In 1070, Emperor Ly Thanh Tong ordered the creation of the Temple of Literature, Van Mieu. Exams were given to attract the
most intelligent Confucian scholars into the government, ensuring a civil service class based on merit rather than social
class. From 1484 to 1788, the names of the top examinees were carved on stone steles set upon great turtles. The last imperial
exams were given in 1919.
Clifford, Geoffrey, Photographer
Balaban, John, 1943-, Collaborator
Vietnam. Pictorial works.
Vietnam--Social life and customs. Pictorial works
Caption text by John Balaban
Originally donated to the South/Southeast Asia Library, and transferred to The Bancroft Library.
1 photograph print (framed); ca. 24 x 36 inches (unframed)
Local Call Number:
BANC PIC 2007.056:45
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Copyright Owner: Geoffrey Clifford
Copyright Owner Note: All requests for high resolution reproductions should be referred to the photographer.
Geoffrey Clifford, 862 Sir Francis Drake Blvd, Suite #251, San Anselmo, CA 94960 USA