is predator of trapped insects on water surface (II-17), also eats emerging mosquitoes; lycaenid Butterfly (blue), bottom left, is drinking from mud, larvae are protected by ants and supply them with honeydew like aphids. Two stages in decay of a bay leaf also shown. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-19 STREAMSIDE TREES: Sycamores, left and far right; Willow center (male flowers H-22, female flowers 0-10), and Fremont Cottonwood, right (female flowers 0-10). Sycamores exhibits a fungal disease common during humid mid-spring weeks, dies out with late spring heat; female flowers, seed heads with magpie, R-13, A-13. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:3

II-20 STREAMSIDE LEAVES: Willow, lichens, lef; Aspen (not as obligately streamside as cottonwoods), right with Black Cottonwood (pointed tips of leaves), common streamside tree at aspen elevations. All cottonwoods have trembling leaves because leaf patiole (stem) is flattened at right angles to leaf blade; structurally unstable leaf may cause closing of stomata in wind, save water. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.3 Coastal Life 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:4

III-1 COASTAL REEF, Ducks (probably diving ducks - some type of scoter) in V-formation flying south along Mendocino coast, northern California, autumn. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-2 COASTAL BEACH BIRDS: Brown pelican, left (getting rare because egg shells are thin from DDT residues and very young birds over hatch); Sanderlings, mid picture, Heerman's gull, right, note orange beak, nests in Baja California, comes north for winter (a switch!). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-3 COASTAL BEACH BIRDS: Willets, feeding on sand life, right (I-19), in flight, left, typical black-white wings. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-4 COASTAL LAGOON BIRDS: Great Blue Heron, far right; Snowy Egrets, center, right with fish, left, stirring up sand with foot to scare out crustaceans, etc. and spear them with lightning thrust of spear-like beak. Would probably eat baby kildeer, left, if could see it; Note disruptive line across eye and camouflage colors (see C-10 and C-20 for incredible nat. selection story). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-5 COASTAL SALT FLATS, SALT MARSH: Salt grass, far left; pickleweed, top left, brass buttons, bottom left; habitat for these three plants and Kingfisher, center; Great Blue Heron and Western Gull, right, while tide is in and salt marsh plants are partially submerged. Pickleweed is salty to taste and both it and brass buttons are succulent. Salt water has a tendency to dry such plants out by osmosis, and saltiness of pickleweed counteracts. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-6 COASTAL SALT MARSH: Additional habitat for salt grass (Distichlis), pickleweed (Salicornia), Cord grass (Spartina) and Triglochin. Trinidad Beach NW of Eureka, N. Calif. Salt marsh and estuaries are important breathing mechanism are coastal waters, taking in oxygen in the mud flats while tide is out, releasing it to water when tide is in. Too few such areas remain. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-7 COASTAL DUNES: Yellow Sand Verbena, Artemisia pycnocephala (dune sagebrush), dune franseria (F. chamissonis). Fort Bragg coast, early July, N. California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-8 COASTAL DUNES: Detail of III-7 dunes: Sand Verbena, top has tap roots tons of feet in length, upper parts shown here after wind blow-out; Sea rocket, top, also; Dune rush, center; Sea rocket, flower, succulent leaves, bottom, with owl skull for scale (see D-2, rocket fruits). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-9 COASTAL DUNES, stabilization by introduced Dune Grass Ammophila arenaria, Oso Flaco Dunes near Lompoc, NW of Santa Barbara, S. central California. This grass was tried out to be on the dunes that became Golden Gate Park but didn't work as fast as the Monterey Pine and Mont. Cypress. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-10 North COASTAL SCRUB: Coastal Sagebrush (gray, Artemisia californica), Bush Lupines (yellow, Lupines arboreus), Bush Paintbrushes (red), Coyote Brush (baccnaris), and many wildflowers. Lack of extreme frosts at coast (ocean moderating influence) has helped a community of bush wildflowers whose other Calif. relatives are mostly annuals or at least smaller in size. This contrasts with the chaparral community which exists independent of the coast and has mainly shrubby and very woody relatives and extreme fire and drouth adaptations. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-11 NORTH COASTAL SCRUB: Seaside Daisy, leave above; Coyote brush leaves, upper right, flowers, M-24; wild blackberry leaves over daisie, center; Douglas Iris leaves, lower right (see E-3). Coastal region near San Francisco, late spring when fog begins. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-12 NORTH COASTAL SCRUB BIRDS: Black Phoebe, far left; (flycatcher); Scrub Jay, mid left (insects, etc.); Songsparrow, note black chest patch, center (seed-eater); young white-crown sparrow on Cow Parsnip, rt. center; adult, right, on coyote brush, typical male territorial pose. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-13 COASTAL SCRUB FLOWERS: Owl's Clover, lower left (Orthocarpus erianthus); Sea Pink like cycle: flowers, upper left, close-up of hunting wasp pollination, top center, sees being scattered, eaten by goldfinches and siskins, right; female goldfinch eating dandelion seed by wallflower, bottom center; Mendo. coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-14 CLOSED-CONE CONIFER FOREST: Monterey Pine, Monterey Cypress, 17 mile drive, Monterey, Central Calif. coast. (See also L-19, 20, 21, K-3). Normal pines shed seeds after two years; closed cone species keep cones closed indefinitely till sun or fire open them by sufficient heat (B-16 shows Monterey cones closed also). In addition to fire protection, coastal calosed-cone pines appear to be able to float their cones for hundreds of miles in sea water and still have the seeds remain viable. Monterey pine occurs naturally near Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and 800 miles south on Guadalupe Island, Mexico (L-19). Since this island is volcanic, columnization by floating cones seems only possibility. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-15 CLOSED-CONE CONIFER FOREST: Monterey Cypress, foreground, Hurricane Cypress, incredible root system, succulent Dudleyas around roots; Monterey Pines, background, Pt. Lobos, Mont. Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-16 NORTH COAST CONIFERS: grow from the Mendocino Coast north in Alaska (also several spp. in Sonoma, 1 sp. in Marin County): Western Hemlock, left, has tiny yellow hairs on stems between different length needles, round ends; Lowland Fir Abies grandis, has notch-tipped needles (top), several needle lengths like hemlock but usually in flatter sprays. Undersides of both species needles have two white streaks (stomatal lines). Canadian Jay, bottom follows N. coast conifers S. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-17 NORTH COAST MIXTURE: Sitka Spruce, pointed conifer, center and left (L-6); Beach Pine, right (K-3), Myrica, left, Rhododendron, bot. center, Salal (Gaultheria snalion), lower left (B-5), and Huckleberry (Vaccinica ovatum, E-15). Southern Oregon coast, sim. to Fendo Fygay For. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-18 COASTAL WINE: Wind-blown huckleberries mixed with north COASTAL SCRUB, cow parsnips, poison oak, etc., Double Point, Lake Ranch, hopefully a part of Pt. Reyes National Seashore, Marin Co., Cal. April. Just as leak of frost is a special features of coastal winters, heavy west winds are special features of coastal springs and summers (for coastal summer fogs see IV-1, 2, for mildness during great valley fogs in winter, see F-2). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-19 COASTAL SAGE SCRUBS, southern California. Differs from north Coast Scrub by having true sages (gray leaves, left part of picture are white sage, III-20, top), more Mexican plants with late spring and early summer blooming times, very tall flower stalks (III-21); Chaparral at rt., this picture, is much taller, woodier. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:4

III-20 COASTAL SAGE SCRUB species: White sage, top (Salvia apiana) and Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon) Laurel Sumac, center (Reus laurina), a chaparral type scrub adapted for coastal climatel and Deerweed, bottom, lotus scoparius. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.4 Redwood Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:5

IV-1 SPRING FOG: Coast Redwoods in ravines, surrounded by Mixed Evergreen Forest, Douglas Fir, Tan Oak, Madrone, etc., Mt. Tamalpais, 1800', Marin County, May (See F-2 for same place, fog from opposite direction). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-2 SPRING-SUMMER FOG: Douglas fir, left, with coastal fog over Eel River Redwood region as backdrop, very important factor in coast redwood survival in an area otherwise almost rainless from April to October. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-3 MORNING FOG: second-growth coast redwoods, Moraga east of Oakland, winter; Some of the largest coast Redwoods known occurred near Oakland, with diametes to 30 feet, but all were cut in the 1840s and 1850s. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-4 PRIMEVAL REDWOODS: Coast redwood forest in 300 ft. wall, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, 6 p.m. late August female and claf Roosevelt Elk are here while bulls are getting ready to do battle for their harens out at Gold Beach, 3-4 miles to west. Next to 300 ft. wall of redwoods, 100 ft. deciduous trees area dwarfed. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-5 PRIMEVAL REDWOODS: Coast Redwood forest succession, Eel River, May 1966, two yr. after Dec. 1964 swept by over its bank and half way up the tan oak fringe at edge of River bank. Half grown redwoods in this area way indicate a 1964-magnitude flood several hundred years ago, since bare mineral soil and light are necessary to growth of redwood seedlings. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-6 PRIMEVAL REDWOODS: Coast Redwood trunks, fallen logs and foliage, Hendy Woods State Park southwest of Ukiah and southeast of Mendocino and Fort Bragg. Sword ferns and redwood sorrel (Cxalis, IV-17,18) are main understory plants, and bay (Unbellularia is an understory tree (leaf decay of J-17, K-11, II-18). 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-7 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Horsetails (except for whisk fern, Psinlotum, horsetails are probably most ancient bring land plants group); vegetative plant left, and spore-bearing stalks, center, comprise one type of scouring rush plant with interconnected roots to both stalks, the leafy one for food production, the non-green one for spore production; Other horsetails at rt. two pictures, combine both functions on one stem. Horsetails have silica (fiberglass) in their stems and are poisonous to horses, but young spore cones are edible for man, and Indians used the stems as brillo pads derived the name scouring rush, adn today the stem section still make excellent fingernail files. Some horsetails during the age of dinosaurs were 100' high trees. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-8 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Deer Ferns (bottom left have fertile and sterile fronds like horsetails); 5 finger fern, lower rt (E-5); Lady Fern, upper right (IV-9), and Alum-rootm white flowers, center of picture, Saxifrage Fam. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-9 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Lady Fern spore spots (sori), left, with modest protective flap of induslus; Wood fern sori, right, more regular, more circular. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-10 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Habitat for 7 fern species, Fern Canyon, Prairie Cr., Redwoods State Park. Some are Brachen (K-19), Chain Fern (K-22), Sword Fern (K-21), Licorice Fern (K-15 through 18), Lady, Wood Ferns (IV-9). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-11 REDWOOD BELT ANIMALS: Banana slugs (5-12) and amphibians are most common redwood belt animals ; Bottom of Fern Canyon (IV-10) covered with orange iron bacteria has matching orange red-legged frogs, left; contrasting with mud-dwelling red-legged frogs in Mendocino pygmy forest, right. Both change color, but neither can fully match the habitat of the other (different races). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-12 REDWOOD BELT AMPHIBIANS: Start Salamander life cycle w/ adult ENnotina salamander too, larva still w/ gills; aquatic food insects include stonefly, dragon fly larvae. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-13 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: moss with pore capsules on redwood log, w/ lowland fir needle for scale (1" long ); HairCapMoss, capsules. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-14 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Liverworts, w/ gametophyte ( marriage plant) stalks + gemma cups for vegetative reproduction (on leaf surfaces). 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-15 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Bracket Fungi - Phomes specimens sometimes grow to core than a foot across, on decaying logs; Russian Gulch State Park, Northern Calif. coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-16 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Coral-like fungus (Stereum hirsutum) primitive Basidiomycete, on log, compound Isnonin leaf, November, Van Damme State Park, northern Calif. Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-17 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Clinton lilies with leaves folded up w/ protection from high light intensities and maybe assoc. high water loss. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-18 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Redwood Sorrel w/ folded down leaves from exposure to sunlight , w/ seed pods ready to fire off explosive seeds when touched or proper heat reached to 4 ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-19 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Redwood Sorrel flower, left; Redwoof Violets, center; Redwood Ivy, rt., compound leaves, delicate white flowers have inside-out seeds w/ white ant-attachments on the green seed (Vancouviera sp.)-N. Cal. Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:5

IV-20 REDWOOD BELT PLANTS: Carrion Fly Flowers, smell like decaying meat to attract flies because live in such dense shade that bees won't come; Wild Ginger (Asarun caudatum), left; Foetid Adder's Tongue (Scoliopus Eigelovii), rt; Both w/ attachments on seeds for ant dispersal after flower pollination is completed by flies. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.5 The Live Oak and Mixed Evergreen Forests 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:6

V-1 MIXED EVERGREEN FOREST, alternating with open coastal prairie areas, Mt. Tam, Marine Co., Feb.; left to rt. madrone, Doug Dir. Tanbark Pak, ; dead snag is old Doug Fir with 1000+ stored 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-2 Windswept MIXED EVERGREEN FOREST, mostly Bay; Red Alders by creek, foreground, 1 low Doug Fir, up. rt. SW of Mt. Tamalpais, elevation 100 feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-3 MIXED EVERGREEN FOREST, S. Calif. type: Canyon Liveoak, Big-cone Doug Firs, winter; Mt. Baldy, 40000ft.; setting for V-4-11, 13, 14, 16. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-4 Spring under tree of V-3: Larger green leaves belong to white blossoms/milkmaid, left (closer view C-15); Bedstraw, small leaves (O-23, left); Big leaf maple dead Ivs (K-10). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-5 Spring under tree of V-3: Miner's Lettuce, encircling stem-leaves as right, 5 petal white flowers, left-centered: Ladybird beetle on Baby Blue Eyes blossom, April, seeds ant dispersed. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-6 Spring, same area: woodland violet, left, showing typical upside-down bee pollination system (nectar in upper back calyx); broken open seed pod, ant dispersal, Canyon Liveoak leaves, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-7 JUNE pollination time Canyon Liveoak: fallen pollen flowers on dead trunk, left, closer view, pollen on spider web, pollen flower, (low. rt.) fallen oak leaf, rt. cent. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-8 CANYON LIVEOAK LEAF DROP- beg. Summer (late June); fallen Canyon oak lvs. Doug Fir pollen cones, Buprestid beetle, Mt. Mahogany lvs, silvery fruits. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-9 CANYON LIVEOAK FOREST just after summer leaf drop, sword ferns, July. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-10 Mixed Evergreen Forest INSECTS: Hover Flies (Syrphidae), dogfighting areas under oak of V-9, left; wasp marked hover-fly, right, 2 wings. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-11 Mixed Evergreen Forest INSECTS Calif. Sister, left, drinking on mud; Oak Hairstreak, young acorns, rt; larvae of both eat liveoak leaves. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-12 Mixed Evergreen Forest INSECTS: Calif. Oak Moth Larvae, left; adult males and an empty pupa, center; Oak Wax scale insects, rt. on scrub oak stems, were used by Indian as chewing gum. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-13 Mixed Evergreen and Oak Forest Energy Storage: Canyon Liveoak Acorns (see also Tanbark Oak Acorns, J-7), important step of oak food pyramid. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-14 OAK REPRODUCTION: Tanbark Oak seedling, young leaves above, 1st year root system below; such acorns often planted by forgetful squirrels. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-15 ACORN EATERS: Bandtail Pigeons in large flocks eat Canyon Liveoak acorns (and other smaller types) intact, dissolving hard covering in stomach; Canyon Oak with Madrones, Santa Lucia Mts., Feb., 1962. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-16 ACORN EATERS one step higher on Food Pyramid: Young Spotted Owls, on Bay trunk. 6pm6/65, nr. setting V-3. Moments later parents bring mouse (A-20). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-17 MIXED EVERGREEN FOREST DECAY CYCLE: Top of food pyramid returned to bottom as red shouldered hawk in Tanbark forest decays into leaf mold. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-18 Madrone, Tanbark Oak in taller NW Mixed Evgr. Forest type, w/ redwoods, NW CAl. nr. Orick, 1000' (Madrone w/ red trunk; TanOak see J-7). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-19 Madrone Bark, flowers: peeling bark in rain, late flowers at right, turn into berries as in O-17, NW California in winter, spring. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:6

V-20 Madrone leaves eaten by Calif. Ten Caterpillars (a moth) eating chlorophyll cells, not thick, fibrous vein system; strong, leaves adapt to rainless summer. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.6 Chaparral

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:7

VI-0 Chaparral invasion after fire in previous pine forest (Pond Madrone: V-24). Middle Fk. American River, 2800', W. slope of Sierra; Madrone root sprts. left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-1 Chaparral snow. 2/22/62 Mt. Baldy, S. Cal. 3800'; Mule Deer Doe; Garrya, Ceanothus leucodermis, Arcto. glauca, Chap. currant, Red Berry, and Ceanothus crassifolius; all except first Ceanothus in bloom under snow after warm Jan. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-2 Mariposa Manzanita blossoms in snow, Sierra foothills, early spring. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-3 Parry manz. w/ black-throated gray warbler, 6/64, 7000', Baja Calif.; w/ Manzanita berries (fr. spanish manzana for apple); Indians made into lemonade. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-4 Chaparral Distribution/North; Manzanita Rt. sprts; Chamise w/ Chaparral Pea (in blossom), center; low canyon liveoaks, 5/64; S. face Mt. Tamalpais w/ Mt. Diablo afar. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-5 Chaparral Distribution/ Centr. Coast; Chamise Type/ S. facing south of Mill Cr. Watershed, St. Lucia Mts. 2500'; Cany. Liveoak/gulches, Madrone, R-wood at left coming up stream bottoms; Coulter Pines also; Coastal Scrub on seacoast below 1000 ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-6 Chaparral Dist./S. Coast; Chamise (cream fls. rt. center); Holly Lf. Cherry (larger cream flower masses, rt.); Buckwheat (wht. fls. bot/successional); Coulter Pine and Canyon liveoak on op. NE/facing slope; Santa Ana Mts., Orange County, May 3700 ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-7 Chaparral Dist./San Diego, S.; Red shanks in place of chamise; Coast Liveoaks and Sagebrush flats and deeper soils; Chamise-covered hills nr./S. of Mt. Palomar, 2500'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-8 Chaparral Dist./Desert Border; Chamise by Mojave Yuccas and Beavertail Cactus, w/ Incense Cedars nr.; Dramatic N. face Mt. San Jacinto 3000'; see X-12 to 18 series. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-9 Chamise - 2 Blooming Times/due to dry wint. winds, 5/9/62 St. Ana Mts. (F-4-6). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-10 Chamise In Seed: Late sum. w/ Coulter Pines, St. Lucia Mts. 4000', limestone soil. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-11 Chaparral Succession I. Knobcone Pine, rt. before fire in following slide; Closed Knobcone cones/old branch, lft, 6-8 yr. unopened; Ceanothus pappillosus in bllom, left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-12 Chaparral Succession II. Knobcone Pine of VI-11, 6 mo. after summer fire, 1960; Mainstreet Can. looking N. to Mt. Baldy from Santa Ana Mts. over Pomona Valley; 3800'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-13 Chaparral Succession III. Nearby Manzanita root sprouts; Bush Poppy and Morning Glory blossoms (150' fr. V-11, 12, 14). 22 mo. after 6/60 fire; drier, s. facing slope. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-14 Chaparral Succession IV. Beneath VI-10, 11 tree are Knobcone Seedlings; 4/65. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-15 Other Knobcone Areas: Ten yr. trees/some w/ mature mcones; near lower edge of Ponderosa Forest belt w/ Kellogg Oak, Chamise Chap and Sac. Val. backdrop, 4500', Lake Co. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-16 Older Knobcones: Fifteen-Twenty Yr. Forest , many mature cones; chamise, toyon, and manzanita (foreground), Hood Peak, Sonoma County, 1200', 10/61; Dour Fir upper rt. 1961 October

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-17 Old Burn: 14 yr. old Chamise burn, partly wind-dwarfed shrubs on sterile, conglomerate soil, St. Ana Mts. 2800', winter 1962, note crown sprouts (See F-4 to 6). 1962

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-18 Chaparral Associates - Parasites: Broom-rape, left w/ Ceanothuss host; Indian Warrior, rt. w. chamise host (often on manzanita and madrone); Spring, S. and N. Cal. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-19 Chaparral Associates - Buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus) close of blossoms, left and Toyon berries, rt; Blossoms are out of season (11/20/62 aft. 10'10 early rain, Vaca Mts.). 1962 October 20

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:7

VI-20 Chaparral Associates - (Mountain Chaparral): Snowbrush (Ceanothus cordulatus), w/ White Fir, left; Deerbrush (C. integerrimus), w/ Kellogg Oak, cent., and Coarse-leaf Ceanothus (C. crassifolius), main chaparral belt at 3000', rt. San Bern amd Santa Ana Mts. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.7 Great Valley Life

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:8

VII-1 SALT MARSH PLANTS: Sedges, Bulrushes, Grasses, etc. Sacramento River Delta. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-2 MARSH BIRDS, WINTER: Snow Geese, other aquatic birds, aerial view overlooking the central Sacramento Vallet and Gray Lodge Water Fowl Refuge, Mt. Lassen in background. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-3 MARSH BIRDS, SUNSET: Aquativ birds, winter, central Sacramento Valley and Gray Lodge Water Fowl Refuge, numbers of birds reach 3/4 million in December. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-4 MARSH BIRDS: Common Egret (taller) with Snowy Egret, Shovelers; Los Banos winter rain pools, some salinity; Northwestern San Joaquin Valley near San Luis Island ref. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-5 MARSH, RIPARIAN HABITATS: Lone willow clump, Bulrushed-Tules (Scirpus acutus and americanus) (sedges not rushes), old marsh wren nest on cattails Gray Lodge WFR. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-6 RIPARIAN FLOODING, WINTER: Blue Racers, top; Pheasants, bottom, up in trees because of high water, Gray Lodge Refuge, Sacramento Valleys; trees are Noah's Arcs. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-7 RIPARIAN MAMMALS, SPRING: Raccoons rading Pheasant nest, rip-gut Brome grass (Bromus rigidus-introduc. noxious weed); pheasant is not native. Gray Lodge WFR. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-8 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SUMMER AND WINTER: Valley Oak - summer nr. Santa MAris w/ Ratmelina hanging lichens; winter, at right, fully deciduous branches in Sonoma Val. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-9 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SPRING: Original bunchgrasses (Stipa pulchra), April, w/ Vernal Pool Plants (Orthocarpus erianthus + plants in VII-10). One of the only unplowed grassland-vernal pool sites left in Great Valley, south of Dixon. Introd. grasses everywhere else. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-10 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SPRING: Vernal Pool Plants. Downingia (a Lobelia) with Meadowfoam, center and right (latter forms outermost ring); Goldfields, Tidytips, left, inner ring. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-11 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SPRING: Foothill Vernal Pools, Meadowfoan shows high water mark, Wild Clovers are lower in pool zone, Goldfields will be in dried up bottom; WETTEST SPRING in 80 yr., Sierra Nevada foothills near Lincoln about 800' elev. 1963 April

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-12 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SPRING: Foothill wildflowers,, Bear Val. Lake Co. 4/63 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-13 GREAT VALLEY PLANTS, SPRING: Tidytips, Desert Dandelions, Goldfields, Cal. Poppy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-14 GREAT VALLEY AUTUMN: Calif, Poppies, grasses; Riparian (middle) and Foothill Woodland Trees (upper), still w/ leaves. 7 wk. after 10/10/62 Hurricane, Vaca Mts. w/ of Davis. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-15 GREAT VALLEY WINTER: Luxurious Grasses, Riparian (mid.) and Foothill Woodland Trees bare, 2/63, Wettest Season in 80 yr.; Vaca Mts. w. of Davis. Almond blooming center rt. 1963 February

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-16 GREAT VALLEY SPRING: Calif. Poppies, Grasses; Riparian (mid.) and Foothill Woodland Trees in leaf and bloom. Wettest Season in 80 yr. (Fat Lambs), Vaca Mts. W. of Davis 150' elev. 1963 April 03

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-17 GREAT VALLET SUMMER: Poppies, Grasses brown; Riparian and Foothill Woodland Trees full leaf, June '63. Riparian = Cottonwoods, Willows; Digger Pine center; Oaks above. 1963

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-18 FOOTHILL WOODLAND AUTUMN: Digger Pines, Blue Oaks, Redbuds, California Buckeyes, Wild Oats, foregr. (introd.). Included Strata, W. side Grt. Valley, Colusa Co. 8/62, 800'. 1962 August

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-19 FOOTHILL WOODLAND WINTER: Blue and Garrt Oak Hybrids, mosses and hanging lichens (Ramelina, etc.), Sonoma County (See S-17, Black-tail Deer in same setting). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:8

VII-20 FOOTHILL WOODLAND SPRING: Blue Oaks, Lupines, Forget-me-nots; April. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.8 Mountain Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:9

VIII-1 YELLOW PINE FOREST WINTER: Ponderosa Pine, white Fir, nr. Mt. Lassen, 5000'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-2 YELLOW PINE FOREST SPRING: Ponderosa Pine, Incense Cedar trunks, left w/ Mt. Misery, Flowering Dogwoods and Kellogg Oaks w/ Ponderosa Pine and Incense Cedar tops, rt., May, 4000'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-3 YELLOW PINE FOREST SUMMER: Mule Deer Doe, Bracken Fern, w/ Half Dome, Yosemite. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-4 YELLOW PINE FOREST AUTUMN: Same loc. as VIII-3, Kellogg Oak and Ponderosa Pine. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-5 YELLOW PINE FOREST FLOOR, AUTUMN: Ponderosa Pine needles, Bracken Fern dying back (most widespread fern in n. hemisphere), Yosemite Val. 3800 ft. October, Inc. Cedars. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-6 YELLOW PINE FOREST WINTER: Ponderosa Pine, Kellogg Oak, Yosemite w/ El Capitan. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-7 YELLOW PINE FOREST LATE SPRING (upper zone): Jeffrey Pine (needs much less effective rainfall than Ponderosa so can grow in drier places like glaciated granite - also, pollinates 30 days later so can grow in colder and higher places subject to late snows (L-17); Late June view from Glacier point, Yosemite, 7500 ft. w/ Nevada and Vernal Falls, Merced R. and Mt. Lyell. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-8 YELLOW PINE FOREST UPPER LIMIT: Sugar and Jeffrey Pines and White Firs and Incense Cedars among winter avalanche paths (F-14, 15)), 8500 ft. June, Mt. Baldy (Mt. Mohogany also). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-9 RED FIR FOREST SUMMER-FALL: Red Firs w. mature cones (L-8, 9), Yosemite 6500'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-10 RED FIR FOREST FALL-WINTER: Forest Island w/ Aspens in dry Corn Lily and Mule Ear Flats above Sierra Club Lodge, Borreal Ridge, Donner Pass 7200', 11/5/66. Last Day Autumn. 1966 November 05

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-11 RED FIR FOREST WINTER-SPRING: (See F-12, S-5 for winter). Emerging Corn Lilies show warming effect of water w/ more rapid growth; same loc. as VIII-10, June (see I-24). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-12 LODGEPOLE FOREST SPRING-SUMMER: Labrador Tea plants blooming (one of the most wide ranging shrubs in n. Hemisphere), Shadow Cr., Eastern Sierra 9200', July below Mt. Ritter. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-13 LODGEPOLE BELT, ROCKS: Western Juniper above Lodgepole bordered pond, Carson Pass, 8800', July. Lodgepole can grow in dry areas as well as with wet feet (VIII-14). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-14 LODGEPOLE BELT POND: Pond of VIII-13, Corn Lilies, Sedges, Lodgepole Pines. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-15 LODGEPOLE BELT MEADOW, AUTUMN: Willow turning by creek, E. Sierra, 9000', Oct. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-16 SUBALPINE BELT LAKE, SPRING: (see II-22 for winter) Lodgepole, whitebark Pine and Mt. Hemlock only confiers; Thousand Island Lake, Mt. Banner, 12,800' from 9800', July. 1963 July

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-17 SUBALPINE BELT AND TIMBERLINE, SPRING: Mt. and White Heather and Alpine Primrose (see D-8), with Krummholz Whitebark Pines, 9800', above Mammoth Lakes, E. Sierra. 8/67. 1967 August

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-18 SUBALPINE BELT AND GLACIER MEADOW: Southern Sierra 10,700'. Timberline higher. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-19 GLACIER MEADOW FLOWERS (following Glacial Lake): Alpine Gentian, left; Paintbrush and Parnassia, top and left; Alpine Willow-herb (epilobium), center; E. Sierra 8500-11000', Jul.-Aug. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:9

VIII-20 TIMBERLINE STORM, SUMMER: Evolution Lake, 10,850', Mt. Spencer, alp. Huckleberry. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.9 Great Basin Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:10

IX-0 BRISTLECONE habitat: White Mts., 10,800 ft., Sierra in back, wht. dolomite soil under Bristlecones, (has oldest animal fossils) dark soil doesn't support Brens. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-1 OLDEST known trees; (by Grth. Ring Measurement), 4600 yr. Bristlecone Pines. This patriarch Tree-near grove of oldest ones, 10,000ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-2 OLDEST known live trees: Bristlecone Pine-female cone, left, needles in 5, 1" branch growth/yr. Ripening female cone, center, 15 month old; open cones, old snag, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-3 OLDEST tree colonies: Quaking Aspen, autumn leaves, edge of colony probably many thousand years old from one seed (O-12). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-4 GREAT BASIN RIPARIAN TREES, WINTER: Quaking Aspen, Black Cottonwoods, Hwy 89, so. Lake Tahoe, 7500'. Water Birch (not shown) in E. Sierra Canyons. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-5 GREAT BASIN SAGEBRUSH, SPRING: Antelope mother, young, SE Oregon to NE Calif., once extended down east side Sierra into Lower Calif. 6/23/64. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-6 GREAT BASIN SAGEBRUSH: Badge under Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Powerful front arms, claws, allow swift digging in soft soil. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-7 MOUNTAIN SAGEBRUSH: Art. cana., Corn Lily, Water Lupines-Mammoyj Mtn. eastern Sierra from San Joaquin Mountain, 9000 feet elevation. 1967 August

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-8 GRT. BASIN SAGE-BELT SUMMER YELLOW FLOWERS: August: Blazing Star. left; Sulphur Vuckwheat, Mariposa Lilies, cent; Felt Thorn, right center; Rabbit Brush (Chrysothamnus sp.) right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-9 GREAT BASIN SAGEBRUSH, AUTUMN: Art. tridentata. arbuscula. eastern side of Sierra south of Tioga Pass, 7000 feet. September SNOW. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-10 NORTH JUNIPER WOODLAND: late WINTER. Typical Western Juniper, South Central Oregon, Northwest of Lakeview, 4500 feet elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-11 NORTH JUNIPER WOODLAND: late WINTER: Great Basin Sagebrush, Rabbit Brush. Western Junipers, distance Eagle Lake, north of Susanville, 4500 feet. 1967 March 02

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-12 GREAT BASIN LAKE LIFE, WINTER: Kildeer, Willow with buds: March 1, 1967 South Central Oregon. Upper Klamath Lake, 4500 feet. 0967 March 01

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-13 GREAT BASIN LAKE LIFE. SPRING: White Pelicans arriving, lower Klamath Lake. Northern California, 4000 feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-14 PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND: Great Basin Sagebrush, White Mountains, 9700 feet looking south to Mount Whitney. Sierra. June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-15 PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND: Prince's Plume. Big Cone Douglas Firs, drouth resistant to grow with pinyons. Mts. west Mt. Pinos. Cuyama Valley. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-16 PINYON-JUNIPER SPRING FLOWERS: Kennedy's Mariposa Lily, with Salvia Dorrii. upper edge Mojave Desert vegetation. Ridge Route Mts., 4500', May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-17 PINYON-JUNIPER SPRING in very wet, 5/62 and dry 5/63 years. Wild Onion Inflated Buckwheat Luxuriant. left 1/2 in bloom. right. seeds hidden. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-18 PINYON-JUNIPER SUMMER: Pinus edulis, Utah Juniper Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado; July. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-19 PINYON-JUNIPER AUTUMN: One-leaf Pinyon. Pinus monophylla, wing-less seeds, female cone, Sherwin Grade, Inyo County, 6500 feet; September. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:10

IX-20 PINYON-JUNIPER WATER-HOLE: Mountain Quail flock. some first year, September Joshua Tree National Monument. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.10 Desert Life 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:11

X-0 UPPER MOJAVE DESERT VEGETATION, AUTUMN: Winter Fat, 1. cent.: Shadscale rt. HopSage 1. left. View from 4500ft. East side Owen's Valley Looking west to Sierra Nevada with southernmost glacier. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-1 MOJAVE DESERT, CONIFEROUS AND ALPINE LIFE ZONES: Joshua Tree, right, points up to Mt. Whitney, 14,495' from Inyo Mts, 6000' . east Calif., November. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-2 DESERT DRY LAKES, FILLED, EARLY SPRING: Mile-long patches of Desert Dandelions, western Mojave Des, to San Gabriel Mts., 10000' from 3500', 3/26/58. (Year of Colin Fletcher's 1000 Mile Summer. In 2 weeks, this scene yellow.) 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-3 DESERT WILDFLOWERS, SPRING: Desert Dandelions, Parish Poppies, Creosote Bush (most Common shrub in SWUSA, both Hi, Lo Deserts, Lo here nr. Indio 3/60.) 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-4 CREOSOTE BUSH. SPRING (See M-13): Dumont Dune, So. Death Valley, full bloom. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-5 DEVIL'S CORNFIELD: Alkaline flats ne. Sea level, north-central Death Valley entirely comprised of Arrow-weed (pluchea sericea), used for Ind. arrows, bask. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-6 GIANT CACTUS FOREST: Mainly in Arizona, extends a bit into S.E. Calif. Sahuaro (Cereus giganteus), most imp. Indian food plant in Arizona deserts. Big, white flowers open in evening, pollinated by long-tongue, Sphinx Moths (N-10). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-7 LOW-DESERT WINTER: Bigelow Cholla, Beavertail, Barrel Cacti, Desert Agave, Palo Verde, Cheesebush, Main Springs, Colorado Des, Feb. San Jacinto Mts. above. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-8 LOW-DESERT SPRING: Ocatillo (full-bloom, i-5); Desert Agave (M-3); Creosote Bush (M-13). Anza Borrego State Parkm 1500', Southeastern California 3/24/67. 1967 March 24

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-9 DESERT GROUND BIRDS: gambel Quail, on rock and in Ocatillo; Roadrunner, returning from waterhole, hiding by cholla. Colorado Des, SE Palm Springs, May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-10 LOW-DESERT DUNES: Sand Verbena east Palm Springs, Mt. San Jacinto, 10,800' from near sea level, late March, 1966. (See also X-11, M-9, G-3). 1966 March

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-11 LOW-DESERT DUNES: Typical plants include Desert Rhubarb center, Dune-Evening Primrose (i-17), pollinated by Sphinx Moths (Larva M-9, adults A-16, N-10, other flowers N-9). Des. Rhubarb tested as comm. tannin source. (phot. nr. Indio). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-12 LOW-DESERT CACTI: Engelmann Cholla, foreground; Beavertail, just left; Dudleya stalks, next left; Incense Bush, Hedgehog Cactus, rt., just north of San Gorgonio Pass at 1400'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-13 WIND-BLOWN EPHEDRA, coastal winds, SPRING. Mt. San Jacinto, 10800' from SAn Gorgonio Pass, 1000' this picture, April (4mi. So. X-12) Ephedra, see L-23. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-14 SAND-BLASTED CREOSOTE BUSHES. SPRING: Coastal winds. Mt. San Jacinto, 10800', from San Gorgonio Pass 1000', X-13 site. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-15 LOW-DESERT TREES: Desert Willo, SPRING, Mt. San Jacinto, 10800' from San Gorgonio Pass, 1100' April. Des. Willows fls, frts. M-30, Seeds O-3; life/under C-11. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-16 LOW-DESERT CACTI: Hedgehig Cholla,Mt. San Jacinto fr. 1200' June H-23. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-17 LOW-DESERT SHRUBS: Incense Bush, full April bloom, Mt. San Jacinto, 1600'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-18 HIGH-DESERT SHRUBS: Mojave Yucca, full bloom, Apr., 3100', below Mt. San Jacinto, 10800', desert edge of chaparral (VI-8), Coastal Sage Species (III-21). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-19 PINES TO PALMS VIEW: Above 8000' on east flank of Mt. San Jacinto, 10800' looking down on Colorado Des. Little San Bernardino Mts., North of Indio, 0-4500', October. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:11

X-20 LOW-DESERT OASIS: Calif. Fan Palms (Washington filifera), no. Indio, 1000' springs along SW edge, Little San Bernardino Mts., March. (see X-19). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.11 The Pyramid of Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:12

A-0 PLANT NUTRITION deficiencies: Clay soil nr. Ione w/ endemic Ione Buckwheat. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-1 PLANT NUTRITION, soil evolution: Black humus layer 2 ft. thick from 10,000 yr. of grassland; Sea Terrace Ecosystems, Mendocino Coast, beach sand over sandstone. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-2 PLANT NUTRITION, soil evolution: Acid, sterile, podsol soil derived from beach sand, grassland, pine and fir forest ; Mendocino Coast Pygmy Forest, Terrace 4, pH3. 70 ft. Redwood, Bishop Pines in back on old sand dune (III-7), dwarf Bishop Pines, cypress. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-3 PLANT NUTRITION PROBLEMS: Nitrogen and Mineral Deficiencies, Acid and Sterile Beach-Sand 400,000 yr. old, Mendocino Pygmy Forest, Pygmy Manzanita, right w/ Pygmy Cypress 2' high, 15-20 yr. old trees w/ mature cones, some opened (L-5); 6' Hi, 80 years old. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-4 PLANT NUTRITION, CALCIUM DEFICIENCY: Serpentine Soil, Doug Fir-Madrone belt 15 mi. e. of Cape Mendocino, w/ Incense Cedar, Jeff Pine instead, (fr. mts.) 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-5 PLANT NUTRITION , Poor Root Decay: Alpine Bunch Grasses and Sedges, unable to grow on own little-decayed roots, make 2-10 yr. ring colonies, advancing outwards. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-6 PLANT NUTRITION, Mtn. Bog; Coast Bog; Peat Bog nutrition deficiencies are offset by captured nitrogen, Insect-eating Sundew, Pygmy For. Staircase, Casper. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-7 PLANT NUTRITION, Mtn. Bog: Nutrition deficiencies offset thro captured Ni in Calif. Pitcher Plant, recurved hairs and sticky fluid inside, flower stalk, cent. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-8 LACK OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS: No chlorophyll in this Albino Buckeye seedling, died 2 wks. after this picture, used food stored in 2" seeds. Vaca Mts, w Davis. 1963 March

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-9 HERBIVOROUS SEA LIFE: Giant Chiton lying on back eating iridescent red alga, tidepool surface, Mendocino Coast, Northwest California, June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-10 HERBIVOROUS INSECTS: Majority insects eat plants. Willow Sawfly houses, left, contain leaf-eating larvae, right, safe, dry in red houses. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-11 HERBIVOROUS MAMMALS: Blacktail deer browse line, DougFir, Marin Co. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-12 MAINLY HERBIVOROUS MAMMALS: Gray Squirrel, descaled Sugar Pine Cone core, empty seed husks, Yellow Pine Forest, So. Ca. Mts., 5000', September. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-13 PARTLY HERBIVOROUS BIRDS: Mistletoe water parasite, Sycamore, WINTER Migrant Waxwings, resident Scrub Jay. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-14 WINTER HERBIVOROUS BIRDS: Toyon berries. Linnet, left, Robin, Cedar Waxwings,one with berry in beak, San Gabriel Mts., So. Calif/December. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-15 INSECTIVOROUS BIRDS: Bark-patrolling Nuthatch at apple tree nest with flying termites. Usually works down trunk, flies up to next tree. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-16 CARNIVOROUS BIRDS: Roadrunner feeding Striped Morning Sphinx Moth to young lizards, snakes, insects, even mice, included a diet. Desert, May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-17 CARNIVOROUS BIRDS: Sparrow Hawk, with Grasshopper, left; immature, right, June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-18 CARNIVORE-OMNIVORE FOOD CHAIN: Long-tailed weasel watches Brewer's Blackbird with insects for nestling. Blackbird won't give up nest location. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-19 CARNIVORE-OMNIVORE FOOD CHAIN: Pacific Diamondback Rattler eating Wood Rat. Bitten rodents run away, die elsewhere. Kill rattlers nr. habitation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:12

A-20 CARNIVORE-OMNIVORE FOOD CHAIN: Screech Owl, Wood Rat in talons. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.12 Poisonous Life 1968-1969

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:13

B-0 POISON WITHOUT WARNING: Camouflaged Trap-door spider uses poison for killing prey, possesses NO warning colors for larger predators (see B-12, 23). 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-1 RED OFTEN WARNS OF POISON: Lady-bird Beetles on Maple Leaf (A. macrophylla); these beetles distasteful avoided by predators. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-2 POISONOUS PLANTS: Fly Mushroom (Amanita musceria); note basal cup, left, veil, right; Salal Leaves. Red color may warn. Most poisonous plants don't warn. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-3 POISONOUS PLANTS: Poison Oak, center, non-poisonous relatives: Squawbush, rt., Laurel Sumac, left, entire leaves, evergreen shrub. Others deciduous. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-4 POISONOUS PLANTS: Poison Oak in autumn, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Santa Lucia Mountains, 1000 feet elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-5 POISONOUS PLANTS: Wild Rhododendron, avoided by deer; Mendocino Pine barrens, Northwest California Coast, May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-6 POISONOUS PLANTS: Bog Laurel, one of the most poisonous plants of Health Family, grows in Subalpine meadows. Stamens develop as pollen catapults. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-7 POISONOUS PLANTS: Jimson Weed (Datura sp.) left, Nightshade (Solanum Xantii) right; Nightshade Family, many poisonous. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-8 POISONOUS PLANTS: California Buckeye, pollen, seeds poisonous, but Indians removed poison, ate the seeds, used poison to stupefly fish. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-9 POISONOUS PLANTS: Death Camas (Zigadenus Fremontii). Calif. Indians ate all Calif. bulbs but this; used, however, for rattlesnake remedy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-10 POISONOUS GROUND ANTHROPODS: Scorpion, left, eating Dung Beetle, has severely poisonous sting, up. rt., lives under rocks, mainly nocturnal. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-11 POISONOUS GROUND ANTHROPODS: Velvet Ant, left; Centipede (42 legs) center; Tarantula, right. Mt. Baldy, Southern California, 4000 feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-12 POISONOUS INVERTEBRATES: Banana Slug (Ariolimax sp.) Slime foams up incredibly in predator's mouth. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-13 POISONOUS ANTHROPODS: Orb Weaver Spider (Argiope sp.), left, with wrapped up Carpenter Bee; right, detail of web; sticky tangential strands trap prey, radial are non-sticky. Markings like wasp warning coloration. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-14 POISONOUS INSECTS: Bees, wasps: Wasp-colored Bee, top, at gravel next on Yucca leaf; Yellow-Jackets: nest, left, drinking, right, on top of water. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-15 POISONOUS INSECTS: Monarch Butterfly Larva, Milkweed Bugs, both eat posionous Milkweed foliage, become poisonous in return, have warning colors. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-16 POISONOUS INSECTS: Monarch Butterflies, distasteful to birds, winter near Monterey, thousands sometimes on one Monterey Pine, come from far away. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-17 POISONOUS INSECTS: Pipe Vine Swallowtail larva, warning red spines, Pipe Vine leaves, pod. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-18 POISONOUS INSECTS: Tussock Moth Larva, left; Checkerspot larva, center, chrysalis, right. Both larvae have hairs, warning red. Tussock hairs detachable. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-19 POISONOUS INSECTS: Arcteid Moth on Deer Brush leaves, Northern California Strong warning colors. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:13

B-20 POISONOUS REPTILES: Gila Monster, taken in Arizona, extends into Southeast Calif.; strong warning coloration. Compare with B-19, 21. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.13 Animal Coloration: Color and Life 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:14

C-1 MIMETIC COLORS IN NON-POISONOUS INSECTS: Long-horn Beetles, Tragidion, right, imitates Tarantula Wasp (B-23); Alder Borez, left, has disruptive coloration. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-2 MIMICKING COLORS in NON-POISONOUS INSECTS: Scarab Beetle Family, compare June Beetle, left, with bee-imitating Scarab, center and right, from Northwest California Coast. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-3 POISONOUS BEE MODEL, NON-POISONOUS FLY MIMIC, left: Carpenter Bee, rt. four wings, Syrphid Fly-3. Both on Rabbit Brush, Sept., Mt. Baldy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-4 POISONOUS HONEY-BEE MODEL, NON-POISONOUS HOVER FLY MIMIC, left: Also warning colors in Red Velvet Moths-all on Goldenrod, Oct., Mt. Baldy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-5 MIMICKING SHAPES, BEHAVIOR: in Hairstreak Butterflies-hind wings marked, shaped like own heads. Hind wings move, invite attack, allow escape. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-6 MIMICKING COLORATION, NON-POISONOUS REPTILE: Bright Mt. King Snake resembles poisonous Coral Snake (Red by yellow, Kill fellow; Red by black, venom lack); Mt. Baldy, 4000' elevation, June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-7 CAMOUFLAGING, WARNING COLORATION-POISONOUS REPTILE; Red Rattler. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-8 CAMOUFLAGING COLORS, REPTILES: Horned Lizard, camouflaged under Evening Primrose, left; under Popcorn Flower, protective spines, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-9 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, REPTILES: Granite-cheeked Whiptail Lizard, top, sand colored Desert Iguana, bottom herbivorous. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-10 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, INSECTS: Katydid on Spicebush Leaf, both with dicot venation. Photographed at rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-11 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, INSECTS: Short-horn Grasshoper Familt Markings resemble Feldspar, Mica, Hornblende Crystals of granite gravel. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-12 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, INSECTS: Phasmid Walking Stick, right, lived in tree-nest of young Shrike. Fledglings ate voraciously, though parents never saw Phasmid. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-13 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, INSECTS: Geometrid Moth Larvae (Inch Worms) on Scrub Oak, rt; on Deer Brush, center; on Coast Live Oak Pollen Flower, left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-14 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION, INSECTS: Lichen resemblance; Red Underwing Moth, lichen covered Canyon LiveOak bark, Oct., Inner hind wings RED. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-15 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION in INSECTS: As C-14, Cinderella escape method used by Orangetip Butterfly, bright wings, left, can vanish instantly, rt. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-16 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION in SPIDERS: Streamside Spider, top, long-bodied, long-leggec disappears next to twig, 1 rt., before approaching Beetle. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-17 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION in SPIDERS: Yellow Crab Spider, left, resembles pollen Brodiaea, turns white in 5-10 days, on Azalea lower, right, eats Beefly. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-18 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATION in BIRDS: Comorants, 8 Oystercatchers, 3 Gulls, 1 Turnstone, far right, 1/2 way down rock; resting 2 Gulls, immature. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-19 CAMOUFLAGING COLORATIN, BIRDS: EGGS: Granite-color kildeer eggs, under parent on gravel have advantage over those in C-20. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:14

C-20 NATURAL SELECTION IN ACTION: Sparrow Hawk, carried 1 baby, returns to Kildeer Nest for second baby, bottom center. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.14 Symbiotic Life: Parasitism, Saprohiytism 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:15

D-1 PARASITISM IN INSECTS: 25 Braconid Wasp pupae on Buckwhear Caterpillar; cannot reach maturity. Cat. on dead log with 2-3 lichens, Mt. Baldy, 4000' elev. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-2 PARASITISM IN INSECTS: Hunting Wasp, cuts nerves, top, drags, digs, lays eggs, buries larva, but fly parasites eat it, bottom. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-3 PARASITISM IN PLANTS: Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceathobium), on hemlock, left, Lodgepole Pine, rt., porcupine marks. Fruits, L, explode seeds several feet.

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-4 PARASITISM IN PLANTS: Dodder (Cuscuta) on Indigo Bush, close-up at left. Palms to Pines Highway, 800 feet, south of Palm Desert, April. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-5 PARASITISM IN PLANTS: Pholisma plants, parasitic on Cheesebush, Colorado Desert, Southern California; May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-6 SAPROPHYTISM IN PLANTS: Clump 4 Snowplants, fallen Poderosa Cone, needles, mt. Baldy, 6500 feet, June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-7 SAPROPHYTISM IN PLANTS: Altho Wintergreen, left, has green leaves, others don't, resembling pinedrops, right, obtaining food from soil decay fungi as does Snowplant. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-8 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: Mountain Heather, center; White Heather, rt., nourish Symbiotic Fungi in cortex of their roots, aid in uptake of minerals; Alpine Primrose, left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-9 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: Orchuds need symbiotic root fungi for proper seedling development; stream, Rein, Woodland Orchids, Coral-Root Pods, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-10 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: Several Lichen species, mtn. rocks Lichens 1/2 Alga, which makes food, 1/2 Fungus, supplies shelter, water, minerals, both in one body. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-11 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: White Alder Roots, lft., torn in flood, 1" diameter, coral-like root growths, formed with symbiotic root fungi above water table; Underwater willow Roots, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-12 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: Symbiotic Roots Fungi under Canyon Live Oak can include Russula mushroom, shown rising thro leaf mold; Mt. Baldy, October, 4000'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-13 SYMBIOSIS IN PLANTS: Nitrogen Bacteria Nodules in Clover Root (white bumps, center, left center). Pea Family plants (Legumes), increase nitrogen in soil. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-14 SYMBIOSIS IN ANIMALS: Termites, right, feed on wood, fungi decayed by bacteria, protozoans in termite intestinal tract. Carpenter Bee, left, bores in wood. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-15 SYMBIOSIS IN ANIMALS: Skippers, top, Satyr, bottom. Larvae eat Grass, probably have cellulose stomach fauna like termites. Meadow Butterfly at right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-16 SYMBIOSIS IN INSECTS: Ants tend Aphids, left; tend scale insects, April, grow to 3/16" by July, right. Ants obtain nectar from both, return protection. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-17 COMMENSALISM IN ANIMALS: Giant Chiton on Kepp, left, underside with commensal Scale Worm, right, living in gill cavity, eats food there. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-18 PLANT-ANIMAL SYMBIOSIS IN WHIPPLE'S YUCCA: Full-bloom specimen, 15 feet high, Mt. Baldy, 6300 feet, Southern California: 6/15/61. 1961 June 15

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-19 PLANT-ANIMAL SYMBIOSIS IN WHIPPLE'S YUCCA: Yucca Moth in Blossom, left, pollen in mouth, abdomen in position for laying eggs in pistil base; sliced green pods, bottom, right; larva holes, dry pod, top. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:15

D-20 PLANT-ANIMAL SYMBIOSIS IN WHIPPLE'S YUCCA: Yucca Moth adults dead by late August when off-season Yucca bloomed, left, blossoms all dropping. One man-pollinated flower set fruit, right; 9/15/63, Mt. Baldy, 3000'. 1963 September 15

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.15 Indian Plants: Indian Uses of Native California Plants 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:16

E-1 HOUSING, HUNTING PLANTS: Doug Fir; planks for houses, roots for baskets, branches for salmon-harpoon shaft, salmon dip-net pole; needles fir medicinal tea for lung troubles; Muir Woods, Marin County. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-2 N-CALIF. HUNTING PLANTS: Hazel: Stems straightened for arrow shafts (top with pollen flowers), nuts eaten. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-3 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA FIBER, BASKET PLANTS: Rope made from Iris leaves, baskets from Poison Oak stems. Took 6 weeks to make 12 feet of Iris rope. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-4 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA BASKET PLANTS: Beargrass or Squawgrass, blooms best after fires; Northwestern California. Used w/ 5 finger for black-white pattern. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-5 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA BASKET PLANTS: Five Finger Fern- Black strands used Bear Grass for black and white basket patterns. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-6 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA BASKET PLANTS: Vanilla Grass; fibrous leaves, sturdy stems used in basket making; Russian Gulch, Mendocino County. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-7 MID-SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BASKET PLANTS: Deer Grass, left, bound in sheafs by Squwbush or Poison Oak branchlets, coiled into basket. Rice Grass, center and Stipa, right, occur near but not used. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-8 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIBER PLANTS: Nolina (yucca relative) leaves used for fiber by Palm Springs area Indians. Mojave Yucca, rt., fibers on edge, w/ cucumber. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-9 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DRINK, COOK PLANTS: Barrel Cactus: topped, hollowed makes cooking pot, juice used, awls made from spines. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-10 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIBER, FOOD PLANTS: Mojave Yucca, main fiber source (E-8) for southwest Indians, also eaten (seeds removed). Climbing Cucumber, left huge roots eaten, righht, after many washings. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-11 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA FIBER, FOOD PLANTS: Mescal (Agave) young flower heads cooking in earth oven like giant asparagus. Seeds, leaves eaten. Leaf, stalk-fibers. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-12 FOOTHILL FOOD PLANTS: Soap plant: bulbs washing chores, fiber cover for bushes, bulbs roasted, eaten; crushed, stupefly fish in damned steams. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-13 WATERSIDE FOOD PLANTS: Tule potato (Arrowhead): tuberous roots roasted in earth oven. Untypical Monocot leaf, Soap plant bulb at right, has fibers also. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-14 HILL, DESERT FOOD PLANTS: Chia (an annual Sage): seeds harvested Central and Southern California, used for concentrated food source; flowers, left; seeds, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-15 COAST, FOOTHILL BERRY PLANTS: Common Elderberry, Monarch Butterfly, left, common, red Huckleberries, center, right, used mainly in Northwest California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-16 FOREST BERRY PLANTS: Normal Gooseberry, left; spineless Gooseberry of high mountains center, typical Currants, leaf, right; October. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-17 CHAPARRAL AND LIVEOAK FOREST FRUITS: Calif. Laurel fruits, left; seeds roasted, leached; Chaparral Cherries eaten; Sugarbush, right, used in drink. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-18 CALIFORNIA EDIBLE NUTS: Goatnut, lower right, very nutritious, desert shurb; Native Walnut, left; Hazelnut, top center; Screwbean Mesquite, top right; Buckeye seeds, bottom. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-19 MEDICINAL PLANTS: Coffee Berry, top, bark-laxative. Turkey Mullein leaves med. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:16

E-20 MEDICINAL PLANTS: Flannel Bush (fremontodendron) sore throat remedy; flower left, has stamens in column, Young Horned Owl in shrub, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.16 Climate and Life: Weather amnd Climate 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:17

F-1 CALIFORNIA CLIMATE: Physiography is key to rainfall, humidity, temperature variation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-2 WINTER TULE FOG: advances west from Great Valley, over Mt. Tamalpais towards Pacific. 12/22/62 looking north toward Tomales Bay, Marin County. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-3 SPRING COASTAL WINDS: Lodgepole Pines, Mt. Spring, 8000', branches bent away. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-4 SPRING DESERT WINDS: April-May Santa Ana Winds kill branch buds in Big Cone Doug Fir, left, resembles Oak; Santa Ana Mts. Right: tree is 54 years old. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-5 SPRING, SUMMER DROUGHT: Driest year of century, So. Calif. '60-'61; shown in needle, shoot length Doug Fir seedling; '62 grth, rt., '61, left of center; '59, '60 left. 1962 May

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-6 SPRING, SUMMER DROUGHT: Driest year in century, So. Calif., '60-'61; 70 days of 60MPH Santa Ana Winds, and only 7 inches rain, mainly in November, kill 6 inch high, wind and soil dwarfed chamise, 3 miles south F-4. 1962 January

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-7 SPRING, SUMMER DROUGHT: Driest year of Century, So. Calif. '60-'61; 70 days of 60 MPH Santa Ana Winds; kill most White Firs below 5500', San Bernardino Mts. 1962 June

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-8 SPRING, SUMMER DROUGHT: Driest year of Century, So. Calif., '60-'61; Coulter Pines dead, 3/61, left; All dead, right, 6 months later; Beetles secondary cause. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-9 SUMMER THUNDERSTORM, HAIL DAMAGE: Calif. Fuchsia blossoms fallen from storm, 8/11/65, flash flood passed by 10' deep, 100' away; Mt. Baldy, 7500'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-10 FALL, WINTER NORTH WINDS: Warm, dry Santa Ana Winds blow into LA Basin from Mojave Desert, seen from air over Mira Loma sand dunes n. Santa Ana Mts. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-11 WINTER ICE, LAKES; PONDS: Geese, top, melt hole for night protection; Coots, bot. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-12 WINTER SNOW, RED FIR FOREST: Boreal Ridge, nr. VIII-10 picture, Donner Summit, 7400', north Sierra, Feb. 1962. Note drifts, wind effects, upper left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-13 WINTER ICESTORM: Upper Yellow Pine Forest, Jeffrey Pine, White Fir, 7500' on Mt. Baldy in March; Fir is 40 feet high. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-14 WINTER SNOW AVALANCHE: Late spring remnant of March avalanche, torn foliage, lower left. Mt. Baldy, 7000' elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-15 WINTER SNOW AVALANCHE: Avalanche-broken White Firs, left; White Alders, right. Fir damage from F-14 Avalanche, 3/67; NW face Mt. Baldy 7300 feet; Alders, April 1965 on east ridge at 6800 feet elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-16 SNOW-LESS WINTER FROST: 3' high Lodgepole seedlings, mid-foreground, frozen in winter '62-'63; first snow 3/63: parent tress frost hardy, snow keeps seedlings warm if present; Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-17 SPRING TIME STORM: Frost damage late 5/62, freezing fog, 7000-8000' So. Calif. Mts. Yucca stalk flower, left, killed; Jeffrey Pine needles, rt. showed brown tips, July. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-18 WINTER CHILLING REQUIREMENTS: Deciduous plants: Redbud needs winter cold to bloom, Buckeye needs winter cold to leaf out. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-19 WINTER CHILLING REQUIREMENTS: Deciduous plants: Same picture as F-18, June, Buckeye in bloom, Vaca Mountains. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:17

F-20 FOUR-SEASONS MAPLE, AUTUMN: Big-leaf Maple, Whipple's Yucca, Mid-November. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.17 Animal Signs and Architecture 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:18

G-1 ANIMAL TRACKS IN SNOW under FOUR-SEASONS MAPLE: (F-21) Coyote, Gray Squirrel, both coming towards us. (note heel notches on coyote track). March. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-2 ANIMAL TRACKS, DRIED MUD: Raccoon, Small Deer, Small Cat; Nov., Pt. Lobos. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-3 ANIMAL TRACKS, DUNE SAND: Sidewinder, left, Hind-leg-running Lizard, tail down, lame Beetle, (one foot missing). Left 2 moving up photos. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-4 CRATERS, BURROWS IN SAND: Ant Lion Larva, left, lives 1" in ant-trap crater; crater entrance to desert ant burrow, center; Sagebrush belt and burrow, right, cut Pinyon Needles, probably Harvester Ants. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-5 UNDERGROUNF TUNNELS in GRASSLAND SOIL: Pocket Gopher excavation mounds indicate course of subway system, Dec. Mt. Tamalpais, 2000', Mt. Diablo in distance. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-6 SEASHORE BURROW HOUSES: Portable burrow, left made of old turban snail shell by Hermit Crab, other crab shell in claw. Burrowing clams, rt., grind in rock. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-7 FOOD STORAGE BURROWS: Acorn Woodpecker, lft., storing acorns, sharp end first, in pecked trunk; old holes, Doug Fir Bark, rt. Acorn insects then eaten. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-8 KELLOGG OAK NEST HOLE, used for WINTER FOOD STORAGE: Calif. Acorn Woodpecker male flies down, left, dips in, cent, joined by second male, right. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-9 JOSHUA TREE OWL BURROW: in old trunk, rt., another Joshua trunk, left, rubbed, scraped, by Desert Nig Horn Ram, Joshua Tree National Monument. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-10 PACK RAT CACTUS BURROWS: Engelmann Cholla, left, eaten out from inside by Neotoma, right. Colorado Desert, southeastern California. (Pack Rats). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-11 TERMITE CACTUS HOUSES: Mud-coated at night, Needle Cactus Stems then eaten from within; December. Rat nests often lined with these cactus spines. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-12 OAK GALL WASP HOUSE: Scrub Oak apple, left, on twigs; pollen flowers, May, right. Tiny wasp stings stem to form house, lays eggs to hatch inside, eat as house grows. Different wasp species produce different house with their sting. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-13 OAK GALL WASP HOUSE: Canyon Live Oak twig gall, top, broken open, right, to show central larval compartment, connecting strands to papery covering. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-14 HUMMINGBIRD HOUSES: Costa females at nests, setting, pollen on throat; feeding 2, bottom, showing camouflaged nest, dead Desert Lavender shrub. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-15 FLOATING NEST HOUSES: Eared Grebe nest, covered while mother away, left, uncovered when photographer surprised her. Gray Lodge Waterfowl Refuge. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-16 ANCIENT RAT NEST HOUSE: Desert Pack Rat house perhaps 10,000 yrs. old by carbon dating. Plant remains in droppings indicate wetter climate then, 4000', Joshua Tree National Monument. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-17 YUCCA WOOD-RAT HOUSE: in basal water, old stalk, left, cut chaparral plants by entry: Redberry, twigs, leaves, man-root shoots, Mt. Baldy 4200 feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-18 CATTAIL MUSKRAT HOUSE: Muskrat, left, often builds large houses in Great Valley water courses. Not mative west of Sierra, introduced by man. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-19 SPITTLEBUG BUBBLE HOUSE: Homoptera: not true bug, Aphid relative hides in bubblebath of its own making, sucks plant juices, bubbles blown away, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:18

G-20 MOTH LARVA TENT HOUSE: Calif. Tent Caterpillars on Coast Live Oak, convex shiny leaf, left. Caterpillars have irritating hairs, disappear into web. Mt. Diablo. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.18 Form and Function 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:19

H-1 BARK-BEETLE TRAILS, PREDATORS: left in Doug Fir limb among bark-beetle larva casts. Trails at right under Incense Cedar Bark; both Mt. Baldy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-2 PERCHING-BIRD FOOT TYPE: 3 toes forward, one toe back; Chickadee nest in bark-less trunk, parent feeding fledging, nest in dead conifer wood. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-3 WOODPECKER FOOT TYPE: Twos toes forward, two back. Red-breasted Sapsucker. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-4 BIRD OF PREY FOOT TYPE: Grasping talons, thickened toes. White-tailed Kite at nest in Riparian Tree, Sacramento River Delta, May 1962. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-4.5 SWIMMING BIRDS, WEDDBED FOOT TYPES: Cormorant, Gull, Duck, Western Grebe. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-5 WADING BIRD LEGS, BEAK: Black-necked Stilt, Honey Lake Refuge, NE Calif. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-6 FLY-CATCHING BEAK, USELESSLY CROSSED: left, center. Ash-throated Fly-catcher survives anyway, wading in beaver pond to suck in trapped insects on water surface; August, 6000 feet. (Same food niche as Water Strider, II-17, 18). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-7 FRONT LIMBS OD BIRD: Young White-Throated Swift, left, can't quite fly. Cliff Swallows, right, come back annually to San Juan Capistrano Mission. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-8 FRONT LIMBS OF BAT: showing 5th, 4th, 3rd, 2nd fingers, thumb, at 12 o'clock, 2, 3, 3; 15, 5:30 respectively around palm, right center. Note elbow below Douglas Fir needle. See S-1 for thumb, ears, etc. (Bats-Chiroptera-hand-wing). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-9 FRONT LIMBS OF MOLE: Compare with Bat, H-8, and seal, H-10. Leverage for rowing through soil similar to short arm of seal for sculling water. Moles are entirely carnivorous, eat earth-worms, soil insects, die quickly with no food. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-10 FRONT LIMBS OF SEAL: Compare with Mole, H-9. relatively short arms gives good leverage in skulling type of use in water. Harbor seal killed by fisherman. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-11 RODENT FRONT, HIND LIMBS: Hand-like front feet, top; jumping hind feet, Kangaroo Rat. (Compare with H-12, 13). Many rodents have only four toes on front feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-12 LIZARD FRONT, HIND LIMBS: Hand-like front feet, jumping hind feet, Collared Lizard, Arizona. Most Calif. forms browner, but some Low Desert ones blueish. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-13 FROG FRONT, HIND LIMBS: Compare center Tree Frogs limbs with Collared Lizard, H-12. Jumping hind legs are more of body weight, her. Note suction cups, right, 3 color phases. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-14 PART, ALL-ABORTED LIMBS: Alligator Lizard, right, more snake-like than most. Defends self by biting own tail, cannot then be swallowed; or bites snake, left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-15 DISPENSABLE LIMBS: Monarch Butterfly Life Cycle: Egg. left, larva hanging up for Chrysalis formation, center, right, 1/2 finished, 16 legs about to vanish. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-16 DISPENSABLE LIMBS: Monarch Butterfly Life Cycle: 16 larval eggs gone, Chrysalis instead. Note how larval skin shrinks up leaving green chrysalis underwear. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-17 DISPENSABLE LIMBS: Monarch Butterfly, Chrysalis turns clear before emergence. Has 4 legs now. (two are aborted in Brush-footed Butterfly Family). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-18 DISPENSABLE LIMBS: Saturnid Moth, 6 legs. Cocoon is overcoat, Chrysalis under wear. (h-16). Most adult insects have 6 functional legs. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-19 DISPENSABLE SPINES: Polyphemus Moth, relative of H-18 Moth, perches on young Canyon Live Oak spiny leaves. Most mature leaves above deer-browse level are smooth (V-13). Mt. Baldy, 4000'. turned upside down, moth looks like owl. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:19

H-20 BARBERRY LEAF-SPINES: Despite discomfort, deer browse spiny leaves, though prefer spineless, if available. Mating Crane-flies, feed on fungi. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.19 Form-Names, Folk-Names of Plants 1968-1969

Physical Description: 19 slides
Box 1:20

i-1 BEAVERTAIL, PRICKLY-PEAR: type Cacti, Beavertail flower, left, mainly spineless stem-pads; Prickly-pear type, right, edible fruits, spiny stem-pads. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-2 FISHHOOK CACTUS, CATCLAW: Mammillaria, left, with fishhook spines. Desert Catclaw, Acacia Greggii, right, catches clothes, called 'Wait-A-Minute-Bush.' 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-3 PRICKLY POPPY, THISTLE SAGE: Desert plants choose spiny defenses, have spineless coastal cousins. (poppy, N-1; sage, N-16). Antelopes once grazed here. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-4 SMOKETREE, SPINY SEEDLING: Pea Family Desert Wash Plant, year old seedling right, defensive spines, compound juvenile leaves, root perhaps 6-10 feet down. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-5 OCATILLO, SPINE FORMATION: Fresh growing stem, mid, upper rt., primary leaves about to drop, petioles forming spines, bot., rt. Secondary leaves at spine bases, take over photosynthesis chores (Buckthorn spines similar, M-14). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-6 FAN PALM THORNS, FIBERS: Leaf0base thorns, left; fan leaves, straight veins, leaf-fiber oriole nest, center; leaf-tip fibers, right; Southeastern California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-7 CHINQUAPIN, TANBARK OAK, Castanopsis spiny acorns, top, probably evolved for protection. Tan Oak, bottom; 7,000 feet, Northern California. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-8 OLD MAN'S BEARD LICHEN, top, Prickly Pear pad-skeleton on ground, bottom, reticulare patterns, from very different sources (lichen, K-14, cactus, i-1). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-9 DESERT CANDLE: 4 petal Mustard Family desert plant, inflated stem-dispersal. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-10 DESERT TRUMPET: inflated Buckwheat, ste swollen below branch nodes, often with insects living inside. Inflations may aid dispersal (See IX-17). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-11 ICE PLANT: Many petalled flowers, left; close-up ant, center; extreme close-up right, of water-sensitive fruit pods, crystal-coating giving name. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-12 WOODLAND STAR, WALLFLOWER: growing under Canyon Live Oak, May-June, Mt. Baldy, 4000', Wallflower pods below flowers, long. 4 petals fall off at base pod. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-13 DUTCHMAN'S PIPE: Flower, right, is partial insect trap (note shadow of Mosquito), smells like carrion, used flies, etc. for pollination. Leaves, Pipe-Vine Swallowtail Chrysalis, left photo. (Swallowtail restricted to this food-plant). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-14 TIGER LILY, POLLINATION BY TIGER SWALLOWTAIL: Carrying pollen on hind wings (Note brown pollen streak). Hummingbirds less frequent visitors; Mt. Baldy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-15 HENS AND CHICKENS: Family: relatives of this Catalina I. Stonecrop (Dudleya Hessii) with similar leaf-clumps, multiply new plants around parent. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-16 COYOTE MELON, CALABAZILLA: Flower, young fruit of this desert gourd, left; ripening melon, right; fruit, root, leaves used for soap, medicine by Indians. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-17 DESERT BIRD CAGE PLANT: recurved fruiting stalks, center, of white, dune Evening Primrose, left, flowers designed for long-tongues Sphinx Moth. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-18 MONKEY FLOWERS: 1000, 4000, 8000'; desert, chaparral, alpine meadows. All Mimulus have movable stigmas (pistil tops) to receive incoming pollen. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:20

i-19 CHINESE HOUSES, OWL CLOVER, ELEPHANT SNOUTS: right, all members Snapdragon Family. Woodland, Grassland, Mountain meadow habitats, respectively 2000, 1000, 10000, feet elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.20 The History of Life 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:21

J-1 PINE POLLEN ON GLACIER: Mt. Lyell, 13,000'. A sign of recent earth-life, this pollen is part of an immense journey as old as galaxies and gas clouds it resembles. Heavy elements on earth probably made in much older star than sun, 10 Bil. B.C. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-2 WORLD'S BEST TIME MUSEUM: Grand Canyon of Colorado, Arizona goes from 2 billion B.C. at bottom here, to 200 million B.C. at top (J-11). Permian deposits. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-3 TWO INTERTIDAL ALGAE: Feather Boa Kelp, Sea Lettuce, symbolize invention of photosynthesis, 2-3 billion B.C. Atmosphere poisonous until plants supply O2. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-4 TWO JELLYFISH SPECIES: No. Cal., So. Cal.; fossil forms claimed near bottom of Grand Canyon, 1.5 billion years. Rock-forming algae like J-5, also 1.5 Bil. age. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-5 ARMORED MOLLUSCSS, ALGAE: symbolize calcareous hard parts like to be preserved in first main fossil assemblages, Cambrian Deposits near bottom of Grand Canyon, 500 million B.C. (See J-6). No large fossil deposits before Cambrian. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-5.5 MAIN BEGINNING FOSSIL RECORD: rim of inner gorge of Grand Canyon, Cambrian Tapeats Formation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-6 EARLY FOSSIL TYPES: living Brachiopod Lingula, left, solitary corals, right; descended from forms in Cambrian, Ordovician strata near bottom Grand Canyon 400-500 million B.C. (Brachiopods were very common in Paleozoic, but most died out). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-7 ORIGIN OF ECHINODERMS: This seems to have taken place during Cambrian, including such present day diversity as sea cucumbers, left, urchins, bottom, starfish, and sand dollars (I-22), parts often in 5's. (many fossil forms died out). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-8 ORIGIN OF CHORDATES: may have been in Cambrian, oldest fish were Ordivician 400 million B.C. Many animal Tunicate Colony, cent, made by free-swimming nerve-chord larvae, descended from pre-fish ancestry, remains much more primitive. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-9 EARLY FISH TYPES: sharks, bottom, salmon, upper right; pectoral, ventral fins same anatomical position as amphibian limbs. Striped Bass, upper left, has ventral fins under chest, typical of modern bony fish (fins evolved forward). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-10 ROUGH-SKINNED NEWT: Untypical of first amphibians in skin, terrestrial habits, but still illustrates transitional form between fish, reptiles. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-11 NEARING GRAND CANYON RIM: Carboniferous, foreground, Perimianm white beds on top across way, 200 million B.C., beginning of age of dinosaurs, seed plants. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-12 AGE OF DINOSAURS: Plesiosaurs like this specimen at L.A. Co. Museum illustrate potential dinosaur size as well as re-adaptation to full aquatic life. Compare seal front limb (H-10). CAught fish in fresh water and open ocean. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-13 FOSSIL REDWOODS: Petrified Forest, Calistoga. Smaller seed plants preceded Conifers, but more drought-resistant forms colonized uplands 180 million, B.C. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-14 CONIFER WIND POLLINATION: Bishop Pine, pollen cones: way in which conifers colonized dry places. Wet-land spore plants need water for swimming sperms, but pollen has self-enclosed swim-tube that grows into seed, need no water at pollination time. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-15 FLOWERS: EDIBLE POLLEN: Increased genetic communication over J-14 by insect me messenger service. California Bay, primitive Dicot Flowering treeflowers in shade.

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-16 FLOWERING PLANTS: by edible fruits, seeds, leaves, expanded development of Birds, Mammals, Social Insects, 80 million B.C., 2 groups: Monocots (Iris, left) 1 seed leaf, one-way veins; dicots (Alder, right) 2 seedling leaves, Net Veins (J-15). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-17 FALL COLORS, WILD GRAPE: Frost susceptible. Broadleaf Flowering Dicots colonize cold climates, losing leavesin winter; chlorophyll disappears, shows background leaf pigment (5-6 conifer speices are deciduous also, like Dawn Redwood). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-18 REVERSION TO WILD POLLEN: Deciduous flowering (Big-Leaf) Maple retains insect pollination, Northern Pacific cool Rainforest Belt (Bumblebee on flowers, right). But most maples petal-less, use wind pollen (J-19), as Ca. Box Elder; Sugar Maple. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-19 NON FLOWERING MAPLE: California Box Elder illustrates how separate male and female flower head for wind-pollination evolve from complete petal-flowers. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:21

J-20 REVERSION TO WIND POLLEN: White Alder, male wind flowers, left; female cone fruits, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.21 Spore Plants: Plants Without Seeds 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:22

K-0 BROWN ALGAE, KELPS: Bull Kelp, other algae on holdfast; Feather Boa, low left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-1/2 BROWN ALGAE, ROCKWEEDS: Centerwith baby Bull kelp; Surfgrass, Feather Boa, bottom. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-1 BROWN ALGAE (KELPS): Searsucker, left; unidentified Kelp, left center, attached by holdfast to tiny oyster (algae have no roots); water worn Bishop Pine Cone, giant Kelp float; giant Kelp in water, right. (S-21 also). Bull Kelp, Sea Palm (I-4). Sea Quill, far left (Alaria). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-2 RED BROWN ALGAE (6 spp.): Laminaria, red sheet, top; Desmarestis, Iridaea, Corallina, center; Sea Fan, bottom. (Desm. yellowish, eats self up with own acid). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-3 GREEN ALGAE, LICHENS: internally identified as a Green Alga, this red plant occurs on coastal bluffs, shaded rocks, branches, on Beach Pine; Mendocino. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-5 JELLY FUNGUS, MUSHROOMS: Tremella mesenterica, marasmius sp. on dead trunk, Northern California; April NE of Vallejo. Both are decaying wood fungi. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-6 PORE FUNGI (POLYPORALES): Boletus chrysenteron? So. Calif.; April, 2500 feet. Some pore pungi resemble ordinary gill mushrooms (K-9), with stem (stipe) and top (pileus), but spore tubes underneath, left, show it to be a Polypore. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-7 PORE FUNGI (POLYRALES): Chicken Mushroom (Polyporus sulphureus), soft edges edible; on decaying Big Cone Doug Fir log, Mt. Baldy, 4000', So. Calif. 10/63. Many pore fungi are shelves, very important in the decay cycle of wood (IV-15). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-8 GILL FUNGI (AGARICALES): Milk Cap (lactarius scrobiculatus), left, typical gill mushroom cap, stem; Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sapidus), right, less frequent shelf-type Aspen trunk. Relatively few Gill Fungi form shelves. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-9 GILL FUNGI (AGARICALES): Unidentified Mushroom, top; Agaricus, lower left, note ring: Russula, right. Gills bear spores, make beautiful prints on paper. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-10 MUSHROOMS. AUTUMN LEAVES: Psathyrella sp., Big Leaf Maple, White Alder leaves, near F-20, 10/63, Mt. Baldy, Southern California; 4000' elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-11 LEAF-MOLD MUSHROOMS, right: (Xeromphalina campanella). Stages in decay of bay leaf: leaf-miner insect tracks, left; several month dead bay leaf, right. (See J-15, II-18) Other leaf-mold mushrooms, some symbiotic: K-10, 13; D-12. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-12 INKY CAP MUSHROOMS: Ceprinus spp. disperse spores by entire cap liquifying self intoinky mass. Shaggy manes, several other inky caps edible. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-13 MUSHROOMS: Tooth fungus, left (Hydnum) over Red Russula cap (many Russula spp. mycorrhizal, see D-12). Lactarius deliciosus center; Panther fungus, rt., poisonous. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-14 LICHENS, CLUB MOSS, right: Old Man's Beard Lichen (Ramelida reticulata), Cladonia sp. top center; Caloplaca elegans, orange; Selaginella, sp. right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-15 FERN LIFE CYCLE: Young Calif. Polypody growing out of liverwort-like marriage plant (hidden in moss, see IV-14, K-20, left); Russian Gulch State Park. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-16 FERN LIFE CYCLE: Developing California Polypody fronds, Red Alder trunk. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-17 FERN LIFE CYCLE: Mature Calif. Polypody fronds, topside, rt; underside, left, showing spore-spot (sori, spore-stalk clusters, 64 spores per stalk, thousands of sorus, millions per fern). Spores differ from seeds by carrying no stored food. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-18 FERN LIFE CYCLE: Most Calif. ferns deciduous. Calif. Polypody often with spores shed, fronds dead, by May, as these growing on Red Alder trunk, Russian Gulch. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-19 BRACKEN: Unfurling frond, rightm grows 2-5 feet high by August, forms spore spots in continuous rows around outside of upper frond margins, Northern California Coast. Bracken probably most widely distributed fern in world. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:22

K-20 GOLD-BACK FERN, MOSSES: Spore stalks, golden spores, cover back of fern when ripe, making beautiful spore print on black paper. Liverworts, fern marriage plants, left (Fern marriage plants resemble Liverwort leaves, IV-14). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.22 Conifers and Allies 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:23

L-0 YELLOW PINE REPRODUCTIONl Ponderosa pollen cones, young and adult seed cones, Jeffrey larger. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-1 COAST REDWOOD FOLIAGE: Seed Cone, left, 3/4' cone, needle-like leaves; GIANT SEQUOIA, right 2 1/2" cone, scale-like foliage (derivable from first type of leaf reduction). Cst. Redwood cone matures in 1 year, Giant Sequoia cone in 2 years. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-2 GIANT SEQUOIA GENERAL GRANT TREE: One of the largest trees in the world; Sequoia National Park, Central Ca., 6000' elev., (largest is Gen. Sherman, 34' diameter). 1968 November

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-3 GIANT SEQUOIA (REDWOOD FAMILY): young tree, old trunks; Sequoia Nat'l Park. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-4 LAWSON CYPRESS, FOLIAGE: cones, left, compared with those of Giant Cedar, right, both N. Coast Conifers. Lawson: x-marks under leaves; Cedar has marks, rt. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-5 CYPRESSES. CYPRESS FAMILY: Pygmy Cypress, branches, cones, Pygmy Forest; Sargent Cypress NW Calif., close-up 1" female cones, next years pollen cones. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-6 SITKA SPRUCE, PINE FAMILY: 3 types of branch shoots: pollen cone, lower right, seed cones, upper left; new leaves, upper right; Northern Coast, 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-7 MT. HEMLOCK PINE FAMILY: Foliage, cones, L-16. Young trees to 40' high, bend beneath snow every winter, emerge in June. Late June '63,900', Mammoth Mtn. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-8 RED, WHITE FIRS, PINE FAMILY: True firs have upright seed cones, other Calif. Pine family tress have pendant cones; Sierra, 8000', 6000' elev. respectively. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-9 RED, GRAND FIRS, PINE FAMILY: True firs seed cones shatter on tree, cone spindle remains; High Sierra, top (Red Fir); Mendocino Coast, bottom-Grand Fir. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-10 WHITE FIRS PINE FAMILY: Brand new seedlings 8 weeks old, left; 6 year old young white firs, right, dry eastern side Mt. San Jacinto, So. California, 8000' elevation, March. Seedlings with 6-8 cotyledons: June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-11 PINE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: Big Cone Douglas fir: small red-brown pollen cones, larger young female cones (yellowish), left, before freezing; right, after freezing: 3/67 Mt. Baldy 5000 feet, Southern California. 1967 March

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-12 PINE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: Big Cone Doug Fir: pollen-cones, pollen on snow, left, March; last year's fallen female cone, shut by moisture, winged-seeds, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-13 PINE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: Big Cone Doug Fir: Unopened Cone, 2 frozen sisters, left, August; Seedlings, older with 6" root, late April. Younger w/ seed cover, top. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-14 PINE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: Big Cone Doug Fir: seed cone, upper left: pollen cone, lower left; seedlings, with seed, broken-wing, center; insect eaten seed, compete with, right; April, Mt. Baldy, 4000' elevation. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-15 WHITE PINES: SUGAR PINE: 1 year female cones, left, March; 3" long; 17 month female cones, rt, 12-15' long (L-16, A-12). Pines, G. Sequoia take 2 yrs. mature seeds. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-16 SUBALPINE PINES, HEMLOCK: compared to Sugar Pine cones, 12" left: Mt. Pine, 6" cone, 5 needle; Whitebark Pine 3" cones, 5 needle; Lodgepole Pine, 2-3" cones, 2 needle; Mt. Hemlock, 1" needle, right; 5 needles are White Pines. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-17 YELLOW PINES: JEFFREY PINE: Famous Sentinel Dome tree, Yosemite, October, 800'; 3 needle per bundle, 5-6" cone (D-7 lower right). Close relative Ponderosa Pine, 3-4" cone (D-6), needs 50% more rainfall, grows in floor of valley, (VIII-1-6). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-18 YELLOW PINES: DIGGER PINE: pollen cones, young needles (not split in 3 yet) left; 2 yr. old seed cones, 5x7" right yellow clumps of dwarf mistletoe. One of most heat resistant pines in world, 1000' elev., temperatures may reach 120 degrees. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:23

L-19 CLOSED-CONE PINESS: (Yellow pines w/ cones remain shut after seeds mature): Monterey Pine, Guadalupe Isl., Mexico, 250 mi. so. San Diego, 2 needle form, not 3. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.23 Flowering Plant Families 1968

Physical Description: 19 slides
Box 1:24

M-1 LILY FAMILY: 3, 6 petals: Mariposa Lilies left hairy petals, Sierra Foothills; C. Venustus, right, foot hills to 4500'. Note dark petalglands behind stamens. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-2 AMARYLLIS FAMILY: UMBEL type flower heads, Brodiaea spp. B. IdaMaia (hummingbird flowers), left; B. laxa (Ithuriel's Spear, Pipe vine Swallowtail pollinated, rt. Edge of Great Valley. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-3 AGAVE FAMILY- Desert Agave (Century Plant) blooms but once, left; dies except seeds and root (root, however, makes new plants at side giving colony effect). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-4 ARUM LILY FAM: SKUNK CABBAGE (Calla Lily-type flower heads, leaf, spathes) Skunk Cabbage grows in North Coast Forest swamps, springs; April. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-5 GRASS FAMILY: (stems with joints): Elymus? left; Agrostis? Phalaris? left center; Rattlesnake Grass (Briza maxima), detachable wind-boats right; Mendocino. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-6 BUTTERCUP FAMILY: Mt. Buttercup, left, blooms under melting snow, Mt. San Gorgonia, 9000"; July. Clematis, right: sepals serve as petals. Evolutionary series from petal-flowers to non-petal wind flowers in this family resulted in Rue. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-7 MUSTARD FAMILY: 4 petals (0-2), pods with dividing membrane: Wallflower, left; Spectacle Pod; Pepper Grass, right, center; Fringe Pod, right. Petals fall from pod base (see M-16). Six stamens, two shorter, making cross-shape (0-2). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-8 CAPER FAMILY: 4 petals, 6 -many equal stamens (Mustard's 6 stamens, 2 shorter than others); Bladderpod (Desert shrub) flowers, left; inflated pods, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-9 FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY: Sand Verbena. Like Clematis, sepals serve as petals, but here also make nectar tubes, left. Flowers in heads with involucral bracts. Sphinx larva, right; Desert. Adult moth pollinates flowers, as do daytime insects. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-11 MALLOW FAMILY: 5 petals, stamens in column around pistils; Lavatera, left, Channel Is.; Rose Mallow, center, meadows; Apricot Mallow, right, deserts. borders. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-12 GERANIUM FAMILY: Filaree flowers, low. left; fruits, upper left, 5 pistil tops joined about central stalk, curl, drill in soil by water changes. Mountain Geranium, right; High Sierra, 8000 ft. Stamens mostly 5. Compare with Mallow Family. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-13 CALTROPS FAMILY: 5 petals, 10 stamens; Creosote Bush, fuzzy fruits, left; gall midge house, right, next to inch-worm. Roots irritate skin, leaves are medicinal. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-14 BUCKTHORN FAMILY: Blue-flowered Ceanothus spp.; tiny flowers, petals, stamens in dense head. pollinated by Bumblebees, smaller insects. Thorns, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-15 TRUE PRIMROSE FAMILY: Flowers in umbels; Shooting Star, 3-10 flowers per head; Wallflowers, Buttercups. (Mt. Primrose, D-8, Umbel Families: M-2, 21, 22; N-18). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-16 EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY: Summer's Darling, left (Clarkia amoena), fruit pods below flower; Willow Herb, center fruit pod-flower stem; Firewood, rt. Also i-21, N-10. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-17 GILIA FAMILY: 5 petals, 5 stamens, symmetrical tube flowers; Scarlet Gilia, left; Mojave Bush Gilia, center; Woodland Gilia right, long tongue Bee-flies. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-18 PHACELIA FAMILY: 2 sp: P. Campanularia (Calif. Bluebell) left, right; P. cicutaria hispida, center. (Hairy Phacelia): Note one-sided fiddle-neck flower stems, 2 split pistil tops; So. California. Fruit one, not in 4 nutlets like M-19. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-19 FIDDLENECK FAMILY: As M-18 symmet. tube flowers, 5 petals, 5 stamens, 1 side curled flower stems; But Hound Tongue , Forget-Me-Not, left, cent, inlike Pacelias have 4 nutlets, lack 2 split style. Common Fiddleneck (Amsinckia), right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:24

M-20 BIGNONIA FAMILY: 5 petals, lop-sided tube flowers, pea-like pods: Desert Willow (Chilopsis), flowers, young pods, left; Old pods, right, late summer (seeds O-3), Entire plant and habitat shown in X-15, grasshopper on sand beneath, C-11. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.24 Flower Pollination 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:25

N-1 POLLEN FLOWER, NO NECTAR: Matilija Poppy, top, 6 petals; Calif =. Poppies, bottom: Bumble, Honeybees with pollen on legs, 4 petals. Pollen flowers were first type. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-2 PEA FAMILY: NECTAR, ADDED special flower construction explodes pollen on Bee abdomen when sits down for nectar, left, pollen then scraped onto legs. Pod development, right. Key to flower structure is evolution as insect, bird lunch counters. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-3 PEA FAMILY: RED ADDED, insects see blue, yellow; Development of pure red flowers, Scarlett Locoweed, center, long nectar tubes, usually adaptation for hummingbirds. Locoweed, balloon pods, right. Tube-effect, but petals not fused. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-4 HUMMINGBIRD FLOWERS: Many families: Maritime Lily, Scarlet Fritillary, Campion, Chaparral pink-flowered Currant with Rufous Hummingbird; Galvetia, Catalina Island, right. First 3 achieve nectar tubes without fused petals in last 2. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-5 HUMMINGBIRD GOOSEBERRY: Ribes speciosum, Fuchsia-flowered G.berry, close-up left, showing long stamens which dust hummingbird forehead; same on right, Apr. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-6 SPUR-PETAL NECTAR TUBES: Desert Larkspur, left, wasp-colored green fly pollinator; Scarlet Larkspur, right, Anna's Hummingbird pollinator, longer spur, red, Buttercup Family; May, August. Insects see mainly blue, yellow, not red. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-7 SPUR-PETAL NECTAR TUBES: Larkspur, left, one spur per flower; Columbine, rt., 5 spurs/fower; But each has 5 separate petals; more highly-evolved flowers have fused-petal nectar tubes (N-10-19; M-16,21,23; i-16-19,22,23,5). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-8 SPUR-PETAL NECTAR TUBES COLUMBINE HYBRIDS: High mountain Columbine, center combines reddish spurs of hummingbird species, left, with long spurs of Alpine-Sphinx Moth species, right. Hybrid is much closer to mtn. form. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-9 SPHINZ MOTH FLOWERS: Long stamens Agave, left, color, fragrance=adaptation for Sphinx Moths, also Desert Lily, center, right, opens at night; Hummingbirds occasionally visit it, but purely adapted hummer flowers usually non-fragrant, red. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-10 SPHINZ MOTH FLOWERS: Evening Primrose, fused-nectar tubes 2" below flower, main pollination by night by S. Moths; 2 spp. shown; left injured, dangerously exposed in daytime. Moth tongue goes 1-2" into tube you can't see (i-17, left). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-11 FUSED-PETAL NECTAR TUBES: for small insects, long tongue, in Manzanita; proper pollination by bee-colored Hover-fly, left; non-pollinating robbing by wild bee, holes cut to nectar, right. Main robber is carpenter bee, N-12. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-12 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS, SNAPDRAGON, MINT FAMILIES: Stream Monkey Fl., left, robbed bt Carpenter Bee cutting hold at base; Hedge Nettle, right, Green Lynx Spider earing captured Carpenter Bee. Others in family; N-13-17; i-18, 19; E-21. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-13 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS, SNAPDRAGON FAMILY: Bush Monkey Flowers, movavle pistil top (stigma) open at left; closed upon incoming pollen during bee entry, center: hummer version, rt., stamens out. Pistil reopens in 1/2hr. In all Mimulus. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-14 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS SNAPDRAGON FAMILY: Paintbrush flowers yellow, not red (projecting beak up, left); red colored flower leaves (bracts) give impression of red flowers, attract hummers. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-15 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS, MINT FAMILY: Pollination system illustrated in pitcher Sage Flower, upper right (shadow shows hinged stamens). Bee enters, hits, short lever, pulling stamens, pollen, down on back while getting honey. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-16 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS, MINT FAMILY: Sage hybrid, center, combines flowerhead clusters of Black Sage, left, with larger flowers, longer stamens of White Sage, right, Skipper visitor. Hybrid grows on fire-break, hybrid habitats. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-17 LOP-SIDED TUBE FLOWERS: 3 pollination types in one mint family genus Pennyroyal; Day insect type, Silverspot, left; Night-insect type center; Hummingbird type, right, much longer tube, stamens. (Insects don't see red). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-18 MINI-FLOWERS, LEAF-PETALS: 'Non-flowering' Stream Dogwood left; has larger flowers than 'flowering' form right, whose flowers evolved so small as to need nearby whitened leaves for attraction. In next family, mini-flowers at outer edge of head evolved long petal-flaps, each apparent petal being 1 flower. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-19 CIRCULAR LUNCH COUNTER MINI FLOWER FAMILY: Sunflowers; Thistle tribe. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:25

N-20 WIND-Pollution in Sunflower Family: Desert Cheesebush, left; Burrobush, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.25 Plant Dispersal 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:26

O-1 VOLCANIC SPOREDISPERSAL: Giant Puffball, 8" across, left explodes millions oof air-floating spores when poked, right, disturbed by animals or wind. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-2 SEED DISPERSAL: Water Sea Rocket Pods, right, can float in salt water, land on distant beach. Each compartment has different kind seed, one needs dormancy, other not. Mustard Family, 6 stamens, 4 petals. (Other Mustard Family pods, M-7). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-3 SEED DISPERSAL WIND: Desert Willow Seeds, Double Parachute Wind Wafers, (not true Willow, O-11). See X-15 for habitat, M-20 for snapdragon-like flowers. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-4 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND two stages in development of Milkweed Seeds: unopened pod, M. weed bug, left; partly opened pod, un-fluffed parachutes, right, drying-out process. Flowers, B-15, Milkweed butterfly (Monarch) series, B-15, H-15-17, N-19. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-5 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND final stage, development of Milkweed seeds: pod fully open, parachutes fully expanded, pushing out, expose seeds to wind. Milky Juice, rt. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-6 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND, Wind Flower seeds (Clematis), Feather Parachutes, Butterrcup Family, 1 flower, (M-6). Similar feather parachutes, O-7, fewer per flower. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-7 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND, Feathery Parachutes, Rose Family shrub: Birch-leaf Mt. Mahogany. Autumn, shrub looks silver when sun is behind; Chaparral-belt through much of California. Strong north wind can carry seeds many miles in mountains. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-8 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND Umbrella-like Parachute, Sunflower Family, herb: Mt. Dandelion, July. Seeds, center, fan out from flower head by contraction of hemispherical receptacle. (When seeds still in flower, all point straight up, i-23). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-9 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND Fluffy Parachutes, Mini-seeds, common Cattail; many thousands seeds per head; pollen from thin top. Both pollen, seed fls. very very tiny. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-10 SEED DISPERSAL: WIND Willow Family: Cottonwood fluff-seeds, left; Willow seed flower heads, right. Both have separate pollen flowers, in willow, N-22. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-11 PLANT DISPERSAL: ROOTS Sandbar Willow (Salix melanopsis) underground runners recently exposed, flood, winter '66-'67, American River, south of Auburn. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-12 PLANT DISPERSAL: ROOTS quaking aspen, young-tree understory from colonial root system. Entire groves grow from 1 seed, live tens of thousands of years. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-13 SEED DISPERSAL: CATAPULT Lily Family type, Tiger Lily, ripening pods, right; 6 stacks of black poker chip seeds already shed, left (D-19, i-14), by some push (wind, animals), seeds fly out opposite side. Certain minimum escape velocity. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-14 SEED DISPERSAL: CATAPULT Amaryllis-Lily type, 3 chamber pods in umbel, resilient stalk, Wild Onion; July. See IX-17 for habitat. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-15 SEED DISPERSAL: SLING Pea Family, Lupine Pods, twist open explosively, slinging seeds many feet. Other explosive dispersal includes Redwood Sorrel, IV-18. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-16 SEED DISPERSAL: SLING Pea Family pods: Wild Pea, left, torsion type: Fairy Duster, center, opens straight; Red Bud, right, slight torsion. Note compound, Pea Family-type leaves, left. Same fam. pod can become wind balloon, N-13. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-17 SEED DISPERSAL: BIRDS Madrone Berries, eaten by Waxwings, Robins, etc., carried air-mail, voided. Other edible berries, often by birds eaten, E-15, 16; A-14. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-18 SEED DISPERSAL: BIRDS Bitter berries: Wild Honeysuckle, left; Redberry, center; Elk Clover (Aralia) right. First 2, chaparral-belt, last rainforest streamsides. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-19 SEED DISPERSAL: BIRDS Bitter Berries, deciduous leaves: Fat Solomon, left, Flowering Dogwood, center, Wild Rose, right; first 2 moist forests, shade; last, streamside, sun or partial shade. Despite bitterness still eaten, (latter least bitter). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:26

O-20 SEED DISPERSAL: BIRDS Desert Mistletoe on Mesquite, left; Berries close-up left center; seeds pushed away from bush branch by sap ejectum, right, center; on dead twig, right. When mistletoe hosts die in drought; birds without food. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.26 Animals Without Backbones 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:27

P-0 ANNELID & NEMERTEAN WORMS: Polychaete, left; Flowering Peanut Worm, center Nemertea, top. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-1 ECHINODERMS: Red Ribbon Worm, top Sea Urchin Shell, Aristotle's Lantern (urchin jaws) left; Brittle Star, bottom. See J-7 for other Echinoderms, also I-22. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-2 MOLLUSC EGGS: FLATWORM: Upper left; Tunicate Colonies; Serpulid Worm (tiny white spiral, low. right); Turret Snail (Bittium), up. right; Rock Underside-.5 tide level; Mendocino Coast, Northern California, July. (Other rock underside I-17). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-3 MOLLUSC EGGS: FLATWORM: Underwater ink defense, bottom; head, center, fresh eggs: egg close-up, top. Millions of eggs laid at one laying (I-21), Southern California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-4 GASTROPOD MOLLUSC SHELLS: Abalone, bottom, left, very shallow, open spiral; moderate spiral: Moon Snail, center (Fossil above-left); Brown Turban low. right; Blue Top: Steep spiral: Whelk, low, left. Cowry (this is not native) snail-like too. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-5 PELECYCPOD MOLLUSC SHELLS: Pismo Clam (smooth); 40 rib Cockle; Purple-hinge Scallop (Giant Pecten). See also I-23 for fossils, G-6 for rock-clam burrows; A-21. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-6 CRUSTACEA, BRYOZOAN COLONY under Sponge: bottom; Fish Eggs, center; Hydrozoa hydroid colony just over fish eggs; Gooseneck Barnacle, top, left has feeding legs. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-7 ARTHROPODS: CRUSTACEA, Lined Shore Crab, top, female with eggs; Spiny Lobster, bottom. Barnacles (P-6, I-3) are blind crustaceans, head on rocks, eat with feet. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-8 ARTHROPODS: MYRIAPODS, large Millipede, left, to 4" long, 4 legs to each of 60 segments, nocturnal, eats decaying matter; Redwood Millip, right, ca. 20 segments, diurnal, may be distasteful to predator. See Centipede, 42 legs, B-11. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-9 GROUND ARTHROPODS, SLUG, EARTHWORMS; under rocks, logs, etc.: Jerusalem Cricket, left, carnivore; Sow Bugs (isopods), right. Earwigs, Earth Worms, eat decaying material, Slugs eat plants. Centipedes, B-11, also under rocks, and millipedes. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-10 INSECT MUSICIANS: Snowy Tree Cricket, top, under leaf; Cicada, cent; Field Cricket bottom. Cicada rasping call in daytime, others at night 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-12 HEMIPTERA: Gymnocerata (non-under-Waterbugs): immature, mature Bob Elder bugs low, upper left, illustrate incomplete metamorphosis; Stink Bug, top center; Leaf-footed Bugs, Mojave Yucca flowers right. Other bugs: II-15, P-11, P-14, O-4. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-13 HOMOPTERA (Cicadas, Aphids, Leaf-hoppers, Scale Insects): Creosote Lac-Scale insect: immature female, left; adults, right, resinous secretions used by Indians for waterproof baskets. Others: V-12, A-22, G-19, D-16, P-10. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-14 DIPTERA, HEMIPTERA: Tachinid Fly, left, lesser Milkweed Bug; carnivorous Ambush Bugs, center, upper right, ambushing Bee-fly, low. right, eating captured Hover Fly; Southern California Washweed, September-October. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-15 DIPTERA (FLIES-2WINGS): Gravid Cranefly female (Tipula sp.) on Lupine pod, Mt. Diablo, April, Northern Calif. Craneflies eat decaying material, harmless. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

DIPTERA, Robber Flies eating honey bee, flying ant, own kind; cent; Hover flies rt w/fungus larvae predatory; c1968, 69. L.R. Brown, J. Olmstead, R. Patterson. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-17 BLOOD-SUCKING ARTHROPODS: Arachnids: tick, left, females survive months without food; Diptera: Mosquito, center, larva with horse-hair Worm, in hand, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-18 NEUROPTERA-LACEWINGS: nerve-wing insects: Snakefly on leaf; Mantispid, grass; adult Ant Lion, Ladybird; green Lacewing, bottom. All extremely predatory. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-19 HYMENOPTERA: Ants, Wasps, Bees. Ants have wings at mating time (left center), bring pupae up under bark, logs, etc. for incubation, left; Mountain Red Ant nest, right. Neither stings, only bite. Harvester ants (nest? G-4) sting vigorously! 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:27

P-20 COLEOPTERA: Beetles, sheath-wing insects; Sculptured Pine Beetle, left; Stink Beetle (Eleodes), center; Eyes Elater (Alaus sp.), on Kellogg Oak leaf, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.27 Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles 1968

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:28

Q-1 FRESH-WATER FISHES: Sucker, eats algae, other organisms off rocks; Merced R., Yosemite Valley. Note primitive position of ventral, Pectoral Fin-pairs (J-9). (same anat., position as salamander limbs, J-10) Doesn't drink water. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-2 FRESH-WATER FISHES: Albino Rainbow Trout, left; Golden Trout, S.E. HiSierra. rt. Blood-rich trout air-bladder, center, & all Land Vertebrate Lungs, have common ancestry (all bony fish had lung that became ours, 300 million B.C.). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-3 SALT-WATER BONY FISHES: Surf fish, left, illustrates, fin-pr. positions of most salt-water, bony fishes: ventral fins over chest: Tidepool Fish, cent., right, spiny fins; Northern California Coast. (Compare fins with Q-1, 2). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-4 SALT-WATER BONY FISHES: advanced fin-pair positions, Garbaldi, top, Rockfish, bottom. Ventral fins under pectorals. All salt water fish drink water. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-5 SALT-WATER BONY FISHES: adaptive convergence: Sand-dwelling Flatfish, swims on side; Shark evolved flat body. Young flatfish eyes move to one side of head. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-6 SALT-WATER BONY FISHES: Eel skeleton, top; Eel-like Blenny, bottom, lives under tidepool rocks. Fins fused to long flaps, ventrals entirely missing. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-7 AMPHIBIAN LIFE CYCLE: Tree Frog eggs, freshly hatched tadpole, top; adult, croaking, bottom. Pigment bodies in skin expand, contract, change color (H-13). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-8 AMPHIBIAN LIFE CYCLE: Bull Frog tadpole, hind-legs partly developed, has gills like fish, eats algae, animal material; matures, gills become lungs. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-9 BULLL-FROG, HABITAT: (See Pond, II-1 to II-5); Bull frog, rt., duckweed plants on back, peers back from shaded, duckweed-covered water, not California native. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-10 YELLOW-LEGGED FROGS: Foothill species on rock-forming algae, left, escaped garter snake. II-10 stream, like Mountain species, right underwater, E. Sierra. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-11 BOREAL TOAD TADPOLES: 3-5,000, trapped in drying stream in wet winter, few with legs. Majority will die. High Sierra San Pedro Martir; June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-12 YOSEMITE, DESERT TOADS: Adult stage terrestrial, like reptiles. "Warts" secrete poisonous fluid, protection against predators. Eats insects. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-13 AQUATIC REPTILES: Pond Turtle, in shell, Vaca Mts., intermittent stream, perennial pool, 300', May. Few reptiles are aquatic now, many dinosaurs were. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-14 DESERT REPTILES: Desert Tortoise, spring wildflowers (Scale Bud-Anisecoma) N. Colorado Deser. entirely herbivorous. (See T-5 for eggs, young). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-15 HERBIVOROUS LIZARDS: Chuckawalla, rt., normal rock habitat, wedge self in cracks, inflate (Indians punctured w/ sharp sticks to deflate, eat); eats Prince's Plume. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-16 NOCTURNAL LIZARDS: Banded Gecko, Deep Canyon, S. Palm Desert, 1100ft. Skin looks vulnerable to sun, smooth; burrows during day to escape heat. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-17 ROCK LIZARDS: Side blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), immobilized by running on snowl Spider in snow, quite able to run (warm sun), Mt. Baldy, steep slope, 5000ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-18 SMOOTH, ROUGH SCALES: Blue-tail/Western Skink, left w/ smooth, quilted skin; Western Fence or Scaly Lizard Male, rt., blue underside, rough scales, help burrow. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-19 SNAKE-LIKE LIZARDS: Southern Alligator Lizard on Bay-Laurel trunk, in forest has short legs, wriggles in running, jaws strong as those of snake 3-4 times length. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:28

Q-20 SNAKE SKELETON DESERT: possibly Gopher Snake, vertebrae & ribs separated, Baja California. See eel skeleton, Q-6, convergent snake-like fish. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.28. Birds 1968

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:29

R- OPEN-AIR, AQUATIC BIRDS: Whistling Swans, took off, looped back overhead, from rice field, Sacramento Delta nr. Rio Vista-January. Often poisoned by DDT in rice. Nest in Canada, Pacific Northwest. DDT also, cuts down reproduction rate. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-2 OPEN-AIR, CARRION BIRDS: Calif. Condor, Mt. Pinos, W US 99. Wing-span to 9 feet. Perhaps only 65 left, range from So. Sierra to Ventura, Santa Barbara Mountains. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-3 OPEN-AIR, BIRDS OF PREY: Golden Eagle, about to leave nest, left, So. Oregon, June. 16-17 mos. old, right, white spots on wings nearly gone; Mt. Baldy, 9500'. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-4 OPEN-AIR, AQUATIC BIRDS: Sandhill Cranes, So. Oregon, June, Malheur Refuge. Note Red-wing Blackbird on Crane back, left. Cranes frequently winter in central California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-4.5 SPOTTED SANDPIPERS: Camouflaged young, left; right, parents with cousin hunting. 1968 August

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-5 OPEN-AIR, SEASHORE BIRDS: Western Gulls, San Francisco Bay, Angel Island in background. Wings black on top. See also III-5. Perhaps Herring, Ring-bills too. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-6 GROUND CARNIVOROUS BIRDS: Burrowing Owls, at least 8, So. Oregon in June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-7 NECTAR, INSECT BIRDS: Costa's Hummingbird male, purple gorget, on Palo Verde (green tree means green bark). Desert Palo Verde flowers, pods, leaves, left, place, it in Pea Family. See G-14, N-5, 6, 19 for other hummingbirds. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-8 WOOD-PECKING BIRDS: Red-shafted Flicker, parent feeds young at nest, hollow trunk. Woodpecker heads have hole in bottom of skull for tongue to go around back head. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-9 WOOD-PECKING BIRDS: dead Flicker on giant Mushroom long tongue pulls insects from holes. Climbing foot, bottom. Tongue muscle goes clear to top of skull. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-10 PERCHING BIRDS, DOVES: Vermillion Flycatcher, left; Mourning Dove, right, in Mesquite; Colorado Desert, near 29 Palms; May. See other Flycatchers in III-12, H-6, R-11. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-11 R-11: FLY-CATCHING BIRDS: Young Western Kingbirds? (Flycatchers) in Aspen nest. High Sierra. Other young birds in nests: T-7, 10, 11; G-14; A-15, 16; R-8; C-20. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-12 BLUE-COLORED MT. BIRDS: Crested (Stellar) Jay, bottom, April 4000', Sept. 8000'; Mt. Bluebird, top, July, 9000', Lodgepole Pine. See also R-21. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-13 CORVINE BIRDS, CROWS: Yellow-billed Magpie, left, in Sycamore, seed balls, leaves; summer, No. Santa Barbara County; Common Crow, right, in Cottonwood, N. of Sacto. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-14 BLACK, GREY, WHITE MT. BIRDS: Oregon Junco, left, 0-10,000'; Clark's Nutcracker. 7-11,000', 5000' winter; Townsend's Solitaire, right, 10,000', August, E. High Sierra. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-15 BARK-SEARCHING BIRDS: Brown Creeper, left, goes up trees searching insects, flies down to next tree-base; White breasted Nuthatch, right, goes down, flies back up tree. Nuthatch parent at nest, A-15. Other Bark Birds: R-8, H-3, C-7,8. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-16 WRENS: House Wren looks out of dead-branch nest, left, by Bewick's Wren, dead twigs. Rock Wren center, 1000' and 10,000'; Canyon Wrens, right have white throat, dip lie Ouzel (II-21). Wrens have short tail, often erect, stubby body. Cactus wren untypical, H-23. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-17 THRUSH-LIKE BIRDS: Young robin on hand still has thrush-type speckled breast, loses it as adult (A-14). Hermit Thrush breast always stays speckled. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-18 GRASSLAND BIRDS: Western Meadowlark, left, has black spot on yellow breast nest, center; American Goldfinch, right, largely riparian, eats summer grass seeds. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-19 RIPARIAN BIRDS: Bullock's Oriole nests mainly in streamside or moist slope trees. Woven mistletow-clump nest contains seeds of Cottonwood host, left. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:29

R-20 THICK-BILLED BIRDS: Black-headed Grosbeak in Flowering Ash (chaparral belt), nesting plumage, April, 2500'. Females have protective coloration in shade (See R-21, 8000'). Food: flowers, seeds, fruits. Other thick-billed birds: A-14, R-18, R-14, III-12. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.29. Mammals 1968-1969

Physical Description: 21 slides
Box 1:30

S-1 FLYING MAMMALS, BATS: Lump-nosed Bat on log, thumb, bottom, Yosemite Park; Hoary Bat hanging from twig by hind feet, wings folded; (2nd-5th fingers make wing H-8). Chiroptera-hand-wing mammals. Flying dinosaurs used elongated 4th finger. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-2 GNAWING MAMMALS: RODENTS, white footed Mice: Deer Mouse, perhaps most common in mammal in foothill and Mtn California; 0-10,000 feet, rarer on deserts. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-3 GNAWING MAMMALS: RODENTS, Desert Black-tailed Jackrabbit; Deep Canyon Wash 800', So Palm Desert, May Flowers nearby were in full bloom late March. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-4 MOUNTAIN ROCK RODENTS: Pika, left, related to rabbits, cuts grass, leaves for winter hay, 10,50', August. Upper right, watched by Marten. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-4.5 MT. ROCK RODENTS: Marmot, eating Newberry Penstemon; stores food as fat, unlike Pika hibernates in winter. 1969 August

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-5 MOUNTAIN FOREST RODENTS Porcupine (also coast conifer forest) winter bark foraging in Jeffrey Pine, Boreal Ridge; near Donner Pass (setting of F-12, VIII-10). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-6 MOUNTAIN FOREST RODENTS: Lodgepole Chipmunks, at spring; Mt. Baldy, 8000', left, on pine trunk, 8 a.m., 850', right, fur silvery in early sun; August, 1965. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-7 MOUNTAIN FOREST RODENTS: Northern Flying Squirrel at dusk, left, glides from treetops to ground, lower trunks, nocturnal; Douglas Squirrel (Chickaree), right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-8 MOUNTAIN MEADOW RODENTS: Belding Ground Squirrel, 6500'-11800', High Sierra, eats mainly grass, seeds, preyed upon by Mt. Coyote, right, Martens, Weasels, Hawks, Habitat: See VIII-18 May Hibernated 8 months like Cony, Marmot, warning cry. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-9 MT. FOREST DRY SLOPE RODENTS: Golden Mantle Ground Squirrel, lower elevations than S-8, most conspicuous Sierra rodents, often tame, stuffs cheeks with food. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-10 COAST FOOTHILL RODENTS: Calif. Ground Squirrel (Beechey's) by coast Sagebrush, Pt. Lobos Reserve Range, 0-8000ft., mostly grassland, eats seeds of annual grasses. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-11 DAYTIME DESERT RODENTS: Antelope Ground Squirrel, resembles Golden Mantle, left, but has white stripe on back tail, rt. Other desert ground squirrels: Round Tail, Mojave Ground Squirrel (not shown). Desert rodents except rabbits, all nocturnal. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-12 HERBIVOROUS TEETH SKULLS: Rodent upper jaw, bottom; Desert Big-Horn Ram, upper jaw, worn-teeth, center; skeleton top, 3 weeks old. Fly important part of decay. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-13 HOOFED MAMMALS: SHEEP, Nelson's Big Horn Ram, frequent visitor Joshua Tree National Monument water holes in summer. Human visits to crucial springs harmful. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-14 HOOFED MAMMAL: SHEEP, Nelson's Big Horn family Ram, left; Mother, left top of rock: two daughters, right about 10 mo. old; Mt. Mahogany Forage, Mt. Baldy, 5000', 1/2/66, 7 other animals nearby. See T-14, 15 for mothers & lambs, Spring. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-15 DESERT SHEEP. DEER PREDATOR: Waiting for rams, Mt. Baldy spring, something else waits too: Mt. Lion, small bump on rock, upper left, watches us 60 yards. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-16 HOOFED MAMMALS: DEER, Mule Deer Buck; winter, Yosemite Park floor, 4000 ft. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-17 BLACK-TAIL DEER, FALL: 3 bucks, 2 fawns, after Oct. hurricane, 1962 in Sonoma County. Blue Oak leaves still un-shed. Black-tails much smaller than Mule Deer. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-18 DOG DAMILY: COYOTE, Audubon Cottontail, left, one of Coyote's favorite meals in Joshua Tree belt; Joshua Tree National Monument, 4300', May. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-19 DOG FAMILY: KIT FOX, Desert grass, Juniper foliage and berry, bottom. Mostly nocturnal animal, but can eat fruits, berries as well as animal life. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:30

S-20 BEAR ALLIES: RINGTAILS, young Ringtail Cat, Manzanita bark, Yosemite Park. Ringtails-closest to Raccoons, entirely nocturnal, rarely seen, eat rodents, etc. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Subseries 1.30 Animal Parenthood 1968-1969

Physical Description: 20 slides
Box 1:31

T-1 INVERTEBRATE EGGS: Ladybird Beetle eggs, left, yellow; (red unidentified); Noctuid? Moth eggs, center; Aquatic Snail eggs, edge of aquarium, right, embryos. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-2 INSECT REPRODUCTION: Red-bordered bugs, up. rt. & Box Elder Bugs, low. rt. Mating Bee-flies, top, Grasshoppers, center; Damsel fly, bottom, rt. lays eggs on twig near water. (Dragonfly egg laying, II-5). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-3 INSECT REPRODUCTION: Mating Damsel Flies on Horsetail, female gets sperms from male's chest, where he puts them before. (Dragonfly egg laying, II-5). 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-4 JUVENILE COMPETITION: Praying Mantis egg case, left; on desert shrub; adult (another species), right. Young may ea each other until few strongest remain. 1969

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-5 REPTILE CHILDREN, EGGS: Desert Tortoise hatching from strong eggs, usually laid in June, usually hatch in autumn in shallow burrow in gravel.

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-6 BIRD PARENTHOOD, NESTING: nesting Snowy Egrets, left, in Redwoods, Audubon Canyon Ranch, Marin Co.; Egrets, Great Blue Heron, nests in river-side trees, Los Banos, spring. (See VII-4 for Los Banos feeding sit, III-4 for Marin County). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-7 BIRD ONTOGENY, GULLS: California Gull life cycle; adults, right, mate, nest on freshwater lakes, protective coloration fledglings, left, stay brown-gray, right, first year. (C-18), other species. Gain mating plumage, right, second year. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-8 JUVENILE SURVIVAL, BIRDS: Broken-wing routing, parent Avocet, left, designed to draw predator away from nearby nest; typical Avocet habitat, Salton Sea, right. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-9 BIRD PARENTHOOD, after nest; Western Grebe parent, left, baby on back; with captured catfish, right, Bear Refuge, Utah. May winter at seashore. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-10 BIRD PARENT NEST SITE: Marsh Hawk, left, builds ground nest, right, in absence of trees, Great Valley nest-Gray Lodge Waterfowl Refuge. (Compare T-11). 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-11 BIRD CHILDREN, NEST: Cooper Hawk next in Canyon Liveoak, more typical Hawk meeting site than T-10; San Jacino Mountains, Southern California, 4500', June. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-12 BIRD PARENTHOOD AFTER NEST: Mockingbird parent, left, Dec., on Toyon bush, often must protect fledglings in spring, right, which sit still while predators nearby, parent diving, coaxing all the while. But young blinks eye occasionally. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-13 MAMMAL PARENTHOOD, MARSUPIALS: Virginia Possum, introduced in Calif. in 1800's, streamside woodland, often near civilization. Tiny babies lie in pouch. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-14 MAMMAL PARENTHOOD, SHEEP: Nelson Big-horn mother chews on Yucca leaves while lambs gambol, once returned 10 yd. to 10 yd. from author to lead lingering lamb safely up My. Baldy. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-15 MAMMAL PARENTHOOD, SHEEP: Nelson Big-horn mother, daughter, summer at 10,000', winter at 3500', Mt. Baldy. Young ewes stay with mother longer than rams, 1 1/2 yrs. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-16 JUVENILE SURVIVAL, DEER: Adaptive coloration, Mule Deer fawn, even crawled under branch, shadow disrupts spot pattern; Yosemite, Sept., Red Fir forest. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-17 JUVENILE SURVIVAL, DEER: Mother stays with fawn after it loses spots. Raised parent's tail, white target for escape; Coast Blacktail Deer, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-18 FAMILY GROUP, TULE ELK: Bulls with huge horns fight only late summer, early fall, for harems. North Bakersfield, fenced in. None survive in original habitat. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-19 MAMMAL, CHILDREN, CAT FAMILY: Bobcat kittens, on old Sycamore log. Mostly nocturnal, however, as they grow up. San Gabriel Mountains, So. California. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
Box 1:31

T-20 MAMMAL CHILDREN, BEARS: Young black (cinnamon) bear, hackles raised, Yosemite par, Aug., should not be touched, as mother nearby. Eats all kinds of food. 1968

Physical Description: 1 slide
 

Series 2. DVDs 2012

Physical Description: 2 DVDs
Box 1:1

My Father Who Art in Nature 2012

Physical Description: 1 DVD

Scope and Content Note

A documentary film by Alden Olmsted about his father John Olmsted.
Box 1:32

Stories of the Yuba: A Filmmaker's Journey on the River of His Youth, by Gregg Schiffner undated

Physical Description: 1 DVD